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Science is a human endeavour in which curiosity, creativity, and perseverance are used to obtain a deeper understanding of the natural world. Science includes the interconnected disciplines of physics, chemistry, biology, Earth science, astronomy, and computer science. Science is a self-correcting way of knowing about the world that uses cyclical and iterative scientific methods to develop and refine scientific knowledge. Scientific methods include formulating scientific questions and hypotheses, then investigating them through objectively observing, collecting, and analyzing data to formulate conclusions and explanations based on evidence. Scientific knowledge refers to objective, evidence-based observations and explanations of testable phenomena that are accepted by the scientific community. Scientific knowledge is organized according to classification systems and subject to change when new evidence is presented. Science includes the critical thinking skills, scientific knowledge, and civic literacy required to respond to relevant personal, societal, and environmental issues. Science knowledge is enriched through the shared contributions of people from diverse cultures and perspectives. Science is essential in developing innovative ideas and solutions to address local and global challenges now and in the future.
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Organizing Idea
Matter: Understandings of the physical world are deepened through investigating matter and energy.
Guiding Question
How can properties of an object be distinguished from one another?
Guiding Question
How can properties of an object be altered?
Guiding Question
How can the suitability of materials be determined?
Learning Outcome
Children examine properties of natural or constructed objects.
Learning Outcome
Students analyze properties of natural and constructed objects and investigate how they can be changed.
Learning Outcome
Students investigate the properties of materials and relate them to a purpose.
Knowledge
An object is anything that can be perceived using senses.

Properties of objects include
  • colour
  • size
  • shape
  • texture
Understanding
Properties are distinctive characteristics of natural and constructed objects.

Properties can be identified and described.
Skills & Procedures
Discuss how objects can be similar in some ways but different in others.
Knowledge
Objects take up space and have mass.

Measurable properties of objects include
  • size
  • length
  • area
  • mass
Properties can be identified and described.
Understanding
Properties are distinctive characteristics of natural and constructed objects.
Skills & Procedures
Ask questions about objects and identify properties.

Describe the properties of objects using words or numbers.
Knowledge
Materials are substances used to form objects.
Understanding
Materials can be combined in a variety of ways to build an object.
Skills & Procedures
Identify the materials used to make various objects.

Diagram the steps taken to create an object for a specific purpose.

Combine materials to create an object for a specific purpose.
Knowledge
The five senses are
  • sight (eyes)
  • touch (skin)
  • hearing (ears)
  • smell (nose)
  • taste (tongue)
Senses can be used to determine properties.

Properties determined by the sense of sight can include
  • colour
  • size
  • shape
  • texture
Properties determined by the sense of touch or by holding can include
  • texture
  • shape
  • temperature
  • weight
Properties determined by the sense of hearing can include sound.

Properties determined by the sense of smell can include scent.

Tastes can include
  • sweet
  • sour
  • bitter
  • salty
  • umami (savory)
Understanding
Properties of natural and constructed objects can be explored through the five senses.
Skills & Procedures
Describe the properties of objects using a specific sense.

Use accurate vocabulary when describing properties.
Knowledge
Tools used to examine properties of objects and materials can include balance scales and magnifying glasses.


Understanding
Properties of objects can be safely examined using various tools.
Skills & Procedures
Directly compare the properties of size, length, area, and mass of various objects.

Use various tools safely when investigating objects.
Knowledge
Properties of materials that can be compared include
  • transparency
  • absorption of water
  • malleability
  • reflection
  • length
  • mass
Understanding
Materials have properties that can be observed, described, tested, and/or measured.
Skills & Procedures
Test properties of various natural and processed materials.

Measure the length and mass of various objects using non- standard measurement.
Knowledge
Properties that can be used to sort, categorize, or order objects include
  • colour
  • size
  • shape
  • texture
Understanding
Objects may be sorted, categorized, or ordered based on their properties.
Skills & Procedures
Describe properties of various objects.

Sort various objects by properties.

Experiment with the properties of shape and size by building structures using various objects.
Knowledge
Physical properties that have the ability to be changed can include
  • size
  • length
  • shape
  • texture
Understanding
Some physical properties of objects can be changed.
Skills & Procedures
Observe and describe a variety of physical changes in objects.

