Alberta Logonew LearnAlberta

Science

Collapse All

Science is a human endeavour in which curiosity, creativity, and perseverance are used to obtain a deeper understanding of the natural world. Science includes the interconnected disciplines of physics, chemistry, biology, Earth science, astronomy, and computer science. Science is a self-correcting way of knowing about the world that uses cyclical and iterative scientific methods to develop and refine scientific knowledge. Scientific methods include formulating scientific questions and hypotheses, then investigating them through objectively observing, collecting, and analyzing data to formulate conclusions and explanations based on evidence. Scientific knowledge refers to objective, evidence-based observations and explanations of testable phenomena that are accepted by the scientific community. Scientific knowledge is organized according to classification systems and subject to change when new evidence is presented. Science includes the critical thinking skills, scientific knowledge, and civic literacy required to respond to relevant personal, societal, and environmental issues. Science knowledge is enriched through the shared contributions of people from diverse cultures and perspectives. Science is essential in developing innovative ideas and solutions to address local and global challenges now and in the future.
More Info
Collapse All
Prev
Collapse All
 
Grade 3
Grade 4
Grade 5
Next
Organizing Idea
Matter: Understandings of the physical world are deepened through investigating matter and energy.
Guiding Question
How can materials change?
Guiding Question
How can materials be managed safely?
Guiding Question
How can states of matter and other physical properties be explained using the particle model of matter?
Learning Outcome
Students investigate and analyze how materials have the potential to be changed.
Learning Outcome
Students investigate management of waste materials and describe potential personal and environmental impacts.
Learning Outcome
Students investigate the particle model of matter to describe the physical properties of solids, liquids, and gases.
Knowledge
Natural materials are any product or physical matter that comes directly from plants, animals, or the ground.

Processed materials are modified from natural materials and do not occur in the natural world.

Processed materials have been designed and manufactured for a particular purpose.

First Nations, Métis, and Inuit communities respectfully use natural materials, including
  • trees
  • rocks
  • ice
  • shells
  • plants
  • animals
First Nations, Métis, and Inuit communities use natural materials for particular purposes, including
  • lodges
  • tipis
  • iglus
  • medicines
  • teas
  • clothing
  • tools
Understanding
Materials exist in natural and processed forms.

Use of materials for First Nations, Métis, and Inuit traditional knowledge is guided by balance and harmony with the land.
Skills & Procedures
Identify examples of natural and processed materials.

Diagram the steps of how a natural material is processed to make a new material.

Compare natural and processed materials.

Discuss how use and selection of materials is guided by relationships with the land for First Nations, Métis, and Inuit communities.
Knowledge
Methods of waste management can include
  • using landfills
  • combusting
  • composting
  • recycling
Waste materials may be solids, liquids, or gases.
Understanding
Waste materials should be managed responsibly based on potential impact.

New materials created from natural materials can produce waste that must be carefully managed to protect the environment.
Skills & Procedures
Research the environmental impact of different methods of waste management.
Knowledge
Ideas represented by the particle model of matter include the following:
  • All matter is made up of tiny particles.
  • Particles of matter are always moving.
  • Particles of matter have spaces between them.
Understanding
All matter is made up of small particles.

The particle model of matter represents the arrangement and behaviour of particles in solids, liquids, and gases.
Skills & Procedures
Represent solids, liquids, and gases using the particle model of matter through words, drawing diagrams, constructing models, and/or performing role plays.
Knowledge
Three states of matter are solid, liquid, and gas.
Matter can change state if heated or cooled.
Understanding
Materials can be changed to alter their state.
Skills & Procedures
Safely perform simple experiments to demonstrate the three states of matter by heating and cooling water.

Discuss examples of daily activities that include heating and cooling.
Knowledge
Symbols are used to identify dangerous materials.

Hazard symbols used to identify dangerous materials can include
  • explosive
  • flammable
  • corrosive
  • poisonous
Dangerous materials may be solids, liquids, or gases.
Understanding
Some natural and processed materials may be dangerous and can be harmful to individuals’ health and to the environment if misused or disposed of unsafely.
Skills & Procedures
Identify dangerous products or materials used at home, at school, and in the community.

Interpret consumer chemical hazard symbols.

Explain the importance of safe disposal of dangerous materials as a way to minimize pollution to soil, water, and air.

Specify practices that individuals can follow to ensure personal and community safety from dangerous materials.
Knowledge
In solids, the particles are close together and vibrate in place.

In liquids, the particles are separated by spaces and are able to slide past each other.

In gases, the particles are separated by large spaces and are constantly moving in all directions.
Understanding
The movement and arrangement of the particles determines the state of matter of a substance.
Skills & Procedures
Relate the arrangement and behaviour of particles to the state of matter.
Knowledge
A solid is a state of matter that has a definite shape and volume.

A liquid is a state of matter that has a definite volume but no definite shape.

A liquid flows and takes the shape of the container it is in.

A gas is a state of matter that has neither definite shape nor definite volume.

A gas flows easily and expands to the size of the container it is in.

Volume is the amount of space a solid, liquid, or gas takes up.
Understanding
Solids, liquids, and gases have definite properties.
Skills & Procedures
Discuss solid, liquid, and gas states of matter in terms of shape and volume.
Knowledge
Ways to reduce the environmental impact of waste materials can include
  • reducing
  • reusing
  • recycling
  • repurposing
  • repairing
Understanding
People can make choices that reduce the environmental impact of waste materials.
Skills & Procedures
Apply knowledge of recycling, reusing, reducing, repurposing, and repairing materials to develop a personal plan to reduce waste.

Research local programs for recycling, reusing, reducing, repurposing, and repairing materials.

Represent the recycling process using diagrams.

.
Knowledge
Attractive forces between particles are strongest in solids and weakest in gases.
Understanding
Attractive forces exist between particles.
Skills & Procedures
Describe the impact that attractive forces have on movement and arrangement of particles in solids, liquids, and gases.
Knowledge
Melting is a change of state from solid to liquid.

Freezing is a change of state from liquid to solid.

Evaporation is a change of state from liquid to gas.

Condensation is a change of state from gas to liquid.

The temperature at which a material changes from solid to liquid is called the melting point.

The temperature at which a material changes from a liquid to a solid is called the freezing point.

The melting and freezing points of a material are the same temperature.

The temperature at which a material changes from liquid to gas is called the boiling point.

The melting/freezing point of water is 0ºC.

The boiling point of water is 100ºC.
Understanding
Materials can be described by their unique physical properties of melting/freezing and boiling points.
Skills & Procedures
Research and compare the melting/freezing and boiling points of various materials, including water.
Knowledge
Physical properties of matter include
  • mass
  • volume
  • density
  • compressibility
Mass is the amount of matter in a solid, liquid, or gas.

Mass is measured in kilograms (kg).

Volume of a liquid is usually measured in litres (L).

Density is a measurement that compares the mass of a solid, liquid, or gas to its volume.

The greater the mass of a solid, liquid, or gas as compared to its volume, the higher its density.

