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English Language Arts and Literature

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English language arts and literature is a subject that provides students with language and literacy skills required for success in the twenty-first century. From Kindergarten to Grade 6, students gain foundational knowledge and build on their language skills and experiences through reading, writing, listening, speaking, viewing, and representing. These strands of learning are closely interrelated and complementary; literacy skills in each of these strands reinforce and strengthen skills in the others. Through practice and experience, students understand how language is used in a variety of formal and informal contexts. Studying English language arts and literature involves reading, appreciating, and becoming familiar with influential writers whose works illustrate the essence of the human condition. Through the study of great texts, English language arts and literature lays the groundwork for critical thinking as well as personal expression.
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Maternelle
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Idée organisatrice
Text Forms and Structure: Identifying and applying text forms and structures improves understanding of content, literary style, and our rich language traditions.
Question directrice
How can ideas and information be organized?
Question directrice
How can the organization of ideas and information support the sharing of messages?
Question directrice
How can the organization of ideas and information support the expression and understanding of messages?
Résultat d’apprentissage
Children explore how messages can be organized.
Résultat d’apprentissage
Students describe the various ways that messages can be organized and presented for different purposes.
Résultat d’apprentissage
Students explain how the organization of ideas and information within texts can support the purpose or meaning of messages.
Connaissances
Messages can be shared for different reasons (purpose), including entertainment, learning, safety, and directions.

Messages can be imaginary (fiction) or real (non-fiction).

Messages can be shared digitally or non-digitally in a variety of forms, including
  • print
  • books
  • stories
  • pictures
  • poetry
  • plays
  • land
Messages, both real and imaginary, generally follow this sequence (structure):
  • beginning
  • middle
  • ending
Books and other forms of print are organized in consistent ways (concepts of print):
  • A book has a front and a back cover.
  • Words are made up of letters.
  • Print is read from left to right and top to bottom.
  • One print word represents one spoken word when read aloud.
  • Every word has a first and last letter.
  • Every sentence has a first and last word.
Compréhension
Ideas and information can be organized in ways that support understanding messages.
Habiletés et procédures
Explore messages shared for different reasons.

Discuss the differences between messages that are imaginary (fiction) or real (non-fiction).

Explore messages shared in a variety of forms.

Discuss the beginning, middle, and ending in a message.

Identify the front and back of a book.

Identify where reading begins and where to go after (return sweep).

Identify the first and last letter in a word, word on a page, or part of a message.

Identify corresponding written words as they are read aloud.





Connaissances
Messages can be shared for different reasons (purpose), including entertainment, learning, safety, and directions.

Messages can depict ideas and information that are imaginary (fiction) or real (non-fiction).

Messages can be shared digitally or non-digitally through
  • reading
  • writing
  • listening
  • speaking
  • viewing
  • representing
Messages can be shared in a variety of forms, including
  • print
  • books
  • stories
  • pictures
  • poetry
  • plays
  • land
Stories, both real and imaginary, generally follow this structure:
  • beginning
  • middle
  • ending
Environmental print can include signs, symbols, and words.

Books and other forms of print are organized in consistent ways (concepts of print):
  • A book has a title and an author.
  • Print is read from left to right and top to bottom with a return sweep.
  • Each print word represents one spoken word when read aloud.
  • Sentences are made up of words.
  • Words are separated by spaces in sentences.
  • Punctuation marks can signal the end of a sentence.
Compréhension
Ideas and information can be organized by purpose, form, or structure.
Habiletés et procédures
Discuss reasons for messages to be shared (purpose).

Describe the differences between messages that are imaginary (fiction) or real (non-fiction).

Discuss forms used to organize messages.

Identify the beginning, middle, and ending in a message.

Determine a message in a variety of environmental print.

Identify the title and author of a variety of print messages.

Read print from left to right with a return sweep.

Read print with accurate one-to-one word matching.

Identify sentences that start with a capital letter, have spaces between words, and end with punctuation.

Connaissances
Messages can be shared for different reasons (purpose), including entertainment, learning, safety, and directions.

Messages can depict ideas and information that are imaginary (fiction) or real (non-fiction).

Messages can be shared digitally or non-digitally through
  • reading
  • writing
  • listening
  • speaking
  • viewing
  • representing
Messages can be shared in a variety of forms, including
  • print
  • books
  • stories
  • pictures
  • poetry
  • plays
  • letters
  • land
Stories, both real and imaginary, generally follow the structure
  • beginning
  • problem
  • solution
  • ending
Compréhension
Ideas and information can be organized in a variety of ways to support the expression and understanding of messages.
Habiletés et procédures
Messages can be shared for different reasons (purpose), including entertainment, learning, safety, and directions.

Distinguish between messages that are imaginary (fiction) or real (non-fiction).

Compare and contrast forms used to organize messages.

Describe the structure of a variety of imaginary or real stories.

Connaissances
Features that clarify messages can be digital or non-digital, including
  • pictures
  • print size, colour, font, or bolding
Compréhension
Messages can be clarified when they include text features.
Habiletés et procédures
Identify a variety of features that help clarify messages.
Connaissances
Features that clarify and organize messages can be digital or non-digital, including
  • pictures
  • print size, colour, font, or bolding
  • titles and headings
Compréhension
Messages can be clarified and organized using (text) features.
Habiletés et procédures
Identify a variety of features that help clarify messages.

Include a variety of features to help organize or clarify personal messages.
Connaissances
Features that organize, clarify, or enhance messages can be digital or non-digital, including
  • pictures
  • print size, colour, font, or bolding
  • titles and headings
  • captions
  • charts
Compréhension
Messages can be organized, clarified, and enhanced using (text) features.
Habiletés et procédures
Identify a variety of features that help clarify messages.

Include a variety of features to help organize, clarify, and enhance personal messages.
Connaissances
Imaginary (fictional) stories can include
  • fairy tales
  • fables
  • realistic stories
A fairy tale is a story based on imaginary people and places.

A fable is a short story that teaches a lesson.

Realistic stories may include people and places that seem real but were created from someone’s imagination.

Stories can include characters, setting, and events (story elements).

A character can be any person, object, or animal that is part of a story.

Setting refers to the time and place of a story.

An event is something that happens in a story.
Compréhension
Stories and ideas that are imaginary (fictional) can encourage creativity.
Habiletés et procédures
Retell events, information, and ideas from a variety of imaginary stories.

Discuss story elements within a variety of imaginary stories.

Create imaginative representations or dramatizations of stories that include story elements.

Connaissances
Imaginary (fictional) stories can include
  • fairy tales
  • fables
  • realistic stories
  • folk tales
A folk tale is a story typically passed on through word of mouth.

A fairy tale is a story based on imaginary people and places.

A fable is a short story, often with animals as characters, that has a moral.

Realistic stories may include people and places that seem real but were created from someone’s imagination.

Stories have structures (elements) that can include
  • characters
  • setting
  • events
A character can be any person, object, or animal that is part of a story.

Setting refers to the time and place of a story.

An event is something that happens in a story.

A narrator is the person or character telling a story.

Compréhension
Foundational knowledge can be built and expanded by exploring stories and ideas that are imaginary (fictional).
Habiletés et procédures
Retell events, information, and ideas from a variety of imaginary stories.

Describe story elements within a variety of imaginary stories.

Create imaginative representations or dramatizations of stories that include characters, setting, and events.

Discuss the narrator’s contribution to a story or message.