Experiment with changing physical properties of objects.
Knowledge
Natural materials are those that come from plants, animals, or the ground.

Processed materials are made by humans.
Understanding
Materials are natural or processed.

All processed materials must be derived from natural materials.
Skills & Procedures
Sort various materials as natural or processed.
Knowledge
Two objects may be the same size yet one may be heavier or lighter than the other.
Understanding
Objects may be similar in one or more properties yet be different in another property.
Skills & Procedures
Compare and contrast objects that have common or similar properties.
Knowledge
Actions that change the physical properties of an object, but do not alter its composition, can include
  • bending
  • twisting
  • stretching
  • cutting
  • breaking
Not all objects respond the same way to bending, twisting, stretching, cutting, or breaking.
Understanding
The composition of an object remains the same when it undergoes physical changes.
Skills & Procedures
Predict how physical properties can be changed through bending, twisting, stretching, cutting, or breaking.

Explain why bending, twisting, stretching, cutting, or breaking does not affect the composition of an object.
Knowledge
The same kind of object can be made from different materials.

Objects created from natural materials by First Nations, Métis, and Inuit can include
  • Dene birchbark baskets
  • Métis travois
  • canoes
  • Inuit scraping tools such as an ulu
Understanding
Natural and processed materials are used to make a variety of objects that serve a variety of purposes.
Skills & Procedures
Identify natural and processed materials that could be used for a specific purpose.

Identify a common object or structure that can be made from different materials.

Identify natural materials used by local First Nations, Métis, or Inuit and relate their use to a specific purpose.
Knowledge
Knowledge of the properties of materials and their purpose is important in many occupations, including
  • carpenter
  • builder
  • tailor
  • engineer
  • designer
  • architect
First Nations, Métis, and Inuit use of materials is informed by
  • traditional knowledge
  • time of year
  • availability of materials
  • practices of sustainability
Understanding
The purpose of an object influences the choice of materials used to produce it.

Some materials are more suitable than others for making a product.


Skills & Procedures
Compare the properties of materials, natural and/or processed, to determine what material is best for a specific purpose.

Explain the relationship between suitability of materials and purpose.

Select a material and use it to create an item for a specific purpose.

Discuss choice of material based on availability and sustainability.
Organizing Idea
Energy: Understandings of the physical world are deepened through investigating matter and energy.
Guiding Question
How can humans, animals, and objects move?
Guiding Question
How can movement of objects be understood?
Guiding Question
Where do light and sound come from and how do they move?
Learning Outcome
Children explore movement of humans, animals, and objects.
Learning Outcome
Students investigate the direction, pathway, and speed of moving objects.
Learning Outcome
Students investigate the source, pathway, and behaviour of light and sound.
Knowledge
Objects move in various ways, including
  • straight line
  • curve
  • circle
  • back and forth
  • zigzag
  • up and down
  • fast and slow
Understanding
Movement is a change in an object’s position that happens over time.
Skills & Procedures
Observe and describe movement of objects using appropriate vocabulary.

Describe objects that move.

Describe objects that do not move.
Knowledge
Aspects of movement that can be observed and described include direction, pathway, and speed.
Understanding
Movement of objects can be observed and described.
Skills & Procedures
Observe and describe the movement of objects.
Knowledge
Sources of light include
  • the Sun
  • electricity
  • fire
  • living organisms (bioluminescence)
Sources of sound include anything that produces sound vibrations, such as
  • musical instruments
  • speakers and headphones
  • vocal cords of humans and animals
  • objects hitting each other
Understanding
The sources of light and sound can be identified.
Skills & Procedures
Identify sources of light and sound.
Knowledge
Movement of humans, animals, and objects can include
  • flying
  • crawling
  • hopping
  • swimming
  • jumping
  • climbing
  • dancing
  • sliding
  • walking
  • running
Most humans and animals are capable of moving themselves.

Understanding
Humans, animals, and objects move in various ways.
Skills & Procedures
Observe and imitate how animals move.