Density can be described using the phrases
  • high density
  • low density
  • more dense
  • less dense
Compressibility is the ability of a liquid or gas to be reduced in volume when under pressure.
Understanding
The arrangement and movement of particles affects the physical properties of matter.
Skills & Procedures
Measure the mass of solids and liquids using a balance scale and standard units of measurement.

Measure the volume of liquids using appropriate instruments and standard units of measurement.

Compare the density of different solids and liquids using qualitative language.

Account for differences in densities of solids, liquids, and gases using the particle model of matter.

Compare the density of objects of similar volumes using appropriate vocabulary.

Engage in scientific investigations on the compressibility of air.

Practise safe and appropriate use of materials, tools, and equipment.
Knowledge
In the water cycle, liquid water evaporates into water vapour, condenses to form clouds, and precipitates back to Earth.

Water in the environment can change state from solid to liquid and back again.

Water in the environment can change state from liquid to gas and back again.
Understanding
The water cycle is a process of change in which water on Earth moves continuously between bodies of water, land, and the atmosphere.
Skills & Procedures
Describe and diagram the changes of state of water in the environment using the water cycle.
Knowledge
A reversible change is a change that can be undone.

A permanent change is a change that cannot be undone.
Understanding
Changes to materials can be permanent or reversible, depending on the properties of the given materials.
Skills & Procedures
Discuss examples of changes to materials that are permanent and examples of changes to materials that are reversible.

Classify changes to materials as permanent or reversible.
Organizing Idea
Energy: Understandings of the physical world are deepened through investigating matter and energy.
Guiding Question
How can forces relate to changes in movement?
Guiding Question
How can forces affect objects from a distance?
Guiding Question
How are forces similar and different in water and air?
Learning Outcome
Students investigate and explain how forces affect movement of objects.
Learning Outcome
Students investigate how forces can act on objects without contact.
Learning Outcome
Students investigate and compare how forces affect living things and objects in water and air.
Knowledge
Newton’s first law of motion states that an object that is at rest will stay at rest until some force makes it move; and an object that is in motion will stay in motion until a force stops it.
Understanding
A force is a push or pull upon an object resulting from an interaction with another object or substance.
Skills & Procedures
Describe where forces may exist in everyday situations.

Perform simple experiments to demonstrate Newton’s first law of motion through observing, starting, or stopping the movement of an object.

Knowledge
Non-contact forces occur between objects that are not in direct contact.

Non-contact forces occur because of attraction or repulsion.

Understanding
Non-contact forces are invisible forces that can affect objects and materials.
Skills & Procedures
Describe how non-contact forces interact with objects.
Knowledge
Each force that acts in water or air has an opposite force that works against it.
Understanding
Forces affect the movement of objects differently in water and air.
Skills & Procedures
Identify opposite forces that act on objects in water and air.
Knowledge
Contact forces include forces that
  • are exerted by a person or an object upon another object (applied)
  • oppose the movement of objects when they come into contact with other objects or surfaces (friction)
  • are exerted by pulling on a string or rope connected to an object (tension)
  • are exerted by a compressed or stretched elastic object or spring upon any object that it is in contact with (elastic or spring)
Ways to apply a contact force to an object include
  • stretching
  • pulling
  • squeezing
  • pushing
Understanding
Contact forces occur between objects touching each other.
Skills & Procedures
Conduct investigations regarding the effects of friction, tension, applied force, and elastic or spring forces on the movement of objects.
Knowledge
Non-contact forces include magnetism and gravity.

Magnetism is the property of attracting or repelling magnetic materials.

Gravity on Earth pulls all objects toward the ground.

Understanding
Non-contact forces are caused by a specific source that can be identified.
Skills & Procedures
Identify the source of non-contact forces.

Perform simple experiments that demonstrate the effect of gravity on an object.

Knowledge
The four forces that act on the movement of living things and constructed objects in the air are
  • thrust
  • drag
  • lift
  • weight
Thrust is a force that acts in the direction of movement in the air.

Drag is a force that acts opposite to the direction of movement in the air.

Lift is an upward force that acts to overcome the weight of an object and hold it in the air.

Weight is a force caused by gravity that acts in a downward direction.
Understanding
There are four forces that act on the movement of living things and constructed objects in the air.
Skills & Procedures
Diagram, using relevant scientific vocabulary, how forces act on living things or constructed objects that fly through the air.

Explain how the opposite forces of thrust and drag affect the movement of living things and constructed objects that fly.

Explain how the opposite forces of lift and weight affect the movement of living things and constructed objects that fly.
Knowledge
Vocabulary used to describe the strength of a force can include strong and weak.

Vocabulary used to describe the direction of a force on an object can include
  • upward
  • downward
  • from the left
  • from the right
  • from both sides
  • from all directions
Understanding
A force is characterized by its direction and strength.
Skills & Procedures
Describe forces using vocabulary representing both direction and strength.
Knowledge
Magnetic materials contain iron, cobalt, or nickel.
Understanding
Some materials are attracted to a magnet and can become magnetized.
Skills & Procedures
Conduct investigations regarding the push and pull of magnetism on objects.

Create a magnet using a non-magnetized object.
Knowledge
The principles of flight affect several things, including
  • speed
  • horizontal or vertical movement
  • level of flight
  • straight and level flight
  • pitch, roll, and yaw
Human fascination with flight has resulted in advancements in technologies informed by principles of flight.

Traditional technologies developed by diverse cultures that reflect understanding of forces of flight include
  • atlatl
  • bow and arrow
  • slingshot
  • catapult
Understanding
The principles of flight explain how the four forces act in combination and affect the movement of living things and constructed objects that fly through the air.
Skills & Procedures
Pose questions related to the principles of flight.

Conduct investigations that demonstrate various forces of flight.

Explain how forces of flight affect the movement of living things and constructed objects that fly.

Describe examples of traditional and modern technologies developed by diverse cultures that reflect understanding of forces of flight.

Examine careers related to technologies based on the scientific principles of flight.

Knowledge
The effects of force can include a change in the
  • shape of an object
  • size of an object
  • movement of an object
Understanding
Forces can affect the properties and movement of objects in different ways.
Skills & Procedures
Predict how different forces and directions of forces could affect stationary objects.

Perform simple experiments to demonstrate how forces can change the shape and/or size of objects.

Describe interactions between objects when a force is applied.
Knowledge
Properties that can affect how a non-contact force acts on an object include the object’s mass and the type of material it is made from.

Strength of non-contact forces decreases as objects get farther apart.
Understanding
The effects of forces on objects depends on the properties of materials.

Strength of non-contact forces depends on the distance between objects.

Non-contact forces may act through certain materials.

Skills & Procedures
Experiment with factors that influence the force of a magnet, including distance and properties of materials.


Knowledge
Buoyant force is an upward force exerted by a liquid that opposes the weight of a partially or fully immersed living thing or object.

Buoyancy is the tendency of something to rise or float in a liquid.

