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Social Studies

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Social studies is an interdisciplinary, content-rich subject that empowers students to be lifelong learners. It draws from history, geography, civics, economics, and other disciplines. Social studies provides opportunities for students to learn about and appreciate ideas that have shaped Alberta, Canada, and the world over time. Students acquire foundational knowledge and build understandings of relationships between people, places, and environments. They acquire a growing body of essential knowledge on historical and contemporary controversial issues. Students revisit content as knowledge builds from grade to grade. In social studies, students develop skills that will prepare them to lead fulfilling lives and play a significant role in our democratic society.
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Organizing Idea
History: Understanding the history of our province, nation, and world and developing cultural literacy allow us to appreciate the varied richness of our shared human inheritance of original writings, artifacts, stories, beliefs, ideas and great cultural and artistic achievements from different times and places. Lessons of the past and knowledge of diverse experiences help us overcome ignorance and prejudice and recognize our common humanity and dignity.
Guiding Question
What did ancient and medieval civilizations contribute to today’s world that has enduring value?
Guiding Question
How did the world change with colonization of North America?
Guiding Question
How did Alberta and the North West develop during the expansion of the West?
Learning Outcome
Students explore ancient civilizations and the ideas that have endured over time and have contributed to our heritage and traditions.
Learning Outcome
Students describe key events of European exploration, contact with First Nations, the fur trade, and the expansion of New France.
Learning Outcome
Students examine how fur trade rivalries, early explorations, North West Mounted Police rule, and Treaties led to early settlement and to the transfer of Rupert’s Land to the Dominion of Canada.
The heritage from ancient Greece, ancient Rome, and other ancient cultures continues to inform and influence our lives.
Big ideas, core beliefs, cultural practices, and monuments have endured and continue to influence our lives.
Skills & Procedures
Identify the significance of ancient wisdom in our daily lives.
concept of “The Modern Age” – the European age of discovery, exploration, and colonization (Early Modern Era, 1450–1750): the search for routes by sea to India, the East Indies—Christopher Columbus to the “West Indies” (1492); Vasco da Gama around Cape of Good Hope to India (1497–1499); Ferdinand Magellan’s voyage of circumnavigation (1519–1522)

early contact between Europeans and Indigenous peoples: John Cabot and Grand Banks, sea silver (England, 1497), Jacques Cartier (France,1534–1541), and Ill-Fated Settlement at Cap Rouge

early encounters with Chief of Stadacona tribe Donnacona, taking of his two sons, and deteriorating relations, scurvy, cedar bark tea remedy, finding of “Route to Canada”

origin of name Canada (Kanata), first social club (Order of Good Cheer, 1606), and meeting with Sagamore Membertou (Mi’kmaq)

founding of New France: Samuel de Champlain (1605–1632), Port Royal, Quebec Habitation, Stadacona, Hochelaga, Cross on Mount Royal “claimed” for France
The European origins of the concept of historical eras reflect the dominant Old World-New World perspective.

Although the first European explorers came to North America searching for routes to the East Indies and for spices and precious metals, they found fish and furs that attracted them to explore and colonize New France and North America, and the earliest settlements struggled for survival.

Good relationships dissolved when conflicts arose over taking “captives,” Donnacona and his two sons, back to France where their return trip was delayed and they eventually died.

The country’s name and popular social practices have Indigenous and French colonial origins.

France laid claim to much of early Canada from 1605 to 1760 and left a lasting cultural heritage and footprint.
Skills & Procedures
Recognize the concept of European ages or eras and identify the “Early Modern Era” of colonization.

Explain how fish and furs led to the exploration and colonial development of New France.

Examine the evidence to explain how Indigenous-French relations deteriorated in the early years.

Explain the significance of Indigenous ways, languages, and practices in shaping early Canadian culture.

Construct a timeline showing the key events in the founding, growth, and development of New France from 1605 to 1763.
fur trade rivalries – competition between the Hudson’s Bay Company (1760) and the North West Company (Nor’Westers) for control of the main trade routes, from Cumberland House (1774) onwards, including Anthony Henday to the Rockies, La Verendrye in the American West

fur trading posts in the Athabasca region: Peter Pond and North West Company posts, Fort Chipewyan (1788), and Fort Edmonton (1795)

Women, mostly Métis, were present in fur trade country and many intermarried with traders living a la façon du pays (in the fashion of the country).

Plains Cree culture and the bison as staple food – using all parts of animal, use of pemmican (high energy dried buffalo meat with berries) used by frontier traders

clearing the way for agriculture – Captain John Palliser’s Expedition (1859–1862) and origin of Palliser Triangle – fertile prairie lands

transfer of Rupert’s Land to the Dominion of Canada, 1869, and impact on the North West
The Hudson’s Bay Company, based in London, claimed all lands and rivers emptying into Hudson Bay (covering one third of the continent) and faced stiff competition from Montreal traders controlling the Great Lakes region and further west.

Fort Chipewyan on Lake Athabasca was home to traders, Cree, De’né and Métis peoples, and was the base for Alexander Mackenzie’s northern explorations.

North West Company trader Alexander Mackenzie (1789; 1792–1793) travelled by canoe and foot searching for a Northwest passage to the Pacific. Instead, he journeyed up a great river to the Beaufort Sea in the Arctic, then across the Rocky Mountains to the Pacific Ocean.

Dried meat food was first produced by the Plains Cree from pulverized bison meat and berries (pemmican) and was widely used by Arctic explorers.

Palliser’s Expedition report awakened people to the existence of a fertile triangle and encouraged agricultural settlement.

Prime Minister John A. Macdonald and his lead cabinet member, George E. Cartier, completed the deal to transfer Rupert’s Land to Canada.
Skills & Procedures
Examine the evidence: Study some appropriate key passages of the charter of the Hudson’s Bay Company, May 1, 1670. How much land was granted to the Hudson’s Bay Company by their charter?

Ask a question: Who was Peter Pond and what role did he play in the fur trade and exploration of the North West?

Continuity and change: How do the names of major rivers help us to remember the past?

Ask questions: Why is pemmican still well known today? Which food products are most like pemmican?

Cause and effect: What prompted Palliser’s Expedition and what was its impact on agriculture in Alberta?

Ask a question: Was the takeover of Rupert’s Land a good deal for the Canadian government?
history of time (chronology):
  • before Christ (BC)
  • anno domini (AD)
  • before common era (BCE)
  • common era (CE)
  • decades
  • centuries
  • millennia
  • time immemorial
Historical time can be represented in timelines.
Skills & Procedures
Construct a timeline and explain its purpose.
Seasonal survival skills shared by First Nations include
  • methods and techniques for transportation on land and water
  • accessing medicines and food sources through gathering, hunting, and planting
  • food preservation methods
  • ways to build shelters appropriate to ways of life and seasons
  • ways to make clothing from the land
Some Indigenous peoples supported newcomers with knowledge and teachings to support survival.