Identify, using appropriate vocabulary, how animals and humans move.
Knowledge
Directions of movement can include
  • up
  • down
  • forward
  • backward
  • sideways
  • toward
  • away from
Understanding
Movement occurs in different directions and can occur over different distances.
Skills & Procedures
Describe the direction of movement using appropriate vocabulary.
Knowledge
Volume, duration, and pitch are characteristics of sound.

Sound is caused by vibrations of objects and air.

Vibration is a rapid back-and-forth movement.
Understanding
Sound is produced by an interaction between objects or substances that causes vibration.

Change in the rate of vibration can alter pitch.
Skills & Procedures
Explain how a change in vibration results in a change in sound.
Knowledge
Reasons for human and animal movement include
  • seeking food and water
  • exercise and play
  • escaping danger
  • survival
  • following the seasons
Understanding
Humans and animals move for several reasons.
Skills & Procedures
Examine the reasons that animals and humans move.
Knowledge
Movement pathways can be
  • straight
  • curved
  • spiral
  • side-to-side
Understanding
A movement pathway is the path an object or animal follows when it moves.

Movement pathways can vary.
Skills & Procedures
Observe, describe, and record the movement of objects along different pathways.
Knowledge
Characteristics of materials that affect the production of sound vibration can include
  • size
  • texture
  • shape
  • type
Understanding
Vibrations can produce different sounds depending on characteristics of materials.
Skills & Procedures
Experiment with the production of sound using various materials or substances.

Test a variety of materials that can produce vibrations.


Knowledge
Speed can be
  • constant
  • changing
  • stopped
  • fast
  • slow
Understanding
Movement occurs at different speeds.
Skills & Procedures
Describe the speed of movement using appropriate vocabulary.
Knowledge
Sound vibration travels through a variety of materials, including air, water, and solid materials.

Sound vibration travels in all directions and reflects off different surfaces.

Characteristics of materials that may amplify or muffle sound vibrations include
  • size
  • texture
  • shape
  • type
Understanding
Movement, including sound vibration, can be transferred from one object to another.

Sound vibrations can be amplified or muffled by the characteristics of materials they come into contact with.
Skills & Procedures
Build a simple device to amplify or muffle sound.
Knowledge
Objects can move in different ways, including
  • rolling
  • bouncing
  • swinging
  • flying
  • gliding
  • sliding
Understanding
Movement of objects occurs in a variety of ways.
Skills & Procedures
Perform trials to determine how objects move.
Knowledge
Light can move in various ways, including
  • in a straight line from its source
  • through bouncing off a surface (reflection)
  • through bending as it travels from one material to another (refraction)
  • through splitting into colours (dispersion)
Some objects allow light to move straight through them (transparent).


Objects that affect the movement path of light can include mirrors, water, and prisms.

Understanding
Objects can affect the movement path of light.
Skills & Procedures
Perform simple experiments to determine how the movement path of light is affected by a variety of materials.
Knowledge
Factors that influence movement of objects include
  • shape
  • materials
  • surface
  • pathway
  • interactions with other objects
Wheels can make things easier to move.
Understanding
Movement of objects is influenced by a variety of factors.
Skills & Procedures
Demonstrate how the movement of objects can be influenced.
Organizing Idea
Earth Systems: Understandings of the living world, Earth, and space are deepened through investigating natural systems and their interactions.
Guiding Question
What makes up my environment?
Guiding Question
In what ways are elements of the environment interrelated?
Guiding Question
What is important about our planet, Earth?
Learning Outcome
Children examine and describe the surrounding environment.
Learning Outcome
Students analyze the environment and explain how its elements interact and change.
Learning Outcome
Students investigate Earth, its landforms, bodies of water, and relationship to the Sun.
Knowledge
Environments can be experienced using sight, hearing, smell, and touch.

Environments can include plants, animals, and humans.

Environments can include human-made structures such as buildings and roads.

Environments can include land, water, and air.

Environments can range in size.
Understanding
Environment refers to physical surroundings.

Environments can be explored, observed, and wondered about.
Skills & Procedures
Use senses to make observations about environments.

Ask questions about the surrounding environment.