Connaissances
Imaginary (fictional) stories can include
  • folk tales
  • fairy tales
  • fables
  • myths
  • realistic stories
A myth is a traditional or legendary story usually concerning a courageous hero, heroine, or event.

A hero is a real or imaginary character who faces dangers and challenges and shows strength or courage.

A heroine is a female hero.

Stories have structures (elements) that can include
  • characters
  • setting
  • events
  • plot
The plot is the sequence of events that make up a story.

A narrator is the person or character telling a story.
Compréhension
Stories and ideas that are imaginary (fictional) can encourage thinking about and beyond what is already known.
Habiletés et procédures
Retell events, information, and ideas from a variety of imaginary stories.

Identify story elements within a variety of imaginary stories.

Identify the hero or heroine in a myth.

Create imaginative representations or dramatizations of stories that include characters, setting, and plot.

Discuss the narrator’s contribution to a story or message.
Connaissances
Real information or ideas (non-fiction) can be shared through
  • factual books or stories
  • people
  • observations
  • pictures
  • land
Compréhension
Some messages share ideas and information that really happened or really exist (non-fiction).
Habiletés et procédures
Represent information and ideas from a variety of real messages.
Connaissances
Real information or ideas (non-fiction) can be shared digitally or non-digitally through
  • personal experiences and stories
  • factual books, stories, or images
  • instructions or directions
  • observations
  • interactions with people and land
Informational texts can have structures, including
  • main idea
  • supporting details
  • sequencing
Compréhension
Messages that share ideas and information that are real or true (non-fiction) can encourage thinking and build foundational knowledge.
Habiletés et procédures
Discuss ways that information can be organized to support learning.
Connaissances
Real information or ideas (non-fiction) can be accessed and shared digitally or non-digitally through
  • personal experiences and stories
  • factual books, stories, or images
  • instructions or directions
  • observations
  • interactions with people and land
  • information in other content areas
Informational texts can have structures, including
  • main idea
  • supporting details
  • sequencing
  • question and answer
Compréhension
Foundational knowledge can be expanded beyond what is already known by exploring information that is real or true (non-fiction).
Habiletés et procédures
Discuss ways that information can be accessed and organized to encourage thinking about and beyond what is already known.
Connaissances
Poems can describe ideas and feelings in serious or playful ways.

Originally, most poetry was sung or designed to be remembered, which explains why it traditionally has regular rhythms and rhymes.

Sometimes poems do not rhyme.
Compréhension
Poetry helps us explore ideas and feelings.
Habiletés et procédures
Explore a variety of ideas and feelings represented through poetry and song.

Discuss the difference between poems that rhyme and those that do not.
Connaissances
Poems can describe ideas and feelings in creative and joyful ways.

Poems and songs can contain words and phrases that rhyme.

Sometimes poems do not rhyme.
Compréhension
Poetry explores ideas and feelings and helps us to connect to our experiences.
Habiletés et procédures
Share connections between personal experiences and messages represented through poetry and song.

Determine if a poem rhymes or if it does not.
Connaissances
Poetry can include words or phrases used in imaginative ways to create meaning or special effects.

Poetic structures can include
  • acrostic
  • rhyming couplet
An acrostic poem is a poem where certain letters in each line spell out a word or phrase.

A rhyming couplet is a pair of lines in poetry that rhyme and usually have the same rhythm.
Compréhension
Poetry can expand how we think and feel about what can be seen, heard, smelled, tasted, touched, or experienced in the world.
Habiletés et procédures
Identify words or phrases used in imaginative ways that support messages represented through poetry and song.

Recognize how poetry and song can expand how we think and feel about what can be experienced.

Identify poetic structures, including acrostic poems and rhyming couplets.
Idée organisatrice
Oral Language: Listening and speaking form the foundation for literacy development and improve communication, collaboration, and respectful mutual understanding.
Question directrice
How do listening and speaking skills help to communicate feelings, ideas, and thoughts?
Question directrice
How are listening and speaking used in oral communication?
Question directrice
How can listening and speaking be developed to improve oral communication?
Résultat d’apprentissage
Children demonstrate listening and speaking skills through a variety of literacy experiences.
Résultat d’apprentissage
Students describe how listening and speaking can enhance a message.
Résultat d’apprentissage
Students examine and adjust listening and speaking to communicate effectively.
Connaissances
Oral traditions share knowledge of land, people, or animals.
Compréhension
Oral traditions can provide lessons, entertainment, and develop imagination.
Habiletés et procédures
Listen to oral traditions shared by First Nations, Métis, and Inuit.
Connaissances
Kinship is the relationship between
  • self
  • others
  • community
  • land
  • animals
Information and stories shared through oral traditions reveal the importance of relationships.
Compréhension
Oral traditions allow for deeper understanding of kinship.
Habiletés et procédures
Explore different relationships through oral traditions.
Connaissances
Sharing circles are traditional Indigenous practices that involve listening and speaking.

In sharing circles, the speaker holds an object while everyone listens.

In sharing circles, an object is passed around clockwise in a circle so that everyone has an opportunity to speak.
Compréhension
Oral traditions connect people to language and ways of knowing.
Habiletés et procédures
Explore how oral traditions are shared.

Participate in a sharing circle.
Connaissances
Listening and speaking skills can be developed through
  • discussions
  • sharing (presentations)
  • stories
  • songs
  • poems

The appropriate volume for speaking can change based on the situation.

Speaking is the sharing of one’s voice, and it must be cared for and appreciated.

Voice is vibration moving through the air.
Compréhension
Ideas, information, and feelings can be shared through listening and speaking.
Habiletés et procédures
Share personal experiences and stories through listening and speaking with others.

Participate in classroom discussions, respectfully taking turns.

Share stories, songs, or poems individually or as part of a group.

Adjust speaking volume for a variety of situations.
Connaissances
Listening and speaking skills can be developed through
  • discussions
  • songs
  • poems
  • stories
  • dramatizations
  • presentations
The speaking voice is supported through full, deep breaths that can affect volume, tone, and rate of speech.

The volume, highness or lowness of the voice (pitch), and the pace (rate of speech) can affect the meaning or clarity of a message.

Appropriate posture includes alignment, breath, and a relaxed stance.

Speakers can indicate differences in character, key ideas, and events through changes in volume, tone, and rate of speech.
Compréhension
Listening and speaking can be used to share messages in a variety of situations.
Habiletés et procédures
Share experiences, ideas, and information with appropriate volume, tone, and rate of speech.

Adjust speaking volume, pitch, and pace for a variety of situations.

Share ideas and information sequentially.

Present stories, songs, poems, or dramatizations individually or as part of a group.

Participate in vocal warm-ups and breathing activities that support oral communication.
Connaissances
Listening and speaking skills can be developed through
  • discussions
  • formal and informal presentations
  • collaborative activities
Voice can be produced in healthy ways, including by being mindful of
  • relaxation
  • posture
  • breathing
Volume can be adjusted for purpose and audience.

Clarity of speech (enunciation) enhances the ability to be understood.

Nervousness can be associated with oral communication, such as
  • sweating
  • tummy “butterflies”
  • stumbling over sounds
  • forgetting
  • feeling shaky
Voices can be varied in many ways, including
  • direction of pitch (inflection)
  • vocal force to highlight importance of a word (stress)
  • overall pitch and inflection patterns (tone colour)
Communication models can be used to share messages.