Some new settlers still struggled to survive in North America despite Indigenous support; others adapted better.
Skills & Procedures
Research challenges new settlers faced in what is now Canada and identify how Indigenous communities sometimes supported them.
origin and advance of North West Mounted Police (NWMP) rule – law and order to encourage settlement (1873–1905)

NWMP headquarters was in Fort MacLeod, Alberta and later in Regina, Saskatchewan.
Perspectives on NWMP presence among First Nations and settlers were both positive and negative, with the Mounties generally being distinguished as being more reliable and trustworthy than their United States' counterparts.
Skills & Procedures
Draw a sketch of the NWMP in uniform: Why are Mounties often shown on horseback?

Examine multiple perspectives on the NWMP presence in the Canadian West and Northwest according to original accounts in primary documents as well as secondary sources.
Ancient peoples told stories that were passed down from one generation to the next, such as myths and legends of Greece, China, and Africa.

World religions that believe in one God (monotheistic): Judaism, Christianity, and Islam have common roots.

art and architecture: Greco-Roman, Chinese, and African ruins and monuments, such as Acropolis, Pantheon, Roman Colosseum, Great Wall, Sphinx, pyramids
Classic architecture and monuments were built to last and have lasted. They continue to impress and inspire people today.

World views are a set of beliefs and experiences that influence the way a people or civilization sees the world. They are reflected in stories, religious texts, and architecture.
Skills & Procedures
Read aloud Greek, Chinese and African myths/legends and ask students to retell the stories.

Explain belief systems associated with Judaism, Christianity, and Islam.

Recognize examples of classical architecture and monuments and explain some of the reasons why they were built.

Compare a world view from an ancient civilization to a present one.
legend of Madeleine de Verchères, a 14-year-old Canadienne heroine widely known for rallying to the defence of New France

Most French inhabitants of New France lived behind fortifications.

Since the time of Champlain, relations with the Iroquois had deteriorated and towns and villages lived under fear of attack as the Iroquois sought to retain possession of their lands.

Verchères was one such town, where Madeleine, daughter of the seigneur, rallied the defences in 1692 while her parents were absent from their farm.
Madeleine de Verchères is considered a French-Canadian hero for her role in defending her village against the Iroquois.

Centuries later, Madeleine’s image was used to inspire women to engage in the war effort in Canada.
Skills & Procedures
Weigh different viewpoints: The legend of Madeleine de Verchères can be seen from different perspectives. To whom was the young Canadienne woman a hero? How might the Iroquois view her act in rallying the defences?
disappearance of the bison herds – depletion of bison (also known as buffalo) population originally numbering some15 million migratory animals
One of the earliest endangered species was the prairie bison, decimated mainly by hunters shooting hundreds of bison on expeditions.
Skills & Procedures
Drawing conclusions: What caused the near extinction of the Plains Bison? Who or what was responsible for the disappearance?
French colonial rule – early society in New France: earliest French inhabitants – apothecary Louis Hébert and his family of Paris, Jean Talon, first census, daughters of the King (les filles du roi)

French settlement: seigneurial system, seigneurs and habitants, strip farms, Saint Lawrence and Richelieu rivers
The vast majority of early colonial settlers were from France, and French was the first European language spoken on the continent.

Early French settlers gradually became Canadiens.

New France had a unique system of land holding—the seigneurial system—with strip farms and “rangs” running along the waterways.
Skills & Procedures
Ask questions: What was daily life like for the earliest French settlers, traders, merchants, garrison soldiers, men, women and children? Write a note back to France explaining conditions.

Explain how the seigneurial system of New France worked, outlining the duties and responsibilities of seigneurs and habitants.
ranching and cowboy culture: cattle and horses are present on the prairie grasslands, arrival of horses northward, grazing of cattle, first NWMP cattle herd and horses (1879), lawlessness on the range, spread of cattle herds (25,000 head and 11,000 horses, 1882–1883, Big Four ranches in Southern Alberta, south of Fort Calgary, 1875), early Calgary was known as “Cow Town”
Ranching emerged on the Alberta prairie and it was pioneered by the first generation of western cowboys riding horses imported from Europe via Spanish colonies (e.g., Mexico, Argentina).

Herding cattle grazed freely right across the American plains and northward into Canada.
Skills & Procedures
Examine the evidence: Study the most common words used by cowboys roping horses and driving cattle on the range. What words in cowboy culture (lingo, ranch, rodeo, stampede, lariat, lasso, buckaroo) have Spanish origins? Why the Spanish influence?
Slavery in New France: Slaves and servants were common. Blacks in New France were considered the “property” of white settlers and the Code Noir (rulebook) was used, even though it was not the official law. Enslaved Blacks were brought from Africa and sold as part of the trans-Atlantic trade in goods. Some 3,600 slaves lived in the colony in 1760 when New France fell to the British.
Slaves existed in New France until it was abolished in Upper Canada (1793) and then in all British North American colonies in 1807.
Skills & Procedures
Examine the evidence: Discuss slavery in New France and consider why advertisements would be placed in newspapers offering rewards for the capture of a runaway slave.
Jerry Potts (1840-1896), was a leading scout, interpreter, hunter in the North West.

Famous Black rancher John Ware (1845-1905), along with his wife Mildred and family, was a ranching pioneer and folk hero in Alberta (Howdy, I’m John Ware, 2020).

John Ware’s funeral in 1905 was one of the largest in Alberta history.
Black rancher John Ware, born a slave in South Carolina, escaped into Canada and with his wife, Mildred, was a pioneer with a 160-acre homestead west of Calgary.

Jerry Potts’ mother was from the Kainai-Cree and his father was Scottish, and he lived and worked with Métis, European, and local First Nations, earning their trust and respect through his knowledge of the prairies and his skill as a scout, hunter, and soldier.
Skills & Procedures
Investigate the lives of John Ware and of Jerry Potts. How did they contribute to the development of what would become Alberta?
expansion of the fur trade to interior and into the North West: finest beaver pelts (castor gross), voyageurs, coureur des bois, and Catholic missionaries. brandy trade, origin of Montreal fur trade, Nor’Westers

the “Black Robes” (Catholic missionaries), Father Lacombe (1827–1916) priest and pioneer
The fur trade was important to New France; the frontier was fortified, and crop production was mostly to sustain the local population.
Skills & Procedures
Weigh differing viewpoints: Why was land important to Indigenous peoples and the French fur traders?

Why was French the first European language spoken in what is now Alberta?
grain growing and agriculture: settling in a prairie “ocean of grassland,” homesteading (loneliness and hardships – drought, early frosts, grasshoppers, grass fires), invention of Red Fife wheat (Rev, John Gough Brick, Peace River district, 1892–1893)

origins of prairie grain elevators: first elevator, Gretna, Manitoba, 1881, storing grain for loading on rail cars, multiplied from 90 in 1890 to 454 by 1900
Harsh conditions on the Alberta prairie test the will of many farmers, especially in winters, and the isolation and loneliness can make life difficult at times. Frost resistant wheat prolonged the growing season over much of the prairies.