The behaviour of an object in water includes floating (positively buoyant), sinking (negatively buoyant), and remaining at the same level (neutrally buoyant).
Understanding
The relationship between buoyant force and gravity affects the behaviour of an object in water.
Skills & Procedures
Analyze the results of a controlled experiment regarding why things float, sink, or remain at the same level in water using various substances and materials as variables.
Knowledge
Changes to an object’s movement when a force is applied include
  • speeding up
  • slowing down
  • starting
  • stopping
  • changing direction
Understanding
Forces can cause a change in an object’s movement.
Skills & Procedures
Predict how the movement of an object is affected by different strengths and directions of force.

Describe the effect of contact forces on the movement of objects.

Knowledge
Magnets have two poles.

Magnetic poles are known as north and south.

Opposite poles attract each other and like poles repel each other.

Both poles attract magnetic material.
Understanding
The poles of a magnet affect each other and magnetic material.
Skills & Procedures
Explain interactions between the poles of magnets.
Knowledge
Archimedes’ principle states that buoyant force is equal to the weight of water displaced.

Objects with the same volume, but a different mass, will displace the same amount of water.

Objects and materials that are less dense than the liquid in which they are placed will be buoyant.

Water displacement can be measured using standard units, including cubic centimetres (cm3) or millilitres (mL).
Understanding
Buoyancy and density are related.
Skills & Procedures
Explain the relationship between buoyancy and density.

Determine the water displacement of various objects using appropriate instruments and standard units.
Knowledge
The effect of a force can be investigated by observing and measuring the distance an object travels after a contact force.
Understanding
The effects of forces can be compared through observation and measurement.
Skills & Procedures
Test the effects of increasing forces on stationary objects.
Knowledge
Items that contain magnets include
  • refrigerators
  • computers
  • speakers and headphones
  • vehicles
  • MRI machines
  • musical instruments
Understanding
The capacity of magnetism to attract and repel can be useful in making common objects.
Skills & Procedures
Design a device that uses magnetism.
Knowledge
Design considerations for floating objects include density, stability, and streamlining.

Design considerations for flying objects include density, stability, streamlining, and aerodynamics.
Understanding
Forces must be considered when designing objects that must float or fly, as their effects can be changed by designing objects in different ways.
Skills & Procedures
Construct a device that can float and that meets performance criteria.

Construct a device that can move through air and that meets performance criteria.

Select materials that best suit the purpose and design of the model.

Revise a prototype based on feedback.

Practise safe and appropriate use of tools, equipment, and materials while making a device or measuring.
Knowledge
Simple machines can include
  • levers
  • wheels
  • axles
  • inclined planes
  • wedges
Simples machines are used to reduce the effort needed to lift or move objects.

Many First Nations, Métis, and Inuit have designed, tested, and continue to use simple machines that decrease effort, which can include
  • antler wedge
  • paddle
  • Inuit scraping tools such as an ulu
  • Métis travois
Understanding
The strength and direction of a force can be changed by simple machines.
Skills & Procedures
Represent contact force in relation to the use of simple machines through diagrams.

Demonstrate how simple machines work to reduce the effort needed to lift or move objects.

Design a device that uses simple machines.

Safely work with tools, materials, and equipment.

Research local First Nations, Métis, and Inuit simple machines and describe their purpose.

Guiding Question
What are energy resources?
Learning Outcome
Students investigate and analyze various energy resources.
Knowledge
Energy resources include
  • solar
  • wind
  • water and hydro
  • tidal
  • biomass
  • fossil fuels
  • geothermal
  • nuclear
Understanding
Energy resources can be used directly or transformed in useful ways for daily living.
Skills & Procedures
Compare various energy resources based on their characteristics.

Identify common objects in the classroom or at home that require energy resources to make or operate them.
Knowledge
Alberta’s principal energy resources include
  • fossil fuels
  • hydro
  • wind
  • biomass
Understanding
Availability of energy resources is based on the weather patterns and natural features of a location or an area.
Skills & Procedures
Explain the relationship between Alberta’s weather patterns, natural environmental features, and the province’s principal energy resources.

Examine principal energy resources in various provinces and territories throughout Canada.

Connect the principal energy resources in various provinces and territories to local weather patterns and natural environmental features.
Knowledge
Renewable energy resources include
  • solar
  • wind
  • biomass
  • geothermal
  • tidal
  • hydro
Non-renewable energy resources include fossil fuels and nuclear energy.
Understanding
Energy resources are renewable or non-renewable.
Skills & Procedures
Compare renewable energy resources with non-renewable energy resources.

Discuss and determine advantages and disadvantages of using renewable and non-renewable energy resources, including from economic, environmental, and climate change perspectives.

Demonstrate appropriate use of scientific vocabulary when discussing energy resources.
Organizing Idea
Earth Systems: Understandings of the living world, Earth, and space are deepened through investigating natural systems and their interactions.
Guiding Question
How are changes on Earth’s surface influenced by various factors?
Guiding Question
How does Earth sustain life?
Guiding Question
What is climate?
Learning Outcome
Students analyze and explain how the surface of Earth changes.
Learning Outcome
Students investigate the systems of Earth and reflect on how interconnections sustain life.
Learning Outcome
Students analyze climate and compare it to weather conditions.
Knowledge
Changes that can occur to Earth’s surface over a long period of time can include
  • mountains wear down
  • rivers change course
  • lakes and seas dry out and can reappear
  • glaciers move, advance, and recede
Events that can change Earth’s surface in a short period of time can include
  • volcanic eruptions
  • earthquakes
  • landslides
  • tsunamis
  • flooding
  • melting and freezing
Changes to Earth’s surface can be shared by First Nations, Métis, and Inuit through
  • stories
  • traditional knowledge
  • language
Understanding
Earth’s surface changes over time.

Relationships with land have provided intergenerational knowledge of landscapes for many First Nations, Métis, and Inuit.

Skills & Procedures
Describe how natural events change Earth’s surface.

Discuss changes to Earth’s surface over time in stories shared by or through intergenerational knowledge of First Nations, Métis, or Inuit.

Compare young mountain ranges to old mountain ranges.

Investigate natural events that have changed local landforms or landforms within the province of Alberta.

Knowledge
Systems of Earth include
  • land
  • air
  • water
  • organisms
Earth scientists call Earth’s systems the “spheres,” including
  • lithosphere (land)
  • atmosphere (air)
  • hydrosphere (water)
  • biosphere (organisms)
Understanding
Systems of Earth are interconnected to sustain life.

First Nations, Métis, and Inuit hold understandings of the interconnectedness of all living things.




Skills & Procedures
Research how human activity can impact the relationships between land, air, water, and organisms.

Represent the interconnectedness of land, air, water, and organisms.


Knowledge
Weather is the short-term conditions experienced in a region, including
  • temperature
  • wind speed and direction
  • amount of sunlight
  • precipitation
  • humidity
  • cloud cover
Climate is the average weather patterns of a region or place over a period of 30 years.

Understanding
Weather patterns over 30 years determine climate.
Skills & Procedures
Distinguish climate from weather.

