great wave of immigration and settlement – the “Last Best West” campaign (1896–1905), arrival of Galicians/Ukrainians (Dr. Joseph Oleskiw and sponsored steamship voyages, 1895–1900, and Alberta promoter, John Plypow, Lamont, 1894)
gold rush and opening of the Klondike: gold discovered at Bonanza Creek, Yukon Territory, 1896, rush of 40,000 prospectors, depletion of gold deposits, closing of last mine, 1966
creation of the province – origin and terms of the Autonomy Act (1905), creating Alberta and Saskatchewan; Alberta’s F. W. G. Haultain fought for responsible government and favoured a larger Province of Buffalo
Black settlement in Alberta: early trek from Oklahoma into Canada, settling in Amber Valley (1909), Junkins (Wildwood), Keystone, and Campsie, Alberta; pioneer stories of Jefferson Davis Edwards and Agnes Leffler Perry; arrival of the Ku Klux Klan (1920s); racism and eventual disappearance of Amber Valley (1940s to 1971); success stories – lawyer Violet King and teacher Gwen Hooks
Early Chinese Canadian Pacific Railway workers and pioneers paved the way for further migrations, settling in larger centres. By 1910, Calgary, Edmonton, Medicine Hat, and Lethbridge all had Chinese districts. Most Chinese immigrants faced anti-Chinese sentiment and established local businesses, including stores and laundry services. The life story of former Edmonton football star Norman (Normie) Kwong (The China Clipper) and his family is a testament to their success.