Grain elevators are known as “prairie sentinels” and dot the landscape, alerting travellers to the names of towns, and as symbols of grain growing in the region.
Skills & Procedures
Write a letter expressing the concerns of a prairie farm family suffering through the hard times in the early 1890s.

Weigh different viewpoints: Should prairie grain elevators be saved? How much of our history should be preserved? Why?
Guiding Question
What aspects of past civilizations continue to influence the way we live?
Guiding Question
What impact did British colonization have on the remaining British North American colonies in what became Canada
Guiding Question
What factors led to the creation of the province of Alberta in 1905?
Learning Outcome
Students analyze some major contributions of ancient Western and Eastern civilizations to life and society today.
Learning Outcome
Students examine the fall of New France, British colonization, and how the American War of Independence altered the course of Canada’s evolution and how changes in Canada are reflected in the Canadian emblems, symbols, and songs.
Learning Outcome
Students investigate the main factors leading to the creation of Alberta, including the building of railways and immigration of diverse groups.

ancient Greece:
  • Athens as city-state
  • Athens and Sparta
  • gods and goddesses
  • Alexander the Great
  • Olympic Games
  • Marathon
  • Siege of Troy and Wooden Horse
  • Athenian democracy
great thinkers: Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle asked new questions in a form now known as philosophy, which in Greek means “love of wisdom.

Ancient Rome origin myths:
  • Romulus and Remus
  • Epic of Aeneas
  • City of Seven Hills
  • gods and goddesses
Pax Romana (Roman Empire)

  • The oldest of the three “Abrahamic” religions
  • Jewish people believe that God made a covenant with Abraham and his descendants.
  • After the Jewish people were enslaved in Egypt, Moses led them back to ‘The Promised Land’
  • Jewish communities eventually spread, and were forced to relocate, around the Mediterranean, through the Middle East.
  • Based on the life, death, and resurrection of Jesus Christ, who Christians believe is the Son of God
  • Spread from a small number of Jewish follows of Jesus in the middle of the first century across the Roman Empire
  • After it became the official religion of the Roman Empire in the early 300s AD, it spread rapidly across Europe and around the world.
  • founded by Mohammed, who Muslims believe was the prophet of God (Allah) and received revelations from him
  • the Quran (610 CE)
  • pilgrimage to Mecca
  • march to Medina
  • Islam spread across the Middle East, North Africa, and parts of Europe (622–326 CE), and later to Asia, Africa, and around the world.
Ancient Greece contributed to the emergence of democracy, popular myths, athletics, culture, and the arts.

Critical thinking was advanced by the Greeks.

Roman traditions and culture, including Roman law and Roman infrastructure helped Roman influence spread and can still be seen today.

Rome became an extensive empire, and both Judaism and Christianity spread via the Roman Empire.

The three monotheistic religions of Judaism, Christianity, and Islam all originated in the Middle East and share many common and overlapping beliefs and traditions, as well as important differences.
Skills & Procedures
Explain the significance of Athens in the shaping of modern Western culture.

Ask questions related to Athens and Sparta:
  • Which culture allowed more freedom?
  • Which one put more emphasis on order and discipline?
Arrange events in chronological sequence. Create a timeline for the rise and fall of the Roman Empire.

Distinguish between Roman and Greek contributions to modern life.

Recognize cause and effect.
  • What are some of the theories for the cause of the fall of the Roman Empire? It was not the first or last to disappear.
  • How might this apply to other countries or civilizations?
Investigate how the three monotheistic religions that arose out of the Middle East are related, and why Jews, Christians, and Muslims are sometimes called ‘people of the book’?

Draw conclusions from evidence: How is our culture still influenced by early Jewish, Islamic, and Christian cultures?
causes of the fall of New France – critical factors in French abandonment of Quebec
Wars in Europe set the stage for the fall of New France and its abandonment.
Skills & Procedures
Explain cause and effect: What caused New France to fall to the British in 1760 and what was the impact?
building and completion of the Canadian Pacific Railway (CPR) – from Regina to British Columbia (1883–1887), and mistreatment of Chinese railway workers (navvies), mass burials, and origin of Chinese head tax:
  • Immigrants from China and India were early builders of Canada and Alberta, working in railway construction, forestry, and local merchandise trade.
  • Chinese immigrants settled in what were often called “Chinatowns.” Surviving examples can be found in Edmonton and Calgary. Chinese immigrants also settled in small towns across the prairies, where many were entrepreneurs and became business owners.
The building of the Canadian Pacific Railway (CPR) was considered a national project with “ties that bind” the Dominion together, but much of the work was done by immigrant workers, including Chinese and Indian workers.

Chinese and Indian immigrants suffered racial discrimination and immigration restrictions.

Exclusionist policies were introduced to restrict the numbers of Chinese and Indians entering the Dominion. The “Yellow Scare” sparked open discrimination against Chinese immigrants, and a 1906–1908 spike in migrants from the Indian sub-continent sparked harsh restrictions, capping the numbers admitted to fewer than 100 per year.
Skills & Procedures
Examine photos of “The Last Spike” of the Canadian Pacific Railway (CPR). What do they tell you about what actually happened in building the line?

Examine the evidence of racial exclusion – compare the Chinese head tax from 1885 to 1923 and Indian immigration “cap” restrictions from 1908 to 1957.

Compare and contrast the early Chinese and Indian immigrant experiences. What drew them to the Pacific West and Alberta? Why did they face overt discrimination and how did they fare?
Middle Ages (medieval times):
  • Charlemagne as Holy Roman Emperor (800 CE)
  • King of Frankish Empire
  • feudal society (patricians, plebeians, knights, freedmen, slaves)
  • class structure (nobles and vassals, lords and serfs)
  • Hundred Years War
  • Joan of Arc
Anglo-Saxon England:
  • origins of terms (Angles, Saxons, and Jutes)
  • adoption of Christianity
  • monarchy-unification of a divided country
  • Alfred the Great and English traditions
  • Robin Hood, Norman Conquest
  • Domesday Book (first census)
  • Origins of the Common Law
encounters with other worlds: travels of Marco Polo, Venetian merchant (1271–1295 AD): journey from Italy to the Orient/China and back, the Silk Road, visit to Court of Kublai Khan; and, from the Chinese side, travels of Zheng He (1371–1433/5) (building on earlier explorations by Gan Ying, Zhang Qian, and others)

plagues: the Black Death (1347–1351) and its impact
Society in medieval times was structured so that everyone was responsible to the king/monarch and bound by loyalty.

Medieval stories and festivals are still part of our contemporary world, such as the story of Robin Hood, Friar Tuck, and the Sheriff of Nottingham.

The Anglo-Saxon tradition laid the groundwork for social and legal organization in England and the British colonies.