Ask questions about the characteristics of local, national, and global weather conditions to determine climate.
Knowledge
In Alberta, the surfaces of most bodies of water change from liquid in summer to solid in winter.
Understanding
Surfaces of bodies of water can change between solid and liquid state.
Skills & Procedures
Investigate the conditions under which bodies of water can change state.

Discuss why it is important to be safe around bodies of water that have a surface of ice.
Knowledge
Sunlight is more direct at the equator.

The equator is warmer than the poles.

Sunlight is more direct and the length of daylight is longer in summer than in winter.


Understanding
Earth’s surface is warmed by the Sun, allowing for life.
Skills & Procedures
Explain how the amount of sunlight and warmth provided by the Sun throughout the year affects characteristics and behaviours of plants and animals in various locations on Earth.
Knowledge
Climates are dependent on
  • geographical location
  • terrain
  • altitude
  • nearby bodies of water
Types of climates include
  • tropical
  • dry
  • temperate
  • polar
Understanding
Climates vary across regions.
Skills & Procedures
Investigate key characteristics of tropical, dry, temperate, and polar climates, including temperature, precipitation, humidity, and wind.

Describe the weather patterns that contribute to Alberta’s climate.
Knowledge
Water or ice can move or remove material as it flows.

Current glaciers are the remnants of ice sheets that once covered all of Canada.

Ice sheets were up to 4000 m thick in Alberta about 18,000 years ago.

Melting glacier ice creates runoff that formed and helps maintain many of the major rivers in Alberta.

The Earth is warming up from natural and human causes, which is melting the remaining glaciers faster.
Understanding
Water can shape the landscape of Earth.
Skills & Procedures
Represent how the movement of water on Earth changes the landscape.

Represent how water flow starts with rain, melting snow, or a glacier, moves through different bodies of water, and drains into the ocean.

Identify glacier-fed rivers that are local or within Alberta.
Knowledge
Water is a basic need for plants and animals and provides habitat for many organisms.

For many First Nations, Métis, and Inuit, water is sacred, as it sustains life.

Understanding
Most organisms on Earth require water to meet their needs.

First Nations, Métis, and Inuit hold a sense of responsibility to protect water and sources of water.
Skills & Procedures
Discuss ways that plants and animals use water to meet their basic needs.

Research plants and animals that exist in various bodies of water.

Discuss the importance of water to First Nations, Métis, and Inuit and how it sustains life.
Knowledge
Data used to determine climate includes average
  • temperature
  • wind speed
  • precipitation
  • humidity
First Nations, Métis, and Inuit can bring long-term observations of climate for local context.

Understanding
Climate can be identified by analyzing long-term data and observations.
Skills & Procedures
Interpret data about climate represented in diagrams, maps, tables, or graphs.

Identify similarities and differences between the Alberta climate and the climates of other Canadian provinces.
Knowledge
Wind and water can interact to move or remove material, which changes a landscape.

Landscapes that have been shaped by interactions with wind and water include Alberta’s badlands and the Grand Canyon in the United States.
Understanding
Changes to Earth’s landscape can occur through interactions with wind and water.
Skills & Procedures
Describe how wind and water change landforms over time.
Knowledge
Changes made to one system that can impact another system can include
  • number of organisms
  • food sources
  • habitat
  • water cleanliness
  • migration patterns
  • weather patterns
Understanding
Changes in one of Earth’s systems can affect other systems.

Small changes to an environment can significantly impact organisms in that environment.
Skills & Procedures
Explain how changes made to one system can have impacts on other systems.

Research and discuss how Indigenous communities work alongside Parks Canada to further understand multisystem impacts.
Knowledge
Tools and methods to track weather conditions include
  • thermometers
  • wind vanes
  • windsocks
  • anemometers
  • barometers
  • rain or snow gauges
  • hygrometers
Websites and weather apps improve access to reliable weather information.

First Nations, Métis, and Inuit communities continue to rely on traditional knowledge to interpret and predict weather patterns.

Understanding
Weather conditions, within any climate, are measured and tracked using a variety of tools and methods.
Skills & Procedures
Construct simple weather instruments, such as
  • a wind vane
  • a rain gauge
  • a thermometer
  • a barometer
  • an anemometer
Record local weather, including temperature, wind speed and direction, amount of sunlight, precipitation, relative humidity, and cloud cover, for a given time interval using scientific tools and methods.

Represent local weather data using a journal, tables, charts, diagrams, or graphs.

Construct a sample weather map for a local region, indicating the temperature, wind speed and direction, precipitation, and cloud cover at a given time.
Knowledge
Human activities that can impact the land in positive and negative ways include
  • living on the land
  • building towns and cities
  • getting and using resources
  • farming
  • pollution
  • stewardship
Plant and animal activities that can shape landscapes include
  • overpopulation
  • using resources
  • parasites, such as the mountain pine beetle
  • plants or animals burrowing
  • beavers chewing down trees
Understanding
Human, animal, and plant activities can cause changes to land on Earth.
Skills & Procedures
Investigate how plants and the activity of animals change Earth’s surface.

Research how human activities have changed Earth’s surface.

Discuss the interconnectedness of human activities and responsibilities to maintaining Earth.

Knowledge
Natural resources include
  • air
  • water
  • soil
  • minerals
  • metals
  • organisms
Understanding
Earth’s systems include natural resources.
Skills & Procedures
Investigate natural resources found locally.
Knowledge
Climate affects various aspects of human activity, including
  • agriculture
  • infrastructure
  • clothing
  • transportation
  • recreation
Climate affects various aspects of animal activity, including
  • migration patterns
  • diet
  • timing of having offspring (reproduction)
Understanding
Climate has an effect on human and animal activity.
Skills & Procedures
Explain how climate can influence human and animal activity.
Knowledge
Landscapes on Earth contain layers that have been deposited over long periods of time.
Understanding
The history of landscapes on Earth can be explained through examining their layers.
Skills & Procedures
Examine how layers of Earth’s surface hold information about the past.
Knowledge
Conservation is the preservation and protection of Earth’s systems from pollution, depletion, or extinction.

Conservation can be informed by a variety of
  • methods
  • understandings
  • First Nations, Métis, and Inuit perspectives
  • processes
Understanding
Conservation can impact land, natural resources, and organisms.

Many First Nations, Métis, and Inuit practise traditional methods of conservation.
Skills & Procedures
Identify ways in which plants, animals, and land can be protected or maintained through conservation practices.

Discuss First Nations, Métis, and Inuit conservation practices that include giving and taking only what is needed.
Knowledge
Conservation agriculture practices include
  • minimally disturbing soil
  • maintaining soil covers
  • rotating crops
Conservation agriculture is a sustainable agriculture practice adapted to the requirements of the plants and animals being farmed and the local climate and environment of each region.

First Nations, Métis, and Inuit practise sustainable harvesting and protocols.
Understanding
Climate has an effect on agricultural practices.
Skills & Procedures
Relate plants and animals commonly used in Alberta agriculture production to climate.

Research how agricultural production, including agro-pastoral practices, contributes to daily life in Alberta.

Investigate how conservation is used in agricultural practice for the protection and maintenance of land.