Knowledge
The four seasons in Alberta include
  • summer
  • autumn
  • winter
  • spring
Some places have two seasons, rainy and dry.

Understanding
Changes in the environment include seasonal changes.
Skills & Procedures
Observe seasonal changes in the environment.

Observe the same local environments over time.

Monitor and document signs of seasonal change over time.

Share personal experiences with seasons.
Knowledge
Components of Earth include
  • land
  • water
  • air
  • plants, animals, and humans
At this time, Earth is the only planet known to support life.

Scientists are looking for life on other planets and moons.
Understanding
Earth consists of many components that support life.
Skills & Procedures
Identify and represent various components of Earth.

Discuss how the various components of Earth interact to support life.
Knowledge
Objects in the environment can be natural or constructed by humans.
Understanding
Environment is a shared space where objects are found.
Skills & Procedures
Identify objects found in nature and those constructed by humans within the local environment.
Knowledge
Seasonal changes in the appearance of the environment can include
  • snow covering the ground
  • snow melting
  • the surface of lakes and other bodies of water freezing
  • the frozen surface of lakes and other bodies of water breaking up
  • river flow
  • water levels in rivers and lakes
Seasonal changes in the appearance of plants and animals can include
  • camouflage in animals
  • leaves changing colour and falling
  • flowers blooming
  • crops and plants greening and growing
  • crops and plants ready for harvest
Understanding
Seasonal changes are related to the appearance of the environment.

Seasonal changes in an environment are related to the appearance of the plants and animals that inhabit it.
Skills & Procedures
Relate the changes in appearance of plants and animals to the seasons.

Relate the changes in appearance of an environment to the seasons.

Relate the seasonal changes of appearance in an environment to the seasonal changes of appearance in plants and animals.

Draw an environment in different seasons to show the ways the environment changes.
Knowledge
A landform is a natural feature of the Earth’s surface.

Landforms in Alberta include
  • plateaus
  • plains
  • mountains
  • valleys
  • hills
  • foothills
  • canyons
  • prairies
Understanding
Earth’s surface consists of various types of landforms.
Skills & Procedures
Identify landforms that are local or within the province.

Apply appropriate vocabulary when describing landforms.
Knowledge
Environmental changes can include day, night, and weather.
Understanding
Changes can be observed in the environment.
Skills & Procedures
Observe a variety of local environments over time.

Record observations of changes in the environment.
Knowledge
Migration is the regular, usually seasonal, movement of an animal population to and from a given area.

Hibernation is a deep sleep that helps animals to save energy and survive the winter without eating much.

Animals that hibernate in winter include bears, squirrels, and bats.

Animals that migrate include
  • whales
  • geese
  • polar bears
  • butterflies
  • caribou
Understanding
Seasonal changes can affect the behaviour of animals, including migration and hibernation.
Skills & Procedures
Investigate animal behaviour throughout the seasons, including migration and hibernation.

Knowledge
Reasons for feeling a connection to a place or landform can include that its name
  • is in one’s first language
  • describes characteristics
  • reflects history or significance
  • has special personal meaning
  • is significant to personal background
Understanding
Names of places and landforms can hold meaning.

Names of places and landforms can be descriptive or observational.

Names of places and landforms in an environment can lead to feelings of connection.
Skills & Procedures
Explain personal connections to names of places and landforms.

Identify local landforms and bodies of water in local Indigenous language.
Knowledge
Components of natural environments can include
  • plants
  • animals
  • humans
  • land
  • water
  • air
Understanding
Natural environments consist of many different components.
Skills & Procedures
Represent a local natural environment.
Knowledge
Seasonal changes may affect clothing choices, recreational activities, and transportation.
Understanding
Understanding seasonal changes in the environment can help people make decisions about daily activities.
Skills & Procedures
Describe how seasonal changes affect decisions about daily activities.
Knowledge
Landforms that may hold many names can include mountains, rivers, and lakes.

Names for places and landforms may be connected to cultural
  • relevance
  • practices
  • stories
  • songs
In Stoney language, Calgary is Wichispa Oyande, which translated means “elbow town.”