Understand how England got its Common Law out of local and social custom.

the origins of the Silk Road trading route from Europe across the Middle East and Asia to China; the connections between cultures and religions (Christian, Muslim, Buddhist) across the area between Europe and China; movement of people, goods, and ideas

The first of the world’s great pandemics was the Black Death.
Skills & Procedures
Explain the significance of Charlemagne’s rule in the medieval era.

Ask questions:
  • Why would a person become someone else’s vassal or servant?
  • Why is Joan of Arc considered a heroine in history?
  • Who didn’t consider her a heroine and why?
Explain the changes in the law in medieval England.

Ask a question:
  • Is the tale of Robin Hood real or fiction?
  • Did he rob from the rich and give to the poor?
Retell the story of Marco Polo’s journey to the Orient and back and what he discovered in the Far East.

Compare the Black Death with later pandemics, including the Spanish Flu and COVID-19.
Quebec under British rule (1760–1776): Royal Proclamation, Quebec Act, Peace of Paris, and conciliation with Canadiens (French Canadians)
Consideration and treatment of the conquered French Canadians was a matter of necessity because Canadiens made up the vast majority of the population.
Skills & Procedures
Examine the evidence: Governor Guy Carleton’s (Lord Dorchester’s) reasons for recommending and supporting the Quebec Act
Louis Riel, Métis nationhood, and the suppression of the Red River and North West resistance (1869–1885): Métis leader Louis Riel, Head of Buffalo Hunt Gabriel Dumont, and two uprisings in 1869–1870 (Red River) and 1885 (Saskatchewan)

Métis scrip was an attempt by the government to compensate Métis for the loss of land base through their acquisition of Rupert’s Land. Very few Métis were successful in exchanging scrip for land.

Following Riel’s death, the Métis fled west to what is now Alberta and as a result many Métis live in the province today.
Métis leader Louis Riel was a controversial figure—revered as a hero by French Canadians, admired by Métis, yet at the time labelled a traitor and radical of the Western Frontier.

Métis were displaced as a result of the purchase of Rupert’s Land. Métis were displaced from their homelands in Manitoba and faced challenges in trying to settle further west.

Alberta is home to the only recognized Métis settlements in Canada.
Skills & Procedures
See history through different eyes: Why did the federal government consider Riel a traitor? Why would Métis and French Canadians regard him as a hero?

Explore the challenges that Métis faced in moving to Alberta. Research experiences of Métis in attempting to apply for and receive scrip.

Identify the eight Métis settlements in Alberta.
Acadians and Indigenous peoples: the “Grand Dérangement” (Expulsion of the Acadians, 1755) and the Great Law of Peace (1763) – Proclamation Line and recognition of Indigenous land rights in interior and North West
Thousands of French settlers were expelled with revolution brewing in the American Thirteen Colonies (known as “Le Grand Dérangement” or “the Great Upheaval”). It was immortalized in Longfellow’s poem, “Evangeline.
Skills & Procedures
Construct a timeline listing the events that marked the Acadian deportation and resettlement.
Alberta’s Francophone history:
  • explorers/voyageurs/​guides/interpreters
  • French main spoken language
  • Francophone immigration
  • French-speaking newcomers came from French Canada, New England, and other French-speaking countries in Europe
Catholic missionaries and many clerics founded towns where Francophone colonizers settled, including Vegreville, Plamondon, Morinville, Legal, Beaumont, and Rouleauville (Calgary).

minority language rights:
  • French-speaking Métis upheld French language rights and Francophones gradually moved to Alberta from Quebec and other provinces.
  • The first French settlement (1872) was established at Lamoureux; in the 1890s, French settlers were attracted by Father Jean-Baptiste Morin; and by 1898 the population around Edmonton numbered 2,250 first language French-speakers.
Father Lacombe (1827–1916), priest and pioneer

language rights – Manitoba Act (1870), North West Territories Act (1875), and F. W. G. Haultain and Alberta rights, 1886–1891
Francophones contributed to the establishment of the province of Alberta today.

The Francophone community remains a vibrant and significant part of the Alberta landscape.

French settlements, distinct from Métis communities, grew up around Edmonton from 1877 to the late 1890s.
Skills & Procedures
Create a timeline retracing Alberta’s Francophone history.

Identify Francophone contributions to Alberta history.

Compare the different local histories of St. Albert and Edmonton (still distinct) with Rouleauville and Calgary (the Calgary enclave was absorbed into the Mission District because it was the home of the French Catholic mission, but street signs provide clues to its French Catholic origins).

Cause and effect: What minority rights were extended in the Manitoba Act and what was the impact?
American War of Independence (1776–1783):
  • divided loyalties – American revolutionaries (Republicans/Patriots) and United Empire Loyalists (Loyalists/Tories)
  • Loyalist influence and Tory values – monarchy, respect, responsible government
The British sought to secure peace and loyalty of the Indigenous peoples with the promise of land rights.

The United States is an independent republic born out of a revolution, while British North America (Quebec and Canada) took a different path, maintaining close ties with Britain, “the mother country.”
Skills & Procedures
Ask questions: What is the basis for the First Nations claim to much of the land beyond the settled area of New France?

Critical thinking: What makes Canadians unique when compared with Americans and the British? What do we have in common with each?
great wave of immigration and settlement – the “Last Best West” campaign (1896–1905), arrival of Galicians/Ukrainians (Dr. Joseph Oleskiw and sponsored steamship voyages, 1895–1900, and Alberta promoter, John Plypow, Lamont, 1894)

gold rush and opening of the Klondike: gold discovered at Bonanza Creek, Yukon Territory, 1896, rush of 40,000 prospectors, depletion of gold deposits, closing of last mine, 1966

creation of the province – origin and terms of the Autonomy Act (1905), creating Alberta and Saskatchewan; Alberta’s F. W. G. Haultain fought for responsible government and favoured a larger Province of Buffalo

Black settlement in Alberta: early trek from Oklahoma into Canada, settling in Amber Valley (1909), Junkins (Wildwood), Keystone, and Campsie, Alberta; pioneer stories of Jefferson Davis Edwards and Agnes Leffler Perry; arrival of the Ku Klux Klan (1920s); racism and eventual disappearance of Amber Valley (1940s to 1971); success stories – lawyer Violet King and teacher Gwen Hooks

Early Chinese Canadian Pacific Railway workers and pioneers paved the way for further migrations, settling in larger centres. By 1910, Calgary, Edmonton, Medicine Hat, and Lethbridge all had Chinese districts. Most Chinese immigrants faced anti-Chinese sentiment and established local businesses, including stores and laundry services. The life story of former Edmonton football star Norman (Normie) Kwong (The China Clipper) and his family is a testament to their success.
Alberta experienced a slow, gradual transition to provincial status influenced by the advance of western settlement.

The “Last Best West” was the Canadian government’s European immigration campaign slogan under Wilfrid Laurier, promising free land for thousands of settlers.