Explain how First Nations, Métis, or Inuit practices relate to sustainable harvesting and protocols.
Knowledge
Soil includes
  • living plants and animals
  • decaying plants and animals
  • rock particles
  • air
  • water
Understanding
Soil is a continually changing upper layer of Earth’s crust in which plants grow.
Skills & Procedures
Examine soil in the local community.

Describe how soil helps plants and animals survive.
Knowledge
Conservation practices can be implemented in natural and cultivated areas.

Conservation involves creating parks, including
  • local
  • provincial
  • national
Understanding
Conservation aims to minimize disturbance and impact on plants, animals, and land.
Skills & Procedures
Identify examples of conservation practices in natural and cultivated areas.

Evaluate the benefits of creating provincial and national parks.

Discuss how to balance human use of parks and conservation of wildlife.
Knowledge
Methods used to predict weather include
  • computer modelling
  • historical data
  • satellite imaging
  • traditional knowledge
Understanding
Predictions of weather are very complex and are attempted using a variety of methods.
Skills & Procedures
Explain the importance of weather forecasts.

Investigate how computer modelling, historical data, satellite imaging, and traditional knowledge are used to predict the weather.
Knowledge
Habitat is a natural environment where a plant or an animal establishes a home.

Animals whose habitat is soil can include
  • worms
  • mice
  • gophers
  • rabbits
Understanding
Soil provides a habitat for many animals.
Skills & Procedures
Research animals in Alberta that spend all or part of their life underground.

Consider how animals that live underground change soil.
Knowledge
Conservation can be practised through actions around
  • use of electricity
  • use of water
  • reducing waste
  • daily life choices
Understanding
Conservation of Earth’s systems requires taking deliberate actions.

Conservation of Earth’s systems requires planning and design.
Skills & Procedures
Describe examples of personal actions that contribute to conservation in daily life.

Create a plan to implement a conservation practice in a local environment.
Knowledge
Observations of weather conditions and animal behaviour can be used to recognize patterns and cycles.

Patterns and cycles can be used to predict weather conditions.
Understanding
Intergenerational observations and accounts of place have enabled individuals and communities to recognize patterns and cycles related to weather and seasons.
Skills & Procedures
Examine how weather patterns and cycles can be used to predict weather conditions and animal behaviour.
Organizing Idea
Living Systems: Understandings of the living world, Earth, and space are deepened through investigating natural systems and their interactions.
Guiding Question
How do plants and animals interact?
Guiding Question
How are organisms designed for survival?
Guiding Question
How are organisms supported by biological processes and systems?
Learning Outcome
Students analyze and describe how plants and animals interact with each other and with the environment.
Learning Outcome
Students analyze organisms and relate their external structures to functions.
Learning Outcome
Students investigate the internal systems of organisms and explain how they support biological processes.
Knowledge
A food chain displays the order in which plants and animals depend on each other for food.

A food chain can be represented through an illustration, a diagram, a story, or words.

A food chain only represents one possible way that plants and animals interact.

Plants and animals are part of many different food chains.

Understanding
Plants and animals interact with each other in ways that can be represented by a food chain.
Skills & Procedures
Represent various food chains in local and other Canadian environments.
Knowledge
Micro-organisms include bacteria.

Ways to classify organisms can include
  • appearance
  • habitat
  • structures
Structures, including body parts, are features of organisms that serve a purpose or function.
Understanding
Organisms are individual animals, plants, or single-celled life forms.

Organisms can be classified in various ways.
Skills & Procedures
Find examples of local plants and animals and describe their appearance and habitat.
Knowledge
Complex organisms, including plants and animals, are made up of systems, and these systems are made up of organs.

Complex organisms evolved over time from simpler organisms.
Understanding
Organisms range in complexity.

Evolution over long periods of time leads to increasing complexity of organisms.
Skills & Procedures
Relate organisms, systems, and organs to each other.

Explain that complex organisms evolve over time from simpler organisms.
Knowledge
Carnivores eat only animals.

Herbivores eat only plants.

Omnivores eat animals and plants.
Understanding
Animals can be classified as carnivores, herbivores, or omnivores based on what they eat.
Skills & Procedures
Identify carnivores, herbivores, and omnivores in a food chain.
Knowledge
External structures of organisms can include
  • roots
  • stems
  • leaves
  • flowers
  • fruit
  • claws
  • teeth
  • legs
  • shells
  • skins
Understanding
Organisms have external structures.
Skills & Procedures
Represent the external structures of plants and animals.

Find examples of local plants and identify their external structures.

Classify plants and animals by external structures and appearance.
Knowledge
Vital biological processes of organisms (plants and animals) include
  • movement
  • nutrition
  • respiration
  • growth
  • reproduction
Understanding
A complex organism, such as a plant or an animal, is a form of life composed of interdependent systems that maintain vital biological processes.
Skills & Procedures
Make connections between biological processes.

Describe the interdependence of biological processes.
Knowledge
Sensory stimuli can include
  • water
  • food
  • temperature
  • light
Animals can use their senses to detect the presence of food, predators, or other members of their species.
Understanding
Plants and animals sense and respond to stimuli in order to survive.
Skills & Procedures
Investigate how plants and animals respond to stimuli in the natural environment.

Discuss how plants and animals respond to stimuli to survive.
Knowledge
Functions of structures in an organism can include eating, moving, and protecting.
Understanding
Organisms have structures that serve various functions.
Skills & Procedures
Compare structures of various plants and animals in relation to function.

Explain the relationship between external structures and function.
Knowledge
Human biological systems include
  • digestive system
  • respiratory system
  • circulatory system
  • musculoskeletal system
Understanding
Humans are organisms with systems that serve various functions.
Skills & Procedures
Research the function of the human digestive, respiratory, circulatory, and musculoskeletal systems.

Identify ways the digestive, respiratory, and circulatory systems work together to move oxygen and nutrients throughout the human body.
Knowledge
Actions that can be taken to protect plants and animals in the local environment include
  • respectfully interacting with natural environments
  • minimizing disturbance to plants and animals
  • being aware of animal crossings
  • following fishing and hunting regulations
  • counting and tracking populations
Understanding
Understanding the interactions of plants and animals in a particular environment helps us protect them.

Skills & Procedures
Reflect on actions that can be taken to protect plants and animals in the local environment.

Demonstrate respectful and safe practices during observations of plants and animals.
Knowledge
Movements supported by structures of organisms can include
  • flying
  • crawling
  • swimming
  • hopping
  • slithering
  • jumping
  • running
Understanding
Organisms have structures that support movement.
Skills & Procedures
Connect structures of various animals to movement.
Knowledge
The digestive system is a human biological system that includes the mouth, stomach, intestines, liver, and pancreas.

The respiratory system is a human biological system that includes the trachea, lungs, and diaphragm.

The circulatory system is a human biological system that includes the heart and blood vessels.

The musculoskeletal system is a human biological system that includes muscles and bones.
Understanding
Organs are structures in the human body that perform a specific function.
Skills & Procedures
Identify the digestive, respiratory, circulatory, and musculoskeletal systems of the human body and their major organs as represented in diagrams or models.