In Cree language, Edmonton is amiskwaciy-wȃskahikan, which translated means “beaver hill house.”
Understanding
There may be many names for the same specific landform in an environment.
Skills & Procedures
Discuss the origin of different names for the same landform in a local environment or in Alberta.

Discuss the meaning of traditional Indigenous place names, including those for Calgary and Edmonton.
Knowledge
Ways to protect the environment include
  • reducing waste
  • reusing
  • recycling
  • not littering
Understanding
Components of the environment are important and should be cared for and treated with respect.
Skills & Procedures
Discuss the importance of caring for and treating the environment with respect.

Demonstrate respect and care while interacting with the environment.

Identify a way to protect the environment.
Knowledge
Sudden changes in the environment can include
  • storms
  • floods
  • fires
  • wind changes
  • temperature changes
Understanding
Environments can undergo sudden changes.
Skills & Procedures
Share personal experiences related to sudden changes in the environment.
Knowledge
Characteristics of a landform include slope, size, or terrain.

Slope is the length and gradient of the land.

Sloped landforms can include
  • valleys
  • glaciers
  • slides
  • badlands
  • mountains
Terrain refers to the features of the surface of a piece of land.

Terrain can be described as
  • hilly
  • rocky
  • tundra
  • forest
Understanding
Landforms on Earth have varying characteristics.
Skills & Procedures
Compare various landforms on Earth’s surface.
Knowledge
Physical locations, objects, and experiences can foster connections to natural environments.

Ways First Nations, Métis, and Inuit communities connect with nature can include
  • hunting
  • gathering
  • trapping
  • fishing
  • ceremonies
  • cultural traditions
Understanding
Natural environments can lead to feelings of connection as people appreciate and see beauty in them.

For First Nations, Métis, and Inuit, ways of living are related to the land.
Skills & Procedures
Identify natural environments that lead to personal feelings of connection.

Reflect on what is personally considered to be beautiful in natural environments.

Discuss connections First Nations, Métis, or Inuit have with nature.


Knowledge
The five senses are
  • sight (eyes)
  • touch (skin)
  • hearing (ears)
  • smell (nose)
  • taste (tongue)
Understanding
Environments are observed and understood using senses.
Skills & Procedures
Share personal observations of the environment.

Describe various environments, drawing from information gathered through the senses.



Knowledge
Bodies of water on Earth’s surface include
  • oceans
  • glaciers
  • lakes
  • wetlands
  • rivers
Bodies of water in Alberta include
  • glaciers
  • lakes
  • wetlands
  • rivers
Water flows downhill from smaller bodies of water to larger bodies of water in the following ways:
  • small creeks flowing downhill and merging to form small streams
  • small streams merging to form larger streams and rivers
  • streams and small rivers merging to form larger rivers
  • larger rivers merging into major waterways such as oceans
Understanding
Earth’s surface is mostly covered by bodies of water.
Skills & Procedures
Research and identify local and provincial bodies of water.

Diagram steps demonstrating how water flows from small creeks to the ocean.

Create a model to represent various types of landforms and bodies of water.
Knowledge
The responsibility to care for the environment is fulfilled by showing respect for and protecting all aspects of nature.

The sense of responsibility of many First Nations, Métis, and Inuit can be connected to place, traditional knowledge, and practices for future generations.
Understanding
A sense of responsibility toward nature can promote care for the environment and conservation.
Skills & Procedures
Discuss benefits of spending time in natural environments.

Identify personal and group actions that help care for the local environment.

Discuss and reflect on First Nations, Métis, and Inuit community actions that illustrate a responsibility to care for the natural world.
Knowledge
Freshwater bodies can include
  • glaciers
  • most lakes
  • wetlands
  • rivers
Saltwater bodies can include oceans and seas.
Understanding
Water found on Earth can be either fresh or salt water.
Skills & Procedures
Identify bodies of water on Earth that contain salt water and fresh water.
Knowledge
Earth’s revolution around the Sun takes a year.

Earth’s rotation on its axis takes a day.
Understanding
Earth rotates on an axis and revolves around the Sun.
Skills & Procedures
Describe the relationship between Earth and the Sun.