The Klondike gold rush opened up the Yukon and people came through Alberta. It showed the hard realities of a boom-and-bust mining economy.

Joining the Dominion was the option favoured by Ottawa, but there were other alternative proposals, including Haultain’s plan for a larger North West province.

Early experiences of newcomers, such as Black settlers, Chinese workers and Hutterite farmers in Alberta illustrate what it’s like to face hardships in a new country.

Racism, discrimination, and exclusion were everyday realities, especially in the 1920s and 1930s. Some Black Albertans overcame prejudice and achieved individual success. Many Chinese pioneers persevered and established successful local businesses.
Skills & Procedures
Examine advertisements of the Last Best West campaign (1896–1905). What attracted early farmers? Would such a plan for Alberta work today?

Examine photographs of gold seekers in the Chilkoot Pass and explore the life of “Klondike Kate,” Kathleen Eloise Rockwell, known as Queen of the Yukon.

Examine the evidence: Study the Alberta Act and Autonomy Bill (1905) and describe the actual boundaries of Alberta.

Assess the significance of the growth and disappearance of Amber Valley over the years using sources including “Black Settlers Come to Alberta,” Alberta Land of Opportunity, and “The black people in the middle of nowhere; The lost community of Amber Valley, AB.”

Research the family history of Norman (Normie) Kwong, 1929–2016, the son of Chinese immigrants from Taishan, Guangdong, China, who entered Canada in 1907 and paid the head tax. Explain how Normie and his family overcame prejudice and achieved success in Alberta.
symbols, emblems and flags of Canada: flags –Union Jack to Red Ensign to Maple Leaf (1964); coats of arms (Dominion, 1921, Alberta 1907/1980); national anthems – God Save the King/Queen (1744), Maple Leaf Forever (1867), Canada (1939); symbol – the poppy (Remembrance Day, November 11, 1918); and national animal emblem – the beaver (1975)
Changing symbols and emblems tell the story of Canada’s gradual evolution from a British colony to a self-governing Dominion and a more Canadian, less British society over time.
Skills & Procedures
Explain the significance: What do the changes in Canada’s flags tell us about the evolution of our nation?
resilience of the Hutterites: The German-speaking Christian Anabaptist group arrived in Alberta from the American Mid-West after the First World War, settling in little colonies, seeking freedom of worship and escape from enforced military service. The Hutterites wore traditional clothing, lived in separate communities, and faced discrimination and limits on further purchase of rural land.
The Hutterites came seeking refuge and religious freedom and survived, overcoming local resistance and discrimination.
Skills & Procedures
Research and report on what you learn about Hutterites in Alberta, their religious beliefs, social and cultural life, and the sources of the resistance to their settlements. How did the Hutterites manage to survive in villages near Magrath, Cardston, and Pincher Creek and eventually secure a place for themselves in Alberta?
the first mosque on the prairies – The first mosque built in Canada, was Al-Rashid Mosque in Edmonton, Alberta. It was erected in 1938 and was initiated by a Muslim woman, Hilwie Hamdon, with funds from Jews, Christians, and Muslims. The mosque was supported by Mayor John Fry. There were about 700 Muslims in Canada at the time. The Al-Rashid Mosque was built shortly after the first U.S. mosque in Ross, North Dakota.
The mutual support across religious lines and the architecture of the “onion dome” and “cupola dome” churches of the prairies can tell us a lot about the history of Alberta.
Skills & Procedures
Study photographs of the Al-Rashid Mosque (1938).

What’s distinctive about the mosque’s dome? Who was the architect? Which aspects of the building reflected Greek Orthodox and Ukrainian influences? Distinguish between “onion” and “cupola” domes?
Organizing Idea
Civics: Canada’s constitutional monarchy, democracy, rule of law, and citizenship are understood through knowledge of the origins and development of various contrasting political traditions and ideas.
Guiding Question
What are some of the ways we are governed that can be traced back to the ancient and medieval world?
Guiding Question
What were the earliest forms of government in Canada from New France to British colonial rule
Guiding Question
What shaped the government and politics of Alberta and makes the province unique?
Learning Outcome
Students understand the history of hereditary rulership (monarchy) and the origins of modern forms of democracy.
Learning Outcome
Students examine how government and society in New France were distinctly French and how it gradually evolved into a British system with its own governors, parliament, and courts.
Learning Outcome
Students explore the transfer of Rupert’s Land, Treaties, the establishment of a provincial government, and political ideas that advanced the development of Alberta.
early democracy:
  • origin of word democracy
  • Council of 500
  • male citizens and non-citizens (Athens)
evolution of the Roman tradition through kings/tyrants: There were several phases of Roman government that are important for the origins of democracy, including kings, Roman Republic (consuls, senate and assemblies), and empire (emperor, senate).
Athenian democracy worked to provide rights and representation and determined who was excluded from citizenship.

The Romans practised different forms of government at different times, first rule by kings/tyrants, then a form of democracy during the Republic, and finally Imperial rule with some elements of monarchy (emperors) and some elements of democracy (senate).
Skills & Procedures
Draw a diagram illustrating democracy in ancient Athens.

Explain the difference in the systems of government between the Roman Kingdom, the Roman Republic, and Imperial Rome.
government in New France: King, Minister of Marine and Colonies, Governor, Bishop, and Intendant (Count Frontenac, 1672–1698), Bishop François Laval (1659–1688), and Intendent Jean Talon (1665–1672), captains of militia – colonial rule by correspondence, playing card money (Jacques de Meulles, 1685), women’s horsemeat protest (les femmes Québecoises, 1757)
French colonial government was top-down from the King in France to the Governor (New France) ruling in cooperation with the Sovereign Council, the Catholic Bishop and the Intendant (colonial administrator) and sparked periodic protests
Skills & Procedures
Identify the weaknesses in the government of New France. How effective was it in making changes or responding to troublesome issues? How long did it take to get a decision?
transfer of Rupert’s Land to the Dominion of Canada (1869) and its impact on Alberta – a new frontier for Western expansion, controlled by Ottawa, 1869–1905

Treaties and reserve system: The British Crown negotiated treaties with First Nations peoples in Alberta territory – Treaty 6 (Central Alberta, Carlton and Fort Pitt, 1876); Treaty 7 (Southern Alberta, Blackfoot Crossing, Fort Macleod, 1877), and Treaty 8 (Northern Alberta at Lesser Slave Lake, 1899). Three treaties, 45 First Nations on 140 reserves, covering 812,771 hectares of reserve land

Treaties are living documents that still apply today and are a foundational part of Alberta.

struggle for provincial rights: Frederick W. G. Haultain and the struggle for self-government – the first clash with Ottawa – the Haultain Resolution (1892) and amendments, status as advocate of responsible government in Alberta
What is now Alberta was transferred from the British Crown to the Dominion Government in Ottawa, a step on the road to territorial self-government.

First Nations and the Crown each had reasons for the signing of treaties.