Create a simple diagram or model of a human body system and label the major organs.
Knowledge
Diverse plants and animals can be found in Canada’s
  • forests
  • prairies
  • lakes and rivers
  • mountains
  • oceans
Understanding
Plants and animals exist in variety and are dispersed over Earth.
Skills & Procedures
Investigate plants and animals in various environments in Alberta and Canada.
Knowledge
Ways that external structures support growth and survival include how plants and animals sense their environment and meet their needs.
Understanding
Organisms have external structures that support growth and survival.
Skills & Procedures
Describe how external structures are connected to survival.
Knowledge
Xylem and phloem in plants perform similar functions to the circulatory system in animals:
  • Xylem transports water and nutrients from the roots to the rest of the plant.
  • Phloem transports sugars from the leaves to the rest of the plant.
Understanding
Plants have transport systems, including xylem and phloem.
Skills & Procedures
Examine the transport systems of plants and describe their function.
Knowledge
Plants and animals may depend on each other for food and habitat.

First Nations, Métis, and Inuit knowledge of plants and animals can include
  • animal behaviour
  • diet
  • migration paths
  • patterns
Understanding
Plants and animals depend on each other and their environment to survive.
Skills & Procedures
Explain the interconnections in the environment, including how plants depend on animals and how animals depend on plants to survive.

Relate First Nations, Métis, and Inuit peoples’ connection with the environment to their knowledge of and relationships with plants and animals.

Organizing Idea
Space: Understandings of the living world, Earth, and space are deepened through investigating natural systems and their interactions.
Guiding Question
What are astronomical phenomena?
Guiding Question
How are astronomical phenomena observed and interpreted?
Learning Outcome
Students investigate and describe astronomical phenomena in connection to daily life.
Learning Outcome
Students investigate astronomical phenomena and various interpretations and understandings.
Knowledge
Objects in space include
  • the Moon
  • the Sun (a star)
  • stars and their planets
  • planets and their moons
Technologies for viewing astronomical phenomena can include
  • binoculars
  • telescopes
  • planetariums
Understanding
Astronomical phenomena are observable events that happen among objects in space.
Skills & Procedures
Record observations of stars, planets, the Sun, and the Moon, using protective equipment when necessary.

Compare technologies for viewing astronomical phenomena.
Knowledge
Astronomical phenomena include
  • seasonal changes
  • length of daylight
  • Moon phases
  • lunar and solar eclipses
  • lights (auroras)
Seasons are experienced during different months of the year in the northern and southern hemispheres of Earth because these regions of Earth are tilted toward the Sun at different times of the year.

Longer and shorter days are experienced during different months of the year in the northern and southern hemispheres of Earth because these regions of Earth are tilted toward the Sun at different times of the year.

In Canada, auroras that are visible from Earth are referred to as the northern lights (aurora borealis).

Understanding
Astronomical phenomena include the observable processes that happen among stars, planets, the Sun, and the Moon.
Skills & Procedures
Relate experiences of seasons and length of daylight to the tilt of Earth on its axis.

Describe personal observations related to cyclical changes in the Moon’s appearance.

Discuss observable features of lunar and solar eclipses.

Research the cause of auroras.
Knowledge
Most astronomical phenomena are more easily observed at night.

The Sun is not observable at night.
Understanding
Astronomical phenomena can be observed differently during the day and night.
Skills & Procedures
Compare observations of astronomical phenomena taken during the day and night.
Knowledge
Patterns and cycles of astronomical phenomena include
  • Moon phases
  • seasons
  • eclipses
  • comets
  • equinoxes and solstices
  • solar activity
  • meteor showers
For First Nations, Métis, and Inuit, significant events and ways of living are connected to many astronomical phenomena.
Understanding
Astronomical phenomena can have predictable patterns and cycles.

Predictable astronomical phenomena are connected to ways of living.
Skills & Procedures
Identify astronomical phenomena that occur cyclically.

Research how Indigenous understandings of phases and cycles within astronomical phenomena inform ways of living and community activities.

Explore Inuit or northern First Nations’ stories related to the midnight sun, the polar night, and the northern lights.
Knowledge
Historically, people noticed groups of stars and created patterns out of them for purposes like navigation and tracking the passage of time.

The recognizable patterns of stars are called constellations.

Constellations have names that come from a variety of sources.

Stars in the same constellation may be millions of kilometres apart.

Star maps of the constellations have been created by many First Nations and Inuit.
Understanding
Groups of stars can appear to be arranged in recognizable patterns when observed from Earth.


Skills & Procedures
Research constellations in relation to location in the sky and seasons when they can be observed.

Investigate First Nations, Métis, and Inuit stories of star names and constellations.

Knowledge
Astronomical phenomena can be represented using
  • calendars
  • cycles
  • stories and legends
  • artifacts
Understanding
Astronomical phenomena can be represented in various ways that connect to daily life.
Skills & Procedures
Research how Indigenous peoples represent astronomical phenomena, past and present.

Connect various Indigenous and diverse representations, past and present, to astronomical phenomena.

Relate lunar calendars, stories, artifacts, and cycles to the international standard calendar.
Knowledge
Polaris, the North Star, shows the approximate direction of the North Pole.

The Orion constellation can be used to find the South Pole.

The Sun and stars appear to travel across the sky from east to west because of the rotation of Earth.

Understanding
Stars can provide ways to navigate.
Skills & Procedures
Explain ways in which stars can be used for navigation.

Explore the local traditional names of the North Star and relate them to navigation.
Knowledge
Observations and interpretations of astronomical phenomena can be applied in various contexts, including
  • planting and harvesting of crops
  • hunting
  • predicting significant events
  • navigating
Understanding
Observations and interpretations of astronomical phenomena can be applied to daily living in various ways.
Skills & Procedures
Identify how observation of the night sky can determine agricultural practices, predict significant events, or aid navigation.
Knowledge
The Moon has been used to measure time throughout history.

The Western (Gregorian) calendar is based on the amount of time it takes Earth to revolve around the Sun.

Most of society follows the Western (Gregorian) calendar in daily life.

Indigenous peoples traditionally use a lunar calendar to measure time.

Understanding
Many cultures have unique observations of astronomical phenomena that are connected to time, place, and daily life.
Skills & Procedures
Research how people have understood and continue to understand and respond to astronomical phenomena.

Represent observations of astronomical phenomena as they connect to patterns or repeating cycles, including seasons and plant and animal growth and behaviour in a local area.

Describe the connections between the seasonal movements and activities of local Indigenous people as depicted in a traditional lunar calendar.
Organizing Idea
Computer Science: Problem solving and scientific inquiry are developed through the knowledgeable application of creativity, design, and computational thinking.
Guiding Question
To what extent is creativity related to contributions in science?
Guiding Question
How can design resolve a problem?
Guiding Question
In what ways can design be used to help achieve desired outcomes or purposes?
Learning Outcome
Students investigate creativity and its relationship to computational thinking.
Learning Outcome
Students investigate and apply design in the context of computer science and technology.
Learning Outcome
Students create and justify a design that could be used by a human or machine to address a challenge.
Knowledge
Computational thinking can include
  • breaking a task into smaller chunks
  • finding patterns and similarities in tasks
  • identifying the important details when reading or solving a problem
  • designing instructions
  • working backward if a mistake was made
Understanding
Computational thinking is a problem-solving process that requires creativity.