Communication models can involve consideration of the
  • speaker
  • listener
  • message
  • situation
Compréhension
Listening and speaking skills can be developed to improve communication.
Habiletés et procédures
Contribute to a variety of listening and speaking activities to build confidence in oral language skills.

Enhance clarity of oral communication through word choice and enunciation.

Present ideas, events, or information in a logical sequence.

Participate in breathing and relaxation activities that support oral communication.

Listen for changes in inflection, stress, and tone colour in oral communications.

Share a short poem with some awareness of inflection, stress, and tone colour.
Connaissances
Listening is an active process that can include
  • looking at the speaker
  • raising a hand
  • taking turns
  • using appropriate body postures and gestures
Compréhension
Listening is an active process that supports learning, collaborating, and having fun.
Habiletés et procédures
Demonstrate a variety of listening behaviours.

Listen to and follow simple one-step instructions.
Connaissances
Listening involves maintaining attention and focus.

Listening can include asking and responding to questions.

Discussions involve listening and contributing.
Compréhension
Listening is an active process that supports understanding.
Habiletés et procédures
Ask questions to clarify information during discussions.

Respond orally to questions during discussions.

Contribute to discussions as a listener and speaker.

Listen to and follow two-step instructions.
Connaissances
Listening can involve
  • maintaining focus
  • asking and responding to questions
  • using appropriate body postures and gestures
  • paying attention to the words, feelings, and behaviours of others
Compréhension
Listening helps to develop and maintain positive relationships in a variety of situations.
Habiletés et procédures
Contribute to discussions as a listener and speaker.

Listen to and follow three-step instructions.
Connaissances
Messages can be shared through sounds and words (verbal).

Messages can be shared without sounds (non-verbally) through body language, which can include
  • eye contact
  • movement
  • gestures
  • facial expressions
The human voice is capable of producing a variety of sounds.
Compréhension
Language can be expressed verbally or non-verbally.
Habiletés et procédures
Express an idea or share information through use of body language or voice.

Share a short poem, story, or song from memory using verbal and non-verbal language.
Connaissances
Messages can be shared through sounds and words (verbal).

Messages can be clarified without sounds (non-verbally) through body language, which can include
  • eye contact
  • movement
  • gestures
  • facial expressions
  • posture
Compréhension
Verbal and non-verbal language can be used to communicate messages.
Habiletés et procédures
Examine verbal and non-verbal language that is appropriate for a variety of situations.

Adjust verbal or non-verbal language according to a variety of situations.
Connaissances
Different situations may have different expectations for language use.

Gestures and facial expressions can be used to enhance ideas and emotions.

Body movement can be used to emphasize ideas, feelings, and messages.
Compréhension
Verbal and non-verbal language can be combined to enhance messages.
Habiletés et procédures
Examine messages that combine both verbal and non-verbal communication.

Enhance messages through combining verbal and non-verbal communication.

Adjust verbal or non-verbal language according to purpose and audience.

Improvise a scene, situation, or story using verbal and non-verbal language.
Idée organisatrice
Vocabulary: Communication and comprehension are improved by understanding word meaning and structures.
Question directrice
How can word knowledge contribute to building vocabulary?
Question directrice
How can vocabulary and morphological awareness work together to increase knowledge of words?
Question directrice
In what ways can understanding words and word structures support communication?
Résultat d’apprentissage
Children develop vocabulary through a variety of literacy experiences.
Résultat d’apprentissage
Students recognize and analyze patterns in and across words.
Résultat d’apprentissage
Students build vocabulary by connecting morphemes and words to their meanings.
Connaissances
Literacy experiences can include
  • read alouds
  • songs
  • poems
  • rhymes
  • pictures
  • conversations
Compréhension
Literacy experiences can provide opportunities to learn new words.
Habiletés et procédures
Explore and play with new words.

Identify the meaning of new words.

Develop new vocabulary through a variety of literacy experiences.

Transfer new vocabulary to different situations.
Connaissances
Vocabulary development includes learning tier 2 words that are
  • unknown to most learners
  • critical for comprehending new texts
  • useful and may be encountered in the future
Vocabulary development includes some academic words from read alouds and texts (tier 3 words).

A synonym is a word that has a similar meaning to another word.

An antonym is a word that has the opposite meaning of another word.

Alliterative phrases include tongue twisters (e.g., Peter Piper picked a peck of pickled peppers).
Compréhension
Learning new words improves comprehension and communication.
Habiletés et procédures
Confirm word meanings in a variety of ways.

Identify the meaning of tier 2 words and use them in sentences.

Use tier 3 words in discussions.

Recognize that words can be replaced with synonyms.

Explore antonyms when comparing words.

Transfer understandings of words to different situations.

Generate alliterative phrases.
Connaissances
Vocabulary development includes learning tier 2 words that are
  • unknown to most learners
  • critical for comprehending new texts
  • useful and may be encountered in the future
Vocabulary development includes academic words from a variety of texts (tier 3 words).

Words can create effects in language, including
  • alliteration
  • onomatopoeia
  • repetition

Words can describe a sound that mimics the sound of an object or action (onomatopoeia)
(e.g., sizzle).

Words or phrases can appear over and over again (repetition) (e.g., extra, extra, extra).

Homophones are words that have the same sound but different spellings and meanings.

Homographs are words that have the same spelling but different meanings, and sometimes different pronunciations.
Compréhension
Vocabulary development contributes to the ability to communicate effectively.
Habiletés et procédures
Identify meanings of words in a variety of situations.

Identify and discuss words of interest in texts.

Use tier 2 words in a variety of literacy situations.

Identify meanings of words from subject content areas (tier 3 words).

Apply a variety of synonyms to enhance expression.

Apply a variety of antonyms to contrast ideas.

Identify homophones and homographs.

Transfer understandings of words to different situations.

Record new words and their meanings in a variety of ways.

Identify alliteration, onomatopoeia, and repetition in spoken language.
Connaissances
Morphemes are the smallest units of a word that hold meaning.

A base is the main morpheme in a word.

Suffixes are morphemes located at the ending of words.

Adding the suffix <s> or <es> to the ending of a word can make it plural.

Adding the suffix <ed> to the ending of a word changes the tense.

A compound word is formed when two individual words are put together to make a new word.

The meaning of a compound word can be similar to or different from the two individual words that were combined to form the word.
Compréhension
Word meanings can change by adding or removing morphemes.
Habiletés et procédures
Identify words according to their base.

Recognize suffixes in oral or written language.

Add or remove suffixes to make words singular or plural.

Add or remove suffixes to change the tense of words.

Recognize compound words.

Describe changes in meaning that occur when two words are combined to form a compound word.
Connaissances
Adding the suffix <ing> or <ed> to the end of a base changes the tense.

Adding <er> or <est> to a base indicates a comparison.

A base is the main morpheme in a word.

Words that share a base share connections in meaning and spelling.
Compréhension
Morphemes can change the meaning or function of a word.
Habiletés et procédures
Manipulate suffixes to change the tense of words.

Manipulate suffixes to make words singular or plural.

Manipulate suffixes when making comparisons between ideas.

Identify changes in meaning when suffixes are added to or removed from bases.