Each treaty is unique and included provisions related to land use and rights.

All people living in Alberta are Treaty people.

Prominent member of the Territorial Legislative Council, Frederick W. G. Haultain of Fort MacLeod, Alberta, challenged British Colonial Office representative Lieutenant-Governor Edgar Dewdney, and campaigned for “responsible government” – a government accountable to the people’s elected representatives.
Skills & Procedures
Identify the extent and boundaries of Rupert’s Land at the time of the transfer to Canadian government administration.

Make a chart showing the three major treaties in Alberta, the main date and location of the signing, the region covered, and provisions included within each treaty and representative nations.

Discuss the meaning of “We are all Treaty people.”

Weigh differing viewpoints: Does Frederick W. G. Haultain deserve more recognition as the father of responsible government in Alberta?
medieval social order: feudalism, kings, queens, lords, and loyalties of people as subjects

crown, monarchy, and the rise of Parliament in England (Magna Carta, 1215)
Hereditary rulers and bonds of loyalty held medieval society together.

The common people (noble citizens) secured democratic rights and responsible government.
Skills & Procedures
Identify the profound influence of hereditary rulers and the clan system.

Ask questions:
  • Was the Magna Carta the beginning of English democracy through Parliament?
  • Why did kings need the consent of the nobles to govern (money to fund wars and costs of court, dynastic stability)?
British monarchy and parliamentary democracy:
origin of English charter of democratic rights, terms of Magna Carta (1215), immediate impact in England (King is responsible to council of barons), and contribution to democracy, law, and human rights in Canada

The Magna Carta safeguarded these rights: access to swift justice, protection of church rights, no new taxes without permission, limits on feudal dues/taxes, and protection from unfair imprisonment.

first English council of 25 barons established to watch over the King, and ensure the rights of Magna Carta were respected, eventually becoming the House of Lords in Parliament of England (like the Senate in Canada)

The Great Law of Peace is the constitution on which the Iroquois Confederacy was founded.
The essential principles of liberty in the English-speaking world and the origins of Parliament can be traced back to the Magna Carta (Latin for Great Charter).

The Magna Carta made the King (monarch) accountable to a council of barons representing the people, and influenced governments around the world.

One of the two Houses of Parliament, the appointed Upper House (Senate of Canada) is a legacy of the Magna Carta.

The Great Law of Peace set out how the confederacy would be governed, how conflicts would be resolved, and how peace would be upheld.
Skills & Procedures
Examine the evidence: Study some key age-appropriate clauses of the Magna Carta (1215) that would still be relevant today. Why are such ideas as protection from unfair imprisonment still important today?

Compare and contrast the Magna Carta and the Iroquois Confederacy Great Law of Peace.

Weigh viewpoints: Was the Magna Carta a lasting legacy in Canada?
provincial government in Alberta: established following first election (1905), with a small Provincial Assembly of 25 seats and some 25,336 voters, which expanded to 59 seats and 298,087 voters in 1921, when the United Farmers of Alberta (UFA) took power
The Alberta Legislative Assembly is based in Edmonton, the provincial capital, and the province is governed by a Premier in Council (with his cabinet), based upon the British parliamentary system. Unlike the federal government, there is only one legislative body, not two (House of Commons and Senate), as in Ottawa.
Skills & Procedures
Discuss and debate: “One House of Assembly is all Alberta needs to provide sound and effective government.”
Organizing Idea
Geography: Understanding the world we live in, and the relationship of people and places, is supported by knowing features of the natural and political world, such as oceans, mountain ranges, and boundaries.
Guiding Question
Where did the earliest civilizations of the Middle East, Europe, and Asia originate?
Guiding Question
Why is geographic knowledge essential for understanding historical changes, movements of people, and the spread of colonies around the world?
Guiding Question
How does geographic knowledge support understanding of Alberta’s past and present?
Learning Outcome
Students describe ways that ideas, beliefs, religion, and cultural practices spread back and forth between the Middle East, Africa, Europe, and Asia, and eventually to other places around the world.
Learning Outcome
Students locate and discuss how geographic locations of colonies, exploration routes, migrations of people, and changing boundaries is important in understanding past and present developments.
Learning Outcome
Students examine people, places, locations, and boundaries related to Alberta over time.
geographic location and extent of ancient Greece, ancient Rome, Islam, and medieval Europe

Judaism, Christianity, and Islam originated in the Middle East and North Africa, and spread from there into Asia, Europe, and eventually the world to become world religions.

continents, oceans and seas, equator, hemispheres, poles, coasts, valleys, grasslands, desert, oasis
spatial relationships among places in the ancient world and in medieval Europe
Skills & Procedures
Draw a map of ancient Greece (Athens, Sparta, Mediterranean Sea, Aegean Sea, Ionian Sea).

Trace the expansion of Islam, beginning in 622 AD.

Identify and explain landform features in areas under study.
First Nations and Inuit communities lived across North America at the time of French European contact.

exploration routes to the Pacific coast: routes of James Cook (1768–1778), George Vancouver (1792–1793), Alexander Mackenzie (1793), David Thompson (1799–1800), and Simon Fraser (1807)
Indigenous peoples lived in many different places, spoke different languages, and had differing cultural practices.

Many major river systems in Western Canada got their names from early explorers.
Skills & Procedures
Interpret maps showing different Indigenous cultural and language groups across North America at the time of French European contact.

Locate the routes of early exploration in Western Canada.

Ask questions: Why are the major rivers named after European or American traders and explorers? What are the names of the rivers in the local Indigenous language?
The North West Territories was divided in 1882 into five administrative districts, including Alberta, Athabasca, Assiniboine East, Assiniboine West, and Saskatchewan.

Geographic locations can be described using specific positioning on the globe. Places in Alberta are located at meridians of longitude and parallels of latitude. Longitude starts at the Prime Meridian in Greenwich, UK (0 degrees longitude) and latitude starts at the equator (0 degrees latitude). The International Date Line is 180 degrees longitude. Time zones follow the meridians.

Alberta place names have a wide variety of origins and can be different in Indigenous languages.

Local place names with French origins include Lamoureux, Leduc, Lacombe, Bonnyville, Morinville, Beaumont, Trochu, Riviere-qui-Barre, and Vegreville.
The names of two of the five original districts became the official names of the two provinces of the Dominion in 1905, Alberta and Saskatchewan.

All places in Alberta, Canada, and the world have specific geographic locations on the globe, at intersection points of latitude and longitude.

Indigenous names for places help to explain their history and significance.

Alberta has approximately 2000 communities and natural sites with French-influenced names.
Skills & Procedures
Draw a map of the division of the North West Territories in 1882, showing the locations of each of the five districts and then draw the actual boundaries of the provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan as of their creation in 1905.

Test your geographic skills: Find the geographic locations of towns and cities in Alberta, including Edmonton, Calgary, Vegreville, Lloydminster, Lac La Biche, Banff, Brooks, and Pincher Creek.