Computational thinking enables humans to more efficiently communicate with computers.

Humans use creativity to develop instructions that can be followed by people or machines.

Skills & Procedures
Create a set of instructions that could be followed by a human or a machine to complete a task.
Knowledge
The design process involves
  • understanding the problem
  • forming ideas (ideating)
  • planning
  • creating
  • analyzing
  • troubleshooting (debugging)
Feedback helps to ensure all needs are considered during the design process.

Designs are tested to determine if they meet needs.
Understanding
Design is the structured process of creating something that can be used to meet needs.
Skills & Procedures
Plan a sequence of steps necessary to create a model that addresses a design challenge.

Create a model for a specific purpose.

Provide feedback to others during the design process.

Describe a test to confirm if a model meets all needs.
Knowledge
A computational artifact is anything created by a human using a computer, including
  • computer programs
  • images
  • audio
  • video
  • presentations
  • web pages
Understanding
Design can be used to create computational artifacts.
Skills & Procedures
Engage in the design process to create computational artifacts.
Knowledge
There are many ways to achieve the same outcome.

Divergent thinking is the process of generating multiple unique ideas or solutions.
Understanding
Creativity can be used to develop different ways to achieve the same outcome.

Creativity involves divergent thinking.
Skills & Procedures
Collaborate to write two sets of instructions that achieve the same outcome.
Knowledge
An algorithm is a sequence of instructions.
Understanding
The process of design is used to create algorithms.
Skills & Procedures
Collaborate with others to design an algorithm to solve a simple problem.
Knowledge
Code is any language that can be understood by and run on a computer.

There are many ways to code, including visual block-based languages and simple and complex coding languages.

Visual block-based languages (VBBL) are a form of code in which prepared chunks of instructions are in drag-and-drop blocks that can be fit together like puzzle pieces to design a program.

A block is a single section of code.

A computer cannot think for itself and must rely on code for all that it does.
Understanding
In coding, design is used to create and translate algorithms into a language understood and run by a computer.
Skills & Procedures
Relate a block of code to an outcome or a behaviour.

Predict and explain what will happen when single or multiple blocks of code are executed.

Translate a given algorithm to block-based code.
Knowledge
Creativity is an important part of computer science, technology, and engineering.
Understanding
Creativity is a means to explore possibilities.
Skills & Procedures
Identify examples of creativity in computer science, technology, and engineering.
Knowledge
Artifacts are objects or products made by humans, machines, or computers through the process of design.

Design can produce many artifacts, including
  • algorithms
  • models
  • prototypes
  • blueprints
  • programs
  • experiments
  • objects
Design can deal with open, complex problems.
Understanding
Design is a process that starts with an idea of what should happen and progresses to a more concrete artifact.
Skills & Procedures
Implement a design plan by creating physical or computational artifacts to achieve specific outcomes or purposes.

Share ideas for possible improvements to a design or the design process used.
Knowledge
A loop is a repetition of instructions used in an algorithm.
Understanding
In coding, a loop can be designed to simplify a program.
Skills & Procedures
Design an algorithm that includes a simple loop.

Use a visual block-based coding language to write a computer program that includes a loop.
Knowledge
Creativity involves imagination, observation, and making connections.

Canadians are responsible for many creative inventions.

Understanding
Creativity is the ability to combine, change, or reapply existing ideas to produce something new.
Skills & Procedures
Describe skills and processes that are important to creativity.

Discuss how new technologies, engineering, and computing are developed through creativity.

Research a famous Canadian creative invention.
Knowledge
Design processes should consider criteria, including
  • user needs
  • materials availability
  • cost
  • purpose
  • environment in which it will be used
  • aesthetics
Understanding
Design processes consider purpose and criteria in the creation of an ideal artifact
Skills & Procedures
Design an artifact that considers the design requirements.
Knowledge
Factors that may be considered in design include
  • function
  • usability
  • reliability
  • efficiency
  • aesthetics
  • safety
  • environmental needs
Understanding
The context of the design problem influences which factors are considered in designing a solution.
Skills & Procedures
Discuss examples of scientific, technological, and engineering designs that address a challenge.

Determine relevant factors of designs that address a challenge.

Decide which factors should be considered in the design of a specific physical or computational artifact.
Knowledge
The iterative process of design involves
  • building
  • testing
  • enhancing
  • refining
  • repeating
Understanding
Design can be improved through the development of multiple iterations.
Skills & Procedures
Develop design solutions through testing, refining, and enhancing using multiple iterations.
Knowledge
Examples of designs that have changed to better meet desired needs or goals include
  • cars
  • cellphones
  • computers
  • kitchen appliances
  • medical technologies
  • clothing
Understanding
Design changes can improve function, safety, or aesthetics to be more suitable for desired needs or goals.

Skills & Procedures
Evaluate products, services, and computational artifacts according to criteria for success.
Knowledge
Computer scientists often work in teams to collaboratively solve design problems.
Understanding
Design can be improved through collaboration.
Skills & Procedures
Engage in collaborative processes and describe how design is enhanced by sharing ideas.

Organize and perform strategic roles within a group to solve a design problem.
Organizing Idea
Scientific Methods: Investigation of the physical world is enhanced through the use of scientific methods that attempt to remove human biases and increase objectivity.
Guiding Question
How can investigation help to develop knowledge in science?
Guiding Question
How can evidence advance knowledge in science?
Guiding Question
How does evidence lead to understanding?
Learning Outcome
Students engage in investigation and consider its potential to build understanding of the natural world.
Learning Outcome
Students investigate the nature of evidence and reflect on its role in science.
Learning Outcome
Students investigate how evidence is gathered and explain the importance of ethics and objectivity in science.
Knowledge
Three types of scientific investigations are descriptive, comparative, and experimental.

Descriptive investigations involve gathering observations to describe the physical world.

Comparative investigations involve collecting sets of data to make comparisons.

Experimental investigations involve designing experiments to determine if there is a cause-and-effect relationship.
Understanding
Investigation is a process that aims to explain observable phenomena.

Investigation can be approached in multiple ways depending on context and purpose.
Skills & Procedures
Investigate through description, comparison, and simple experiments.

Develop conclusions from descriptive, comparative, and experimental investigations based on observation.

Knowledge
Types of data include qualitative and quantitative.

Qualitative data is descriptive and usually categorized and expressed using words.

Quantitative data is measured and expressed using numbers and counts.
Understanding
Evidence is produced through the study and interpretation of data.
Skills & Procedures
Analyze data collected from investigations.

Differentiate between qualitative and quantitative data.

Knowledge
Observable and measurable phenomena can be perceived using the human senses.