Use compound words to extend vocabulary.
Idée organisatrice
Phonological Awareness: Foundational literacy is supported by the ability to identify and manipulate sounds in oral language.
Question directrice
How are sound and oral language connected?
Question directrice
How does the manipulation of sound in oral language support phonological awareness?
Question directrice
How does sound contribute to understanding oral language?
Résultat d’apprentissage
Children experiment with sounds in words.
Résultat d’apprentissage
Students manipulate sounds in words in oral language.
Résultat d’apprentissage
Students apply understandings of how sounds create meaning in oral language.
Connaissances
Sounds can be identified at the beginning, middle, or ending of words.
Compréhension
Words are made up of sounds (phonemes).
Habiletés et procédures
Identify sounds at the beginning of spoken words.

Identify sounds in the middle of spoken words.

Identify sounds at the ending of spoken words.
Connaissances
Alliterative words begin with the same consonant sound (e.g., marvelous muffins).

Alliterative phrases include tongue twisters (e.g., Peter Piper picked a peck of pickled peppers).
Compréhension
Alliterative words begin with the same consonant sound.
Habiletés et procédures
Generate alliterative words.

Generate alliterative phrases.
Connaissances
Songs and poems can contain rhyming words.
Compréhension
Words that rhyme have the same sound at the end.
Habiletés et procédures
Explore rhyme in a variety of language-learning contexts.

Identify one-syllable rhyming words.
Connaissances
Words that rhyme can have more than one syllable.

Songs and poems can contain rhyming words.
Compréhension
Rhyming words can be present in a variety of oral language contexts.
Habiletés et procédures
Generate rhyming words that have up to three syllables.

Generate alliterative phrases.
Connaissances
Sounds can be identified at the beginning of words.

Sounds can be identified at the ending of words.
Compréhension
Words have initial and final sounds (phonemes).
Habiletés et procédures
Identify sounds at the beginning and ending of spoken words.

Sort words based on their initial sounds.

Sort words based on their final sounds.
Connaissances
Sentences can be separated into words.

Words can be separated into parts, including syllables, phonemes, onsets, rimes, or the two individual words that compose a compound word.

Onset is the consonant, consonant cluster, or consonant digraph that appears at the beginning of a word and comes before the vowel (e.g., st-eam).

ime is the ending part of a word containing the vowel (e.g., st-eam).
Compréhension
Spoken language is made up of words and sentences that can be separated into parts (segmentation).
Habiletés et procédures
Count the number of words in a spoken sentence of three to four words.

Separate compound words into two individual words.

Identify the number of syllables in one- to three-syllable words.

Separate words into onsets and rimes.
Connaissances
Compound words can be separated into two individual words.

Words can be separated into syllables.

Words can be separated into sounds.

Sounds can be identified at the beginning, in the middle, or at the ending of spoken words.
Compréhension
Separating words into syllables or phonemes (segmentation) supports the ability to hear and manipulate sounds in words.
Habiletés et procédures
Identify individual words in compound words.

Identify syllables in words that have three or more syllables.

Segment the sounds of words containing up to five phonemes.
Connaissances
Consonant blends can be separated into their individual sounds.

Consonant blends can be located anywhere in words.
Compréhension
Words can be separated (segmented) into syllables or sounds (phonemes).
Habiletés et procédures
Segment and identify the sounds in words that have five or more phonemes.

Identify phonemes in words that have three or more syllables.

Segment and identify sounds in words that have consonant blends.

Segment individual words within compound words.
Connaissances
Two separate words can be blended to form a new word (compound word).

Two or more syllables can be blended to form a new word.

Sounds (phonemes) can be blended to form words.
Compréhension
Sounds can be blended to form spoken words.
Habiletés et procédures
Blend two words to form compound words.

Blend syllables to form words.

Blend onsets and rimes to form words.

Blend sounds to form words.
Connaissances
Two separate words can be blended to form a new word (compound word).

Syllables can be blended to form new words.

Sounds (phonemes) can be blended to form words.
Compréhension
Words can be formed by blending words, parts of words, or sounds.
Habiletés et procédures
Identify and blend syllables in words that have two to three syllables.

Identify and blend sounds in words that have up to five phonemes.
Connaissances
Blending is combining sounds or word parts located anywhere in words.

Consonant blends are two or more consonant letters that often appear together in words and represent sounds that are smoothly joined.

Individual sounds and consonant blends can be blended into a sequence to form words.
Compréhension
Syllables and individual sounds can be blended into a sequence to form words.
Habiletés et procédures
Identify and blend the sounds in words that have up to six sounds.

Identify and blend sounds in words that have consonant blends.
Connaissances
Sounds in words (phonemes) can be removed.

Syllables in words can be removed.

One of the words in a compound word can be removed.
Compréhension
Parts of words can be removed (deletion).
Habiletés et procédures
Delete sounds in words.

Delete onsets or rimes in words.

Delete one syllable from multisyllabic words.

Delete one word in compound words.
Connaissances
Sounds can be added to the beginning, middle, or ending of words.

Sounds can be deleted from the beginning, middle, or ending of words.

Sounds can be substituted for different sounds at the beginning, middle, or ending of words.
Compréhension
Sounds in words can be added, deleted, or substituted (manipulated).
Habiletés et procédures
Recognize the position of letters in words.

Add sounds to the beginning, middle, or ending of words.

Delete sounds from the beginning, middle, or ending of words.

Substitute one sound for another in one-syllable words.
Connaissances
Sounds can be manipulated by adding, deleting, or substituting different sounds.

Sounds can be manipulated at the beginning, middle, or ending of words.
Compréhension
Words can be changed by manipulating sounds (phonemes).
Habiletés et procédures
Manipulate phonemes in a variety of one-syllable or multisyllabic words.

Delete the second phoneme in a consonant blend to form a new word.

Substitute for the second phoneme in a consonant blend to form a new word.

Substitute a sound anywhere in a word to form a new word.
Idée organisatrice
Phonics: Foundational literacy is supported by understanding relationships between sounds in oral language and the letters that represent them.
Question directrice
How do letters and sounds work together to make words?
Question directrice
How can understanding relationships between sounds and letters (phonics) increase knowledge of words?
Question directrice
How can understanding the relationships between sounds and letters (phonics) enhance decoding and encoding?
Résultat d’apprentissage
Children make connections between letters and sounds in words.
Résultat d’apprentissage
Students recognize and analyze letters and sounds in words.
Résultat d’apprentissage
Students apply understandings of letter combinations and sounds in words.
Connaissances
The English alphabet consists of a set of 26 letters.

Letters have distinguishable characteristics, including
  • height
  • shape
  • straight lines
  • curved lines
Letters can be upper case or lower case.
Compréhension
Letters come in many shapes and sizes.
Habiletés et procédures
Identify letters by characteristics.

Recognize all upper case and lower case letters by name.
Connaissances
The English alphabet consists of a set of 26 letters that represent sounds.

Letters can be upper case or lower case.
Compréhension
Letters represent sounds in words.
Habiletés et procédures
Recognize both upper case and lower case letters of the alphabet fluently.

Distinguish between letters that are consonants and letters that are vowels.

Make connections between letters and sounds in words.
Connaissances
Letters represent sounds in words.

Phonics is the relationship between letters (graphemes) and the sounds that they represent (phonemes).
Compréhension
Knowing the relationship between letters and sounds (phonics) supports reading print messages.
Habiletés et procédures
Make connections between letters and sounds in words.

Recognize the first, middle, or ending letter or sound in words.
Connaissances
There is a relationship between written letters (graphemes) and the sounds they represent (phonemes).

Two or more letters can represent a single sound.

Letters in words can be silent.