Examine place names: Some local Indigenous language place names include Edmonton (Beaver Hills House, Cree), Calgary (Elbow, Blackfoot) and Fort Chipewyan (Land of Willows, Dene).

Identify the location of Francophone settlements and draw a map identifying the original French settlement towns.
migrations of people from across Europe to Britain (Germanic peoples, including Saxons, Angles, Jutes) and Norman Conquest of England

Genghis Khan and the Mongol Empire (1162–1227): largest land empire in human history

routes of European exploration and trade: travels of Marco Polo and early Eastern trade along the Silk Road from China to the West

The Silk Road originated as a network of trade routes connecting East and West, from the 2nd century BCE to the 18th century.

The Silk Road originated during the Han dynasty (207 BCE–220 CE) and was expanded by the Chinese imperial envoy Zhag Qian, as well as through military conquests.

The Great Wall of China was extended, in part, to protect the trade route.
People migrate from place to place for different reasons, including
  • fleeing conflict
  • seeking refuge
  • military campaigns
  • religious passion
rise and fall of the Mongol Empire (1162–1300): all-powerful ruler (autocratic ruler) governing without any limits

The Silk Road derived its name from the lucrative trade in silk that was carried out along its route. In addition to economic trade, it was also an important route for cultural exchange, including Chinese philosophy, religions (Buddhism), and innovations such as paper and gunpowder.
Skills & Procedures
Create maps showing migration routes of peoples during the Roman Empire.

Explain the scale and importance of the Mongol Empire in human history.

Draw a map of early trade and cultural encounters by tracing the journey of Marco Polo to China and back, and Zheng and the main trading routes and cities of the Silk Road.

Recognize and explain the origin of the two-way silk and spice trade with China and the Orient.

Describe some of the significant encounters between different peoples, either in person or indirectly through the goods they produced, along the Silk Road between Europe and Asia.
historical maps showing changing boundaries of New France (1610–1760) and British North America (1763, 1783, and 1815)
New France and British North America expanded and boundaries changed over time.
Skills & Procedures
Trace the changing boundaries of New France and British North America between 1610 and 1815.

Analyze the maps: Why did the colony of New France grow so slowly compared to the American Thirteen Colonies?
Landforms maps show the surface relief and elevations above sea level of physical features across the whole landscape, showing mountains, hills, valleys, passes, and small depressions (coulees).

Map scales provide a way of calculating distance from one place to another on a map, usually measured in either centimetres to kilometres or inches to miles.
Alberta is a province with vast plains, mountains, foothills, hills, and many lakes, rivers, and creeks. Elevations above sea level range from the lowest point at Slave River Valley (573 feet [175 metres]) to the highest point at Mount Columbia (12,294 feet [3,747 metres]).
Skills & Procedures
Calculate the change in elevation from Fort Chipewyan to the Crowsnest Pass in the Rocky Mountains. (That’s the kind of climb Alexander Mackenzie undertook by canoe and on foot in the 1790s.)

Use a map scale: Take out a map of Alberta or find one on the Internet with a map scale at the bottom. Calculate the distance in kilometres travelled by the North West Mounted Police from Regina to Duck Lake during the 1885 Métis uprising.
Organizing Idea
Economics: Knowledge of basic economic concepts, such as needs, wants, resources, labour, innovation, trade, and capital, will build toward an understanding of economic systems.
Guiding Question
How did bartering evolve to money exchange in order to better meet needs and wants through trade and business?
Guiding Question
How can available resources and products inform trade and choice, past and present?
Guiding Question
How are goods and services exchanged in trade?
Learning Outcome
Students examine the development of bartering into a system of money exchange and explore how businesses meet the needs of communities.
Learning Outcome
Students compare resources, products, and choice to trade in early colonies and present day Alberta.
Learning Outcome
Students examine trade and transportation and its influence on the distribution of goods and services, past and present.
Bartering is an exchange of goods or services without money.

Money has advantages over bartering by being more portable and by having an exact value.

Trading involves buying and selling goods or services.

Merchants and businesses sell goods and services to raise money to purchase other things.
basic economic concepts of trade and exchange, goods and services, bartering, money exchange, exports (leather goods, wool) and imports (silks, spices)

the mutual benefits of trade and exchange of goods/services, and potential problems in trade relations
Skills & Procedures
Play a game of bartering goods and services.

Draw a sketch of a barter exchange in the Silk Trade with China.

Read and interpret a pie graph showing share of trade (imports/exports) of various products.
Metropolis and hinterland is a way of describing the trade relationship between a mother country or dominant trading centre and outlying colonies, societies, or communities (Paris, France and New France, Montreal and the North West).

Main products of New France produced for export to France included furs, fish, whale blubber, and wheat.

Main staple products imported into New France from the mother country included ships, muskets, blankets, woolen goods, horses, pots, and metal goods.

Products produced in New France for local consumption included bread, maize (corn), oats, barley, peas, cattle.
New France supplied France with highly prized furs (beaver pelts), fish, and wheat (for bread) and imported most of its finished goods. The mother country limited the New France economy by supplying staple products.

The fur and fish trade were profitable for France and the colony was expected to produce products to feed the people: food, drinks, canoes, wooden goods, and wheat for bread.

The French trade system was triangular trade (mercantilism) linking France, New France, and the West Indies (sources of sugar, fruits, and vegetables).
Skills & Procedures
Draw a map diagram of triangular trade linking France, New France, and the French West Indies. Label the three-cornered trade flows and products going in and out of France.

Make a concept map to illustrate the production of goods in New France—for export and for home consumption. Show linkages between wheat and bread, cattle and leather goods.
balance of trade in the fur trade of the North West – a case study examining the Fort Chipewyan trade region, 1822 to 1899, signing of Treaty No. 8 (Patricia A. McCormack, Fort Chipewyan and the Shaping of Canadian History, 1788–1920s, 2010, Map, p. 5)

timeline of important events:
  • 1822 – first York Boats built at Fort Chipewyan
  • 1826 – Hudson’s Bay Company withdrew liquor from trading district
  • 1869 – Hudson’s Bay Company monopoly ended when Rupert’s Land surrendered to Canada
  • 1881 – small pox epidemic
  • 1882–1883 – Fort Chipewyan bypassed by HBC trail to Athabasca Landing
  • 1886 – Transportation by York Boats ended
  • 1887 – Great famine
  • 1893–1898 – Gold seekers passed through on route to Klondike
A balance sheet shows the difference between revenues coming in (for goods and services) in relation to expenses (costs going out) in a business or trading area. The balance sheet is directly affected by surrounding economic conditions and ups and downs caused by changing conditions.
Skills & Procedures
Make a balance sheet for trade at Fort Chipewyan from 1822 to 1898, plotting the ups and downs of total trade (profits vs. losses) in relation to the ups and downs of conditions.
Commodities are resources or goods produced by people (craftsmen and modern industries) and exported to other places.

silk and spice trade of the Mongol Empire, including ancient China
Societies develop natural resources and export to other places to sustain local economies.
Skills & Procedures
Compare the city state of Venice (in Marco Polo’s time) with Alberta today. Where did products go from Venice? Where do products go from Alberta? Draw lines on a map to compare.
Alberta has historically been a resource economy, producing goods, services, and ideas that people in the province, in Canada, and around the world need and want. Resources and products include oil and gas, coal, livestock, grains, food, honey, softwood.