Represent ways that Earth’s rotation connects to patterns of day and night.
Organizing Idea
Living Systems: Understandings of the living world, Earth, and space are deepened through investigating natural systems and their interactions.
Guiding Question
How do plants and animals survive?
Guiding Question
How do plants and animals live and grow?
Learning Outcome
Students investigate plants and animals and examine their needs.
Learning Outcome
Students investigate the growth and development of plants and animals and consider their relationship to humans.
Knowledge
Plants are living things that can grow, can make their own food, and usually cannot move from place to place.

Animals are living things that can grow, need to find food, and are usually able to move from place to place.

Plants and animals exist in all shapes and sizes.

Science classifies humans as animals.
Understanding
Plants and animals are living things.
Skills & Procedures
List examples of plants and animals native to Alberta and Canada.

Observe and describe similarities and differences between plants and animals.

Knowledge
Human behaviour that can positively affect plants and animals includes
  • reducing, reusing, recycling, and repurposing
  • recovering natural areas
  • protecting and not disrupting natural spaces
  • creating natural areas and parks
Human behaviour that can negatively affect plants and animals includes
  • littering
  • polluting
  • depleting resources plants and animals need to live
  • introducing plants and animals that are not native to the area
Understanding
Plants and animals can be affected by human behaviour.
Skills & Procedures
Discuss the importance of caring for and treating plants and animals in the environment with respect.

Demonstrate respect and care while interacting with plants and animals in various environments.

Explain the positive and negative impacts of human behaviour on plants and animals.

Knowledge
Basic needs of plants and animals include
  • food
  • water
  • air
  • shelter
Understanding
Plants and animals require an environment that allows them to meet their needs.
Skills & Procedures
Represent plants and animals in local and other environments.

Explain how an environment meets the basic needs of plants and animals.

Discuss the different ways local animals travel from place to place to meet their needs.

Describe personal experiences of how people take care of their plants and pets.
Knowledge
Plants’ or animals’ children are called offspring.
Understanding
Plants and animals have similar characteristics to their parents.
Skills & Procedures
Identify similarities between offspring and their parents.
Knowledge
Ways that plants and animals or their parts can be used include
  • food
  • clothing
  • shelter
  • tools
  • art
  • medicine
  • social/emotional connection
Understanding
People use plants and animals to meet their needs and wants.
Skills & Procedures
Discuss how people from various cultures use plants and animals to meet their basic needs.

Identify products made by various cultures that use plant and animal parts, including from local First Nations, Métis, or Inuit.
Knowledge
Ways to represent life cycles can include
  • illustrations
  • diagrams
  • models
  • stories
Understanding
Plants and animals have observable patterns or stages in their development that can be represented by life cycles.
Skills & Procedures
Represent the life cycles of various plants and animals.

Compare life cycles of various plants and animals.

Discuss observations about life cycles of various plants and animals.
Knowledge
Some First Nations, Métis, and Inuit have perspectives that consider plants and animals to be equal to human beings.
Understanding
People have various perspectives about the roles of plants and animals.

Some First Nations, Métis, and Inuit practise taking only what is needed from the land, which can demonstrate care and consideration for the land and those around us.
Skills & Procedures
Identify ways of understanding and relating with plants and animals.

Discuss how taking only what is needed from the land reduces waste and limits negative impacts on the environment, plants, and animals.
Organizing Idea
Computer Science: Problem solving and scientific inquiry are developed through the knowledgeable application of creativity, design, and computational thinking.
Guiding Question
What are instructions?
Guiding Question
How can we follow and create instructions?
Guiding Question
How can creativity be used to ensure that instructions lead to the desired outcome?
Learning Outcome
Children interpret instructions in the learning environment.
Learning Outcome
Students investigate instructions and their influence on actions and outcomes.
Learning Outcome
Students apply creativity when designing instructions to achieve a desired outcome.
Knowledge
Instructions are directions that can be followed.
Understanding
Following instructions can help people be safe, complete a task, and know what to do.
Skills & Procedures
Recognize when actions do not correspond to instructions.

Match an action to the corresponding instruction.
Knowledge
Instructions take many forms, including verbal, visual, and written.
Understanding
The same instructions can be given in different forms.
Skills & Procedures
Follow instructions with two or three steps given in different forms.