Some letters have variable pronunciations.
Compréhension
Letter combinations represent units of sound within a word.
Habiletés et procédures
Associate sounds to letters, letter clusters, and letter sequences.

Experiment with letters, sounds, and words to create new words.

Read one- to two-syllable words that include the 60 most frequent letter-sound correspondences.

Recognize and use long and short vowel sounds in words.

Read and write consonant sounds in the beginning, middle, and ending of words using the letters that represent them.

Read and write two consonant letters that represent one sound at the beginning, middle, and ending of words.

Identify short vowel sounds in words and identify the letters that represent them.

Identify long vowel sounds in words and identify the letters that represent them.
Connaissances
Letter combinations and sounds for reading include
  • vowels
  • blends
  • digraphs
  • diphthongs
Blends combine sounds or word parts.

A combination of two letters can make a single sound (digraph).

Long vowel sounds can be made by gliding from one position of the mouth to another within the same syllable (diphthong).

Letters in words can be silent.

Some letters have variable pronunciations.

An open syllable ends with a vowel or diphthong (e.g., mu-sic).

A closed syllable is a vowel followed by a consonant, and the vowel usually says its short sound (e.g., ten-nis).

A vowel that is followed by <r> can make a new sound (e.g., ti-ger).
Compréhension
Relationships between letter combinations and sounds support understanding of words.
Habiletés et procédures
Make connections between a full range of letter combinations and sounds.

Apply knowledge of silent letters when learning new words.

Recognize and use the full range of consonant letters and letter clusters in the beginning, middle, and ending of words.

Recognize and use letter combinations that represent long vowel sounds.

Recognize how the letter <r> can influence the vowel sound.

Distinguish between vowel sounds in open syllables (consonant-vowel CV) and closed syllables (vowel-consonant VC).

Read words that include the 120 most frequent letter-sound correspondences.
Idée organisatrice
Fluency: Comprehension and literary appreciation are improved by the ability to read a range of texts accurately, automatically, and with expression.
Question directrice
How does letter and word recognition develop fluency?
Question directrice
How does reading prosody (expression) support understanding?
Question directrice
In what ways does fluency support the development of reading?
Résultat d’apprentissage
Children recognize some letters and words with speed and accuracy.
Résultat d’apprentissage
Students apply accuracy, appropriate rate, and expression in the development of fluency.
Résultat d’apprentissage
Students demonstrate and apply fluency strategies while reading.
Connaissances
Letters can be recognized quickly and accurately.

Sounds in words can be blended quickly and accurately.

Words consisting of three phonemes (three sounds) can be blended quickly and accurately.
Compréhension
Fluency involves the ability to decode new words with accuracy and at an appropriate rate.
Habiletés et procédures
Identify all 26 letters of the alphabet quickly and accurately.

Blend sounds in words with speed and accuracy to decode unfamiliar words.
Connaissances
Morphemes are the smallest units of sound that hold meaning.

Letter combinations, sounds, and morphemes that can be blended quickly and accurately for reading include
  • vowels
  • blends
  • digraphs
  • diphthongs
  • syllables
Compréhension
Fluency development contributes to one’s ability to understand messages.
Habiletés et procédures
Blend sounds quickly and accurately to decode unfamiliar messages.

Apply language structure, meaning, and rapid word recognition to support fluency.

Read at a steady, comfortable pace.
Connaissances
Some letters can be recognized quickly and accurately.

Some words can be recognized quickly and accurately.
Compréhension
Some words, signs, and symbols are very common and can be recognized automatically.
Habiletés et procédures
Recognize some letters of the alphabet with speed and accuracy.

Recognize 5–10 high frequency words.

Recognize one’s own name.

Recognize some environmental print automatically.
Connaissances
High frequency words are common words that occur often in written language.

Some words that appear often in print cannot be decoded and must be read by sight (e.g., the).
Compréhension
Fluency involves the ability to recognize high frequency words with accuracy and at an appropriate rate.
Habiletés et procédures
Read 125 high frequency words of one to three letters automatically.

Read 125 high frequency words in sentences and texts.
Connaissances
High frequency words include words that occur often in written language.

The ability to recognize high frequency words with accuracy and at an appropriate rate improves reading comprehension and fluency.
Compréhension
Recognizing high frequency words supports reading comprehension.
Habiletés et procédures
Read 300 high frequency words automatically.

Read high frequency words in sentences and texts.
Connaissances
Phrased reading reflects end punctuation, including pausing at periods and raising one’s voice at the end of questions.
Compréhension
Fluent and phrased reading sounds like spoken language.
Habiletés et procédures
Notice end punctuation and reflect it in voice.
Connaissances
Phrased reading sounds like spoken language.

Fluent reading can include stopping at periods and pausing at commas.

Intonation and expression include purposeful movement of the pitch of the voice, including
  • loud and soft stresses of words
  • raising the voice as a response to question marks
  • alternating the voice to show excitement as a response to exclamation marks
Compréhension
Fluent and phrased reading can increase the ability to comprehend written messages.
Habiletés et procédures
Read phrases smoothly, taking punctuation into consideration.

Read texts aloud with appropriate intonation and expression.
Connaissances
Reading fluency is supported by
  • pace
  • phrasing
  • expression
  • punctuation
Pace is the rate at which written messages are read.
Phrasing is reading smoothly by grouping words together into meaningful phrases with punctuation.

Expression is reading with feeling in the voice, including various pitch movements.

Punctuation supports reading with fluency through pausing and intonation.

Quotation marks signal to the reader to align voice with characters in a written message.
Compréhension
Fluent reading can engage audiences or improve comprehension.
Habiletés et procédures
Read with appropriate stress on words, pausing, and phrasing.

Read with appropriate intonation and expression.

Use punctuation in written messages to enhance fluency.

Read dialogue with phrasing and expression to engage an audience or reflect understanding.
Idée organisatrice
Comprehension: Text comprehension is supported through applying varied strategies and processes, and considering both particular contexts and universal themes.
Question directrice
How are messages understood?
Question directrice
What messages are conveyed through ideas and information within texts?
Question directrice
How does comprehension facilitate the meaning of a text?
Résultat d’apprentissage
Children share understandings of messages communicated in texts.
Résultat d’apprentissage
Students investigate meaning communicated in texts.
Résultat d’apprentissage
Students use and explain a variety of processes to comprehend texts.
Connaissances
New words and ideas can be learned by listening to texts.

The language in texts that is listened to can contain more complex words and ideas than everyday language.
Compréhension
Understanding messages in texts can be enhanced by listening to texts read aloud.
Habiletés et procédures
Listen to a variety of texts that are read aloud.

Engage in discussions about texts that have been listened to.
Connaissances
Texts that are listened to can contain more formal or complex language than everyday language.

Responses to messages listened to in texts can include
  • discussions
  • pictures with a few words or sentences
Compréhension
Understanding text can be enhanced by listening to messages read aloud.
Habiletés et procédures
Listen to a variety of fictional and informational texts that are read aloud.

Respond to texts that have been read aloud.

Understand words and phrases from texts that have been read aloud.
Connaissances
Texts that are listened to can contain more complex language and information than texts read independently.

Responses to texts that are listened to can include
  • discussions
  • visual representations
  • writing
Compréhension
Text comprehension can be enhanced by listening to a variety of texts read aloud.
Habiletés et procédures
Listen and respond to a variety of fictional and informational texts that are read aloud.

Understand and use words and phrases from texts that have been read aloud.
Connaissances
Simple, predictable, or decodable print texts often repeat words and phrases through patterns that can be recognized.