Products exported include oil and gas, sulphur, cement, stone, minerals, and fuels.

discovery of oil at Leduc No. 1 and the post-World War 2 oil boom
The resources that Alberta produces have changed over time.
Skills & Procedures
Explain why Alberta is a leading resource-producing region and why its products are needed or wanted in other parts of the country or the world.

Compare the products produced in Alberta in 1945, 1980, and 2020.

How has Alberta’s economy diversified over time?

Why might it be good and necessary for the Alberta economy to continue diversifying in the future?
Transportation hubs are important to Alberta’s trade and economic activity and changed from the early years to modern times from waterway and railway centres to highway junctions and airports.
Changes in means of transportation can affect which places are transportation hubs as the Albertan and Canadian economy continues to diversify.
Skills & Procedures
Identify and compare major Alberta transportation hubs in 1800, 1900, and 2000.

Make a map of major Alberta transportation hubs and trace the changes in Alberta, over time. Where do they link to around Canada and the world?
earning money, saving, and investing: People work for a living, earning money in the form of income; save money for the future; and invest money in hopes of a profitable return.

Enterprising merchants and producers of goods/services demonstrate entrepreneurial abilities, creating opportunities for work.
Today, most people work for a living and are rewarded for their activities or paid for their business labour.

Employment is created by entrepreneurs in the form of jobs paying wages and salaries.
Skills & Procedures
Describe how a business provides jobs, goods, and services and can affect a neighbourhood.

Identify local businesses that help communities address needs and wants.
Organizing Idea
Financial Literacy: Responsible choices to build a thriving life for self, family, and society are supported by knowledge, skills, and understanding of earning, investing, spending, borrowing, and financial security.
Guiding Question
What do we need to know about shopping at the supermarket or local grocery?
Guiding Question
What are the essential principles and advantages of knowing the basics about making wise and responsible financial choices?
Guiding Question
Why is developing a business plan a good idea when managing an operation or planning a new project?
Learning Outcome
Students examine money and the value of goods that are vital when shopping for food and essential needs.
Learning Outcome
Students develop insights about wise management of what they have.
Learning Outcome
Students develop a business plan to support historical understandings of the construction of the Canadian Pacific Railway.
Being money wise is important when you go shopping for food and essential supplies.

Managing your money involves making a few decisions each day, including how much to keep for savings, drinks, and treats, and how much to share with friends.
Going shopping is a real-life situation that provides a test of how much you know and have learned about the value of money, what things cost, and how to make sound decisions about personal spending choices.
Skills & Procedures
Plan for a shopping trip. Make a shopping list, identify your household needs, review the weekly specials, and plan to stay within your spending limits.

Consider the cost of everyday things: How much is a chocolate bar? Milk? Bread? How much can be bought with $1, $10, $100?
Being “money smart” is a basic skill in today’s world and it’s important to be able to manage your own money and resources.
Building a foundation of good habits of caring for the things you have at an early age helps you to make the most effective use of your resources. Knowing the value of money and how to manage it is helpful in everyday home, school, and extra-curricular activities.

There are many ways of giving to others, regardless of whether you have money, but managing your money well can mean that you have more ways to share or donate to worthy causes.
Skills & Procedures
Personal money matters: What money is spent on you – per day, per week, over a month? What proportion goes to basic needs, entertainment, or fun activities? Do you stock up or save some things in case you need them later? Do you share with others?

Discuss how saving can start at an early age. An individual does not need to wait to have more money or be older to start saving money.
Features of a business plan include
  • type of business
  • description of business
  • costs
  • market
  • tracking of revenue and expenses
  • profit
Planning and managing: Using a business plan involves studying the benefits in relation to costs and helps businesses be more successful.
Skills & Procedures
Identify basic features of a business plan.

Explain how a business plan helps to guide decision making in a business or in carrying out a new project.

Asking questions: How is your family like or unlike a business (budgeting, costs, profit)?
Planning a meal involves shopping for food and involves making choices. A number of factors need to be considered, including price, quality, nutrition, and balance of diet.
Meal planning requires many considerations.
Skills & Procedures
Practise shopping at the supermarket and the grocery store. Make up a shopping list, set a limit for spending, and then purchase the items. How wise have you been in making your decisions?

Examine your purchases. Have you bought all the items? Did you stay within your limits? Are there examples of where you saved money in making purchases?
the value of saving – for desired purchases and for help during a “rainy day” (when losses are suffered and others need your help)
Saving is part of wise personal planning. It allows you to save-up for bigger purchases and also comes in handy during a “rainy day” or period of financial losses affecting you or your family members.
Skills & Procedures
Plan a party for your class with a budget of $100. How much would you spend for food so that everyone has enough? How much for fun activities? If you have money left over and it was yours to decide, what would you do with it?
A business plan is a document that summarizes plans to carry out projects over time. Plans normally include the following: type of business, description of business, costs (construction), market (potential customers), sources of revenue (funding, tickets), costs (land, rails, tracks, engineers, and workers), and possible profits.

Constructing the Canadian Pacific Railway (CPR) was the biggest business project at the time.
Developing a business plan helps to ensure the success of a business or a project, large or small, by assessing the potential benefits (gains) and possible costs (losses).
Skills & Procedures
Make a business plan to plan for the Construction of the Canadian Pacific Railway (1881–1885). It will be a risky plan to effectively manage resources and keep initial losses to a minimum. What are the costs and the benefits in economic and human terms?

Choose a contemporary example of government support for regional development. Why do governments provide support?
Paying for goods and services: Money (currency and bank notes/dollar bills/credit cards) are used to purchase goods today. Flashback – Bartering goods/products led to the introduction of money.

Spending money: Consumers today have plenty of choice, far more than in colonial times: spend (on cars or iPhones), save (for a house), invest (in a company), and donate (to a charity/good cause).

Choosing to keep some money for yourself for later (pay yourself first) before you spend it can be an important first step to prudent money choices and a wise lifelong habit.
Choice related to money involves trading one thing for another.

The outcome of a choice related to money may have consequences that can be both intended and unintended.

Borrowing money to buy goods carries risks as well as rewards. Lending money is the same. Borrowing more than you can afford is unwise.
Skills & Procedures
Make a list of the many forms of money in today’s economy: coins, bills, plastic, electronic.

Ask a question: What happens when a colony/province/family lives beyond its means (borrows money and spends more than it earns in income)?