Determine if the outcome of instructions given in different forms is the same or different.
Knowledge
Creativity is the ability to create something new or original.

Creativity can be used to design instructions for
  • games
  • sports
  • science experiments
  • recipes
  • computer programs
Understanding
Instructions are designed using creativity.
Skills & Procedures
Consider how creativity is used when designing instructions for games, sports, or science experiments.

Recognize and discuss how creativity can help generate new ideas, technology, tools, or products.
Knowledge
Contexts in which instructions are experienced can include
  • the home
  • learning environments
  • games
  • sports
  • science experiments
Understanding
Instructions explain how to do something in various contexts.
Skills & Procedures
Discuss the importance of following instructions.

Engage in activities that involve following instructions in various contexts.

Identify instructions that help keep people safe in various contexts.
Knowledge
Instructions that are ordered to achieve a desired outcome can include
  • directions
  • procedures
  • recipes
  • computer programs
  • safety protocols
Understanding
Instructions are ordered in a way that will produce a desired outcome.
Skills & Procedures
Determine if instructions with two or three steps given in different orders still produce the desired outcome.

Sequence two or three instruction steps to achieve a desired outcome.
Knowledge
Precise instructions can include
  • verbs
  • simple language
  • clear steps
  • a starting point
  • a stopping point
Understanding
Instructions must be created using precision in order to achieve the desired outcome.
Skills & Procedures
Describe instructions using precise words, pictures, or diagrams.
Knowledge
Instructions can be presented by
  • speaking
  • pictures
  • video recordings
  • gestures
Understanding
Instructions can be given in many ways.
Skills & Procedures
Engage in activities that involve following instructions presented in various ways.
Knowledge
People who create instructions can include
  • teachers
  • parents
  • students
  • computer programmers
Understanding
Instructions can be created by an individual or a group.
Skills & Procedures
Exchange ideas to create three-step instructions that achieve a desired outcome.
Knowledge
Reliability of instructions means they consistently lead to the same desired outcome.

Efficiency of instructions refers to designing in a way that yields desired outcomes with the least amount of wasted energy, time, or steps.

The reliability and efficiency of instructions can be affected by
  • form
  • order
  • language used
  • repetition
Understanding
How instructions are created and communicated may or may not affect the outcome.

Reliability and efficiency are important components of instructions.

Skills & Procedures
Predict the outcome of instructions that have three to four steps.

Discuss the reliability and efficiency of a set of instructions.

Refine instructions to more efficiently achieve a desired outcome.

Knowledge
Instructions have one or more steps.
Understanding
Instructions are followed in the order given.
Skills & Procedures
Follow a sequence of two steps related to a learning experience.

Identify the differences in outcomes when the order of two steps is changed.

Verbally communicate a sequence of two steps for a given purpose.
Knowledge
Not following instructions during science investigations can be dangerous.
Understanding
Following instructions can help to ensure safe and respectful behaviour during investigations.
Skills & Procedures
Demonstrate safe and respectful behaviour by following instructions during investigations.
Knowledge
Daily activities that include repeated steps or instructions can include
  • brushing teeth in a repeated motion
  • tying one shoe and then using the same process on the other
  • creating repeating patterns
Understanding
Instructions may be simplified by repeating steps.
Skills & Procedures
Describe a situation in which repetition simplifies instructions.
Knowledge
Debugging is the process of identifying and removing errors in a set of instructions to achieve the desired outcome.
Understanding
Instructions may not always achieve the desired outcome.
Skills & Procedures
Test a three- to four-step sequence to verify that the desired outcome is achieved.

Remove or debug any errors in a set of instructions to achieve the desired outcome.

Knowledge
Many activities at school and in the workplace require creative collaboration to improve ideas.
Understanding
Creativity and problem solving can be enhanced through practice and collaboration with peers.
Skills & Procedures
Discuss advantages of collaboration when engaging creatively to solve problems.