Understandings of messages within texts can be shared in a variety of ways, including
  • discussions
  • pictures with a few letters or words
Compréhension
Predictable and decodable texts support a reader’s understanding.
Habiletés et procédures
Read aloud simple, predictable, and decodable texts.

Share understandings of messages read independently.
Connaissances
Understanding of messages in texts read independently can be shared through
  • discussions
  • pictures with a few words or sentences
Compréhension
Predictable and decodable print texts can be read and understood independently.
Habiletés et procédures
Read simple, fully predictable and decodable texts independently.

Understand words and sentences from print texts read independently.

Share understandings of print texts read independently.
Connaissances
Understanding of print texts read independently can involve
  • discussions
  • visual representations
  • writing
Compréhension
Print texts can be understood independently.
Habiletés et procédures
Read, independently, texts that contain mostly predictable and decodable words.

Use and understand words and sentences from print texts read independently.

Discuss ideas and information from print texts read independently.
Connaissances
Word solving can include
  • chunking
  • stretching
  • manipulating sounds
Understanding print texts can be checked by asking
  • does it make sense? (meaning)
  • does it sound right? (syntax)
  • does it look right? (visual cues)
Self-correcting can include
  • altering speed
  • rereading
  • reading on
  • seeking clarification
Compréhension
Comprehension can involve solving, monitoring, and self-correcting.
Habiletés et procédures
Solve unknown words in a variety of ways.

Use meaning, syntax, and visual cues to check understandings when reading print text.

Self-correct when print text does not make sense.
Connaissances
Understanding print text can be checked by asking
  • does it make sense? (meaning)
  • does it sound right? (syntax)
  • does it look right? (visual cues)
Word solving can include
  • chunking
  • stretching
  • manipulating sounds
  • searching for additional information
Self-correcting can include
  • altering speed
  • rereading
  • reading on
  • seeking clarification
Compréhension
Comprehension of print texts involves self-monitoring and self-correcting.
Habiletés et procédures
Use meaning, syntax, and visual cues to monitor understandings when reading print text.

Solve unfamiliar or multisyllabic words in a variety of ways.

Self-correct when meaning is unclear during reading.
Connaissances
Details include specific information that help the reader to understand texts.

Sequencing involves putting events in a correct or an appropriate order.
Compréhension
Understanding texts can involve describing ideas, information, and details.
Habiletés et procédures
Discuss ideas and details from texts.

Sequence events in a text.

Retell the beginning, middle, or ending of a text.

Retell or dramatize a story, including characters and events.

Describe illustrations.
Connaissances
The main idea of a text is the most important idea.

Sequencing key ideas and details is important when summarizing texts.

The moral or lesson of a text can be the main idea.
Compréhension
Understanding texts can involve determining the main idea, key ideas, and details.
Habiletés et procédures
Discuss the main idea of a variety of texts.

Identify key ideas and details from texts.

Sequence four to six events in a text.

Retell the beginning, middle, or ending of a text.

Retell or dramatize a story, including characters and setting.

Describe information from illustrations or visuals in texts.

Identify the moral or lesson of a fable, folk tale, or myth.
Connaissances
The moral or lesson of a text can be the main idea.

The topic of a text can be the main idea.

The sequence of key ideas and details is important when summarizing texts.
Compréhension
Comprehension can involve summarizing the main idea, key ideas, and details.
Habiletés et procédures
Summarize a text, including the main idea and key ideas.

Sequence four or more events in a text.

Retell or dramatize a story, including characters, setting, and plot, in sequence.

Include information from illustrations or visuals in summaries of texts.
Connaissances
Connections can be made to ideas and information in texts, including
  • connecting to experiences
  • connecting to feelings
Compréhension
Understanding messages in texts can involve making connections.
Habiletés et procédures
Share connections between a text and personal feelings or experiences.
Connaissances
Connections can be made to ideas and information in texts, including
  • connecting to experiences
  • connecting to feelings
  • connecting to similarities and differences between texts
  • connecting to background knowledge
Similarities and differences can be identified in various aspects of a text, including
  • people
  • characters
  • places
  • objects
  • settings
  • events
  • actions
  • information
Compréhension
Comprehension of texts can involve making connections.
Habiletés et procédures
Share personal connections to ideas or information in texts.

Identify similarities and differences between two texts.
Connaissances
Connections can be made to ideas and information in texts, including
  • connecting to experiences
  • connecting to feelings
  • connecting to similarities and differences within a text
  • connecting to similarities and differences between texts
  • connecting to background knowledge
  • connecting text to the world
Aspects of text that can be compared or contrasted include
  • people
  • characters
  • places
  • objects
  • settings
  • events
  • actions
  • information
Compréhension
The process of text comprehension can be improved through making connections.
Habiletés et procédures
Share connections that support understandings of ideas or information in texts.

Compare and contrast aspects within a text.

Compare and contrast aspects among several texts.
Connaissances
Questions that help understand messages in texts can include
  • Who?
  • What?
  • Where?
  • When?
  • Why?
Compréhension
Understanding messages in texts can involve asking and answering questions.
Habiletés et procédures
Ask questions to clarify ideas or information in texts.

Answer questions about ideas or information in texts.
Connaissances
Questions that guide comprehension of texts can include
  • Who?
  • What?
  • Where?
  • When?
  • Why?
  • How?
Texts can contain information that answers questions.

The same words can be in both the question and the answer (literal recall).
Compréhension
Comprehension can involve asking and answering questions.
Habiletés et procédures
Ask questions to clarify information in texts.

Answer questions requiring literal recall and understanding of examples, details, or facts in texts.

Answer questions that require giving opinions about information in texts.

Locate information from texts to answer questions.
Connaissances
Questioning includes asking or answering questions regarding
  • Who?
  • What?
  • Where?
  • When?
  • Why?
  • How?
Answers to questions may not be immediately apparent and may involve searching for more information.

Answers to questions may involve integrating new information with background knowledge.
Compréhension
Comprehension can be enhanced by formulating questions and searching for answers within texts.
Habiletés et procédures
Ask questions to clarify information in texts.

Answer questions requiring literal recall and understanding of evidence, details, or facts.

Answer questions that require making interpretations or giving opinions about information.

Answer “why” questions that require recognizing cause and effect relationships.
Connaissances
Predicting includes imagining what might happen based on information, including
  • title
  • pictures
  • details within the text
  • background knowledge
Predictions can be made prior to or during reading, viewing, or listening to texts.
Compréhension
Understanding messages can involve making predictions.
Habiletés et procédures
Make predictions based on information provided in texts.

Compare actual outcomes to predictions made.
Connaissances
Predicting includes imagining an outcome based on a combination of information, including
  • title
  • pictures
  • details within the text
  • background knowledge
Compréhension
Comprehension can be enhanced by making predictions.
Habiletés et procédures
Make predictions prior to and while reading, viewing, or listening to a text based on information provided within the text.

Compare actual outcomes to predictions made.
Connaissances
Predicting includes imagining an outcome based on a combination of information, including
  • title
  • pictures
  • evidence
  • background knowledge
Compréhension
Comprehension can be supported by making and revising predictions.
Habiletés et procédures
Make predictions prior to and while reading, viewing, or listening to a text based on information provided within the text.

Revise understandings in response to new information.