Exchange ideas to design clear three- to four-step instructions, including repetition, to achieve a desired outcome.
Organizing Idea
Scientific Methods: Investigation of the physical world is enhanced through the use of scientific methods that attempt to remove human biases and increase objectivity.
Guiding Question
What is investigation?
Guiding Question
What methods and processes can be used in scientific investigation?
Learning Outcome
Students engage in and describe investigation.
Learning Outcome
Students examine investigation and explain how it is influenced by purpose.
Knowledge
Scientists perform investigations to answer questions.
Understanding
Investigations are carried out as a way to try to understand the world.
Skills & Procedures
Discuss why investigation is important in science.
Knowledge
Procedures scientists use to guide investigations can include
  • asking questions
  • making predictions
  • planning the investigation
  • observing and recording data
  • analyzing data
  • reaching conclusions
  • discussing observations and conclusions
Understanding
Investigations have systematic procedures to guide the study of natural phenomena.
Skills & Procedures
Reflect on how purpose and planning influence an investigation.

Make various predictions based on questions to be investigated.

Test predictions by observing and recording data.
Knowledge
Investigation can involve
  • asking a question
  • making predictions about what the answer will be
  • gathering information
  • forming conclusions
Understanding
There are steps to be followed during an investigation.
Skills & Procedures
Ask a question and make a prediction about what the answer will be.

Carry out a simple investigation with guidance.

Describe the process of investigation using pictures and oral communication.
Knowledge
Being objective means not being influenced by personal thoughts, feelings, or expectations.

Techniques that scientists use to remain objective can include
  • recording accurate observations
  • choosing appropriate tools
  • carefully measuring
  • basing conclusions on facts and data
Understanding
Investigation in science involves collecting and analyzing data objectively to form conclusions.
Skills & Procedures
Carry out simple investigations in an objective manner using appropriate tools and techniques.
Knowledge
Observations can be gathered using the senses.

Ways to record data include
  • words
  • pictures
  • numbers
  • colour-coding
Understanding
Investigation involves making observations and recording them as data.

Observations may be recorded as data in many ways.
Skills & Procedures
Gather observations using various senses to answer questions.

Use a provided template to record observations as words, pictures, numbers, or colours.
Knowledge
Data that can be combined includes observations and counts.

Data that can be combined must be collected using similar procedures.
Understanding
Data from investigations can be combined.
Skills & Procedures
Collaborate to compile recorded data into a single list or chart.
Knowledge
Scientists keep records of data using
  • record books
  • computers
  • recordings (sound and video)
  • photographs
Understanding
Accurate recording of data can ensure observations can be referenced in the future.
Skills & Procedures
Use recorded data to reflect on an investigation.
Knowledge
Scientists may perform an investigation many times or compare with others to make sure results are similar.

Repetition of an investigation includes performing the same procedure using the same materials in the same context.
Understanding
Results of investigations should be consistent if repeated by another scientist.
Skills & Procedures
Compare observations and data with others.
Knowledge
Anyone can learn the skills and knowledge required to become a scientist and carry out an investigation.

People who carry out investigations can include
  • teachers
  • students
  • scientists
  • detectives
  • doctors
Talking to local scientists can help develop understanding of the local environment and beyond.
Understanding
Investigations can be performed by individuals or groups.
Skills & Procedures
Discuss the role of the scientist or a person in a science-related activity.
Knowledge
All recorded observations should relate to the purpose of an investigation.
Understanding
The purpose of investigations is to find answers to specific questions.
Skills & Procedures
Relate observations to the purpose of the investigation.
Knowledge
Investigation includes safety and respect toward
  • people
  • plants
  • animals
  • environment
Understanding
Investigation requires safety and respect.
Skills & Procedures
Demonstrate safety and respect during investigations.
Knowledge
Creative scientific processes can include
  • asking questions
  • connecting to scientific knowledge
  • planning ways to problem solve
  • designing
  • inventing
  • trial and error
Understanding
Creative scientific processes can be used during investigation to solve problems and to learn.
Skills & Procedures
Apply creative scientific processes during investigation.
Knowledge
Scientists perform investigations to satisfy curiosity, solve a problem, or meet a need.
Understanding
Investigations can be sparked by curiosity.
Skills & Procedures
Generate questions about natural phenomena.