Compare actual outcomes to predictions made.
Idée organisatrice
Writing: Ideas and information can be articulated accurately and imaginatively through the use of writing processes and an understanding of the author’s craft
Question directrice
How can messages be recorded?
Question directrice
How can writing be used to communicate meaning?
Question directrice
How can writing processes and techniques improve expression?
Résultat d’apprentissage
Children experiment with written expression of ideas and information.
Résultat d’apprentissage
Students apply understandings of writing through creation of messages.
Résultat d’apprentissage
Students investigate the ways ideas and information conveyed in writing can be enhanced.
Connaissances
Processes can be used to support writing messages, and can involve
  • planning
  • writing
  • editing
  • sharing
Planning can involve thinking or talking about
  • why you are writing a message (purpose)
  • who will be reading the message (audience)
  • the form the message will take
  • ideas
Messages can be written in sentences that contain complete thoughts.

Several sentences can be written to expand on one idea.

Editing generally involves correcting errors in spelling, grammar, or punctuation.

Sharing can involve adding images or features to written messages.

Written messages have an author or a creator.

Written messages are owned by their creators.
Compréhension
Ideas and information can be shared through written messages.
Habiletés et procédures
Create written messages that align with an intended audience or purpose.

Create written messages in a variety of forms to represent ideas or information.

Generate ideas that can be expressed through messages.

Combine ideas in a logical sequence to create sentences.

Write sentences that contain complete thoughts and make sense.

Edit written work for spelling, grammar, and punctuation.

Add images or features to written messages.

Share written messages with others.

Print your name on messages you create.
Connaissances
Writing processes used to organize and share messages can involve
  • planning
  • writing
  • editing
  • sharing
Planning can involve thinking or talking about
  • why you are writing a message (purpose)
  • who will be reading the message (audience)
  • the form the message will take
  • ideas
Run-on sentences are sentences that string too many ideas together with connecting words.

Sentences can be organized in a logical sequence to create written messages.

Editing generally involves correcting errors in spelling, grammar, or punctuation.

Sharing can involve selecting a variety of features to enhance written messages.
Compréhension
Writing can provide opportunities to share thoughts and ideas in meaningful ways.
Habiletés et procédures
Create written messages that align with an intended audience or purpose.

Create written messages in a variety of forms to represent ideas or information.

Generate ideas that can be expressed through messages.

Focus and limit the number of ideas in sentences.

Include a variety of sentence types in writing.

Organize sentences in a logical sequence to create written messages.

Edit written work for spelling, grammar, and punctuation.

Incorporate images or features to enhance written messages.

Share written messages with others.
Connaissances
Ideas for personal expression can be inspired by experiences with people, places, and things.
Compréhension
Ideas and information can be expressed creatively to learn and have fun.
Habiletés et procédures
Express ideas and information in a variety of creative ways.
Connaissances
Writing can support creative expression of ideas through organization and word choice.

Creative ideas for written expression can be inspired by personal experiences with
  • people
  • places
  • things
  • stories
  • images
  • information
Creative ideas can be organized in a variety of ways.

In creative writing, word choice can paint a picture in the reader’s mind.

Creative ideas can be clarified by adding words that describe things that can be seen, heard, smelled, tasted, or touched (sensory language).
Compréhension
Creative writing can inspire imaginative thinking and fun.
Habiletés et procédures
Collect ideas that are inspired by a variety of experiences.

Express ideas and information through a variety of written forms (e.g., stories, poetry, posters).

Identify effective use of sensory language in stories, songs, or print texts.

Include sensory language to enhance ideas in creative writing.
Connaissances
Writing can support creative expression of ideas through organization and word choice.

Creative ideas for written expression can be inspired by personal experiences with
  • people
  • places
  • things
  • stories
  • images
  • information
Creative ideas can be organized in a variety of ways.

Creative ideas can be clarified by adding words that describe things that can be seen, heard, smelled, tasted, or touched (sensory language).
Compréhension
Creative writing can influence expression of thoughts and emotions.
Habiletés et procédures
Collect ideas that are inspired by a variety of experiences.

Express ideas and information through a variety of written forms (e.g., stories, poetry, posters).

Include adjectives and adverbs to add interest and detail to writing.

Include sensory language to enhance ideas in creative writing.

Use punctuation and figurative language to create appeal in written messages.
Connaissances
Factual information can be gathered from a variety of people, places, or things (sources).

Gathering information can include listening, speaking, observing, or representing.
Compréhension
Information can be shared about people, places, or things that are real (factual).
Habiletés et procédures
Ask questions about real people, places, or things to learn more about them.

Gather factual information from a variety of people, places, or things.

Share factual information through messages that include pictures, letters, or words.
Connaissances
Factual information can be gathered to support sharing ideas about things that are real.

Factual information can come from a variety of digital or non-digital sources, including
  • people
  • places
  • print
  • images
  • observations
Gathering information can include listening, speaking, observing, or representing.

Organizational tools, such as graphic organizers, can help plan and record factual information.
Compréhension
Research processes can be used to gather and record factual information.
Habiletés et procédures
Ask questions to identify research topics.

Gather factual information from a variety of people, places, or things.

Use organizational tools to help plan or record information.

Record factual information through messages that include images and words.
Connaissances
Asking questions can help focus research topics.

Factual information can come from a variety of digital or non-digital sources, including
  • people
  • places
  • print
  • images
  • observations
Gathering information can include listening, speaking, observing, or representing.

Organizational tools, such as graphic organizers, can help plan and record factual information.
Compréhension
Research processes can be used to learn new things or build on what is already known.
Habiletés et procédures
Ask questions to focus research topics.

Gather factual information on topics from various sources.

Use organizational tools to help plan or record information.

Record factual information through messages that include images, words, and sentences.
Connaissances
Messages can be shared in digital or non-digital ways, including
  • pictures
  • symbols
  • letters
  • words
  • scribbles
Written messages have an author or a creator.

Written messages are owned by their creators.
Compréhension
Messages can be created using a variety of digital or non-digital methods or tools.
Habiletés et procédures
Create a variety of digital or non-digital messages.

Identify the author or creator of messages.

Print your first name on messages you create.
Connaissances
Digital or non-digital methods or tools used to create written messages can include printing and keyboarding.
Compréhension
Written messages can be created using a variety of digital or non-digital methods or tools.
Habiletés et procédures
Print letters and words with appropriate size and spacing.

Consistently grasp writing tools correctly.

Locate letter keys on a keyboard to type messages.
Connaissances
Written messages can be created using a variety of digital or non-digital methods or tools, including printing and keyboarding.
Compréhension
The method or tool used to present written works can enhance the clarity of a message.
Habiletés et procédures
Print with appropriate size, formation, and spacing to enhance the clarity of a message.

Locate a variety of keys on a keyboard to type messages.
Idée organisatrice
Conventions: Understanding grammar, spelling, and punctuation makes it easier to communicate clearly, to organize thinking, and to use language for desired effects.
Question directrice
How do conventions support literacy development?
Question directrice
How do the functions of conventions support literacy development?
Question directrice
How do conventions foster the development of effective communication?
Résultat d’apprentissage
Children develop appropriate grammar in oral language and experiment with spelling and punctuation in written messages.
Résultat d’apprentissage
Students use and develop grammar, spelling, and punctuation in oral and written language.
Résultat d’apprentissage
Students examine and apply grammar, spelling, and punctuation in a variety of contexts to build effective communication.
Connaissances
Names begin with a capital letter.

Sentences begin with a capital letter.

Sentences often end with periods.
Compréhension
Written messages can be communicated in predictable ways.
Habiletés et procédures
Identify capital letters in names.

Identify capital letters at the beginning of sentences.

Identify periods at the end of sentences.
Connaissances
Capitalization is used for
  • first and last name
  • first word of a sentence
  • names of people and places
  • days of the week
  • months
Punctuation marks can signal the end of a sentence and make ideas clear.

Punctuation can include
  • a period
  • a question mark
  • an exclamation mark
Compréhension
Capitalization and punctuation can support the meaning of a message.
Habiletés et procédures
Apply capital letters when writing first and last names.

Apply capital letters when writing the first word of a sentence.

Apply capital letters when writing names of places.

Apply capital letters when writing days of the week and months.

Identify and use end punctuation in sentences.
Connaissances
Capitalization is used for
  • first word of a sentence
  • names of people and places
  • days of the week and months
  • titles
A proper noun names a specific person or place and begins with a capital letter.

Punctuation marks can signal the end of a sentence and make ideas clear.

Punctuation can include
  • a period
  • a question mark
  • an exclamation mark
  • an apostrophe in contractions
A contraction is a combination of two words, where an apostrophe takes the place of certain letters.
Compréhension
Capitalization and punctuation can make messages more clear.
Habiletés et procédures
Capitalize the first word of a sentence.

Capitalize names of people and places.

Capitalize days of the week and months.

Capitalize titles.

Include punctuation at the end of sentences.

Insert apostrophes in place of letters in contractions.
Connaissances
A sentence is a group of words that shares a complete thought or idea.

Sentence types include
  • telling (declarative)
  • asking (interrogative)
Compréhension
Language has structures (grammar) that can support sharing ideas.
Habiletés et procédures
Speak in sentences that include a complete thought or idea.

Differentiate between telling and asking sentences.
Connaissances
A sentence is a group of words that shares a complete thought or idea.

Sentence types include telling (declarative) or
asking (interrogative).

Sentences include a noun and a verb.

A noun is a person, place, thing, or animal.

A verb is an action word.
Compréhension
Language has structures (grammar) that can help express messages.
Habiletés et procédures
Recognize sentences in oral or written language that include a complete thought or idea.

Differentiate between telling and asking sentences.

Differentiate between nouns and verbs in sentences.
Connaissances
Sentence types include
  • telling (declarative)
  • asking (interrogative)
  • excitement (exclamatory)
A sentence that expresses strong emotion can end with an exclamation mark (exclamatory).

Sentences include a noun and a verb.

A noun is a person, place, thing, or animal.

A pronoun can be used in place of a noun.

An adjective is a word that describes a noun.

A verb is an action word.

An adverb is a word that describes a verb.

The subject of a sentence tells whom or what the sentence is about.

The subject and the verb in a sentence must agree, with both being either singular or plural (subject-verb agreement).

Some words can be used with other words to show time or place (prepositions) (e.g., under, with, before, after).
Compréhension
Language has structures (grammar) that can help express ideas, thoughts, and emotions.
Habiletés et procédures
Write a variety of sentences that include a complete thought or idea.

Identify nouns in sentences.

Recognize and use pronouns to replace nouns in sentences.

Use a variety of adjectives to describe nouns.

Identify verbs in sentences.

Use adverbs to describe verbs.

Identify the subject in a sentence.

Identify when subjects and verbs agree in sentences.

Recognize and use prepositions in sentences to show time and place.
Connaissances
The spelling of words can be remembered.

High frequency words occur often in spoken and written language.

High frequency words may not have a one letter to one sound relationship (e.g., the).
Compréhension
Some words are very common and can be spelled automatically.
Habiletés et procédures
Spell 5–10 high frequency words.
Connaissances
Spelling patterns can look the same or sound the same (word families).

Spelling patterns can include
  • vowel-consonant (VC) (e.g., at)
  • consonant-vowel-consonant (CVC) (e.g., top)
  • vowel-consonant-silent “e” (VCe) (e.g., ice)
Some words can be made plural by adding an <s> or <es>.

Spelling patterns in one-syllable words include
  • short vowel sounds (e.g., mat)
  • long vowel sounds (e.g., green)
Many high frequency words are not spelled in predictable ways (e.g., walk).

Compréhension
Spelling patterns can support the spelling of unfamiliar words.
Habiletés et procédures
Recognize letter patterns in words.

Apply spelling patterns to spell unfamiliar words.

Spell 125 high frequency words.

Identify words that are not spelled in predictable ways.
Connaissances
Spelling patterns can include
  • vowel-consonant (VC) (e.g., on)
  • consonant-vowel-consonant (CVC) (e.g., cup)
  • vowel-consonant-silent “e” (VCe) (e.g., ate)
  • consonant-vowel-consonant-silent “e” (CVCe) (e.g., nose)
  • vowel-consonant-consonant (VCC) (e.g., ill)
  • vowel-vowel-consonant (VVC) (e.g., eel)
  • dropping the <e> and adding <ing>
  • doubling the letter before adding <ing> or <ed>
Some words can be made plural by adding an <s> or <es>.

Spelling patterns in one-syllable words include
  • short vowel sounds (e.g., pick)
  • long vowel sounds (e.g., coat)
Some consonants are silent in some words (e.g., talk).

Many high frequency words are not spelled in predictable ways (e.g., friend).
Compréhension
Spelling can be supported by recognizing patterns that occur within and across words.
Habiletés et procédures
Identify spelling patterns within and across words.

Apply spelling patterns to spell unfamiliar words.

Identify silent consonants in words.

Spell 300 high frequency words.

Identify words that are not spelled in predictable ways.
Connaissances
Saying words slowly can help to hear individual sounds in words.
Compréhension
Spelling includes writing the sounds heard in words.
Habiletés et procédures
Attempt to spell unknown words using letter-sound relationships.

Copy environmental print to become familiar with how words are spelled.
Connaissances
Words have correct spellings.

Every word contains a vowel.

Every syllable found in a word contains a vowel.

Articulating words slowly can help to identify sounds.

Thinking about how letters in a word look can help with spelling.

Digital or non-digital supports can be used to help spell words correctly, including
  • personal word lists
  • dictionaries
  • environmental print
  • peers, teachers, or parents/guardians
Compréhension
Spelling words correctly helps written messages to be understood.
Habiletés et procédures
Apply knowledge of known words, word parts, and word patterns to attempt to spell unfamiliar words.

Include a vowel in every word.

Include a vowel in every syllable.

Attempt to spell unknown words using letter-sound relationships.

Say words slowly to identify sounds when spelling words.

Describe how a word looks.

Use a variety of supports to spell and check the spelling of words.
Connaissances
Every word and every syllable contains a vowel.

Articulating words slowly can help to identify sounds.

Thinking about how a word looks can help with spelling.

Knowledge of words and word parts can be applied to the spelling of new words.

Spelling can involve trial and error.

Digital or non-digital supports can be used to help spell words correctly, including
  • personal word lists
  • dictionaries
  • environmental print
  • peers, teachers, or parents/guardians
Compréhension
Spelling strategies and supports can be used to help communicate messages.
Habiletés et procédures
Include a vowel in every word and syllable.

Say words slowly to identify sounds when spelling words.

Describe how a word looks.

Apply knowledge of known words, word parts, and word patterns to spell unfamiliar words.

Use a variety of supports to spell and check the spelling of words.