Phenomena that cannot be directly observed using the human senses can be made observable and measurable with the use of technologies, devices, and instruments, including
  • telescopes
  • microscopes
  • UV sensors
  • thermal image cameras
  • ultrasound
  • X-rays
Understanding
Evidence in science can only be gathered by studying things that are observable and measurable.

Skills & Procedures
Determine if evidence meets the scientific requirement of describing observable and measurable phenomena.

Discuss specific areas of science where technology has provided scientists with evidence that cannot be directly observed using the human senses.

Knowledge
Scientific attitudes and values are based on objectivity and include accuracy in recording data and honesty in communicating data.

Objectivity in science is an attempt to learn about the world using methods that remove the influence of personal thoughts, feelings, and expectations.
Understanding
Investigation requires the understanding and application of scientific attitudes and values.

Skills & Procedures
Identify possible issues that may occur during an investigation, including dishonestly recording and communicating data.

Demonstrate objectivity during an investigation by accurately recording and honestly communicating the data.
Knowledge
Relevant data addresses the question that is being investigated.

All relevant data must be considered.

Understanding
Evidence can be used to support or refute predictions based on the question being investigated.

Some observations and data are not relevant to the question being investigated.

Skills & Procedures
Determine what observations and data should be collected to address the question being investigated.
Knowledge
Bias is any preconceived thoughts, feelings, or expectations that influence an investigation.

Bias affects the trustworthiness of evidence and can lead to false conclusions.

Humans are not usually aware of their personal biases.

Scientific methods attempt to remove bias to ensure objectivity.

Understanding
Science requires evidence and conclusions to be free from bias.
Skills & Procedures
Determine if evidence and conclusions are free from bias.

Choose investigational methods that remove the potential for human biases.
Knowledge
The variable that is changed is called the manipulated or independent variable.

What happens in response to the variable that is changed is called the responding or dependent variable.

The responding or dependent variable is what is observed or measured as evidence.
Understanding
Variables are factors that can be controlled, changed, or measured in an experiment to develop evidence.
Skills & Procedures
Define manipulated/independent and responding/dependent variables.
Knowledge
Investigations can build on previous knowledge by
  • confirming previous understanding
  • finding new evidence that conflicts with previous understanding
  • deepening previous understanding
Understanding
Investigations build on previous knowledge and contribute to learning.
Skills & Procedures
Reflect on how conducting an investigation contributes to learning.
Knowledge
Reliable means that observations and measurements consistently produce similar data and evidence.

Valid means that data and evidence is gathered using observations and tests that measure what they are supposed to.

Evidence is reliable and valid if objectivity was maintained during data collection and analysis through
  • gathering enough data
  • performing enough trials
  • using appropriate procedures and tools
  • recording and representing data accurately
Understanding
Reliable and valid data and evidence leads to appropriate conclusions during investigations.

Conclusions drawn must reflect the data and evidence collected in order to be valid.

Only conclusions drawn from reliable and valid data and evidence, and analyzed using scientific methods, are trustworthy.
Skills & Procedures
Collect reliable data and evidence from investigations.

Interpret data collected from investigations.

Draw valid conclusions using evidence from investigations.

Evaluate the trustworthiness of conclusions drawn during simple investigations based on the data, evidence, and methods used.

Knowledge
A controlled experiment is a scientific experiment that is done using a specific method to remove human biases and expectations from the data and results.

In a controlled experiment, only one manipulated/independent variable can be changed at a time and all others are kept the same.

In a controlled experiment, there is a control group and one or more variable groups.

The control group has all variables controlled and the variable group(s) differ in one manipulated/independent variable only.

The control group in which nothing has been changed will be compared to the variable group(s).
Understanding
Scientific evidence can be collected using controlled experiments to determine cause and effect.
Skills & Procedures
Plan and conduct a simple controlled experiment.

Identify the variables in a simple controlled experiment.

Evaluate the effect of the manipulated variable on the responding variable.

Defend a conclusion about cause and effect based on evidence gathered in a simple controlled experiment.
Knowledge
Observations and results from investigations can be analyzed by
  • making connections to previous knowledge
  • asking questions
  • noticing changes that happen
  • discussion
  • collaboration
Understanding
Observations and results from investigations should be analyzed to confirm accuracy and build knowledge.
Skills & Procedures
Discuss observations and the results of investigations.

Analyze observations and the results of investigations.

Ask questions about observations and the results of investigations.
Knowledge
Data gathered during a descriptive investigation is used as evidence to describe characteristics of components of the physical world.

Data gathered during a comparative investigation is used as evidence to make comparisons between components of the physical world.

Data gathered during an experimental investigation is used as evidence to determine cause and effect.
Understanding
Data can be gathered in a variety of ways to build up a body of evidence.
Skills & Procedures
Collect data to answer questions about natural phenomena using descriptive, comparative, or simple experimental investigations.

Describe the importance of collecting data using a variety of investigational approaches.
Knowledge
Factors that affect the quality of data include
  • sources and amount of data collected
  • procedures used for collecting and analyzing data
  • the reliability, validity, accuracy, and reproducibility of experiments
  • manipulated and responding variables
Understanding
The strength of evidence depends on the quality of data collected during a scientific investigation.
Skills & Procedures
Evaluate the strength of evidence based on the origin and quality of data collected.

Apply suitable methods to record, compile, interpret, and evaluate observations and measurements.

Knowledge
Scientists often use their own investigations and those of other scientists to develop new questions for further study.
Understanding
Analysis of data and scientific results may spark new questions for investigation.
Skills & Procedures
Develop new questions for further study from an analysis of data and the results of a simple investigation.
Knowledge
New evidence may require the scientific community to adjust previous thinking or predictions.
Understanding
Ongoing collection of evidence allows the scientific community to attach new learning to what was previously understood.



Skills & Procedures
Research how past scientific understandings have changed based on new evidence.
Knowledge
Scientific ethics include honesty, openness, respect, fairness, and accountability.

Ethics includes minimizing harm to animals, protecting human participants, and informing human participants of any potential risks.
Understanding
Evidence needs to be gathered, handled, and shared responsibly and ethically.
Skills & Procedures
Examine the importance of scientists gathering, handling, and sharing evidence responsibly and ethically.

Choose appropriate measurement methods to record data accurately and honestly.

Responsibly gather, analyze, and present data to communicate information.
Knowledge
Sources of information or data can include
  • experts
  • text
  • personal observations
  • websites
  • Elders
  • community members
Some sources of information are more trustworthy than others.
Understanding
Information or data from investigations can be used to make decisions.
Skills & Procedures
Use data to determine if a statement is true or false.

Discuss the trustworthiness of sources of information or data.
Knowledge
Data from observations can be recorded or measured more accurately using tools and technology.
Understanding
Accurate evidence requires the careful use of measuring tools and technology.
Skills & Procedures
Produce reliable and valid evidence by using appropriate measuring tools and technology to collect accurate data.

Discuss technologies used in investigations to improve observation or measurement.

Knowledge
Clear, accurate, and honest communication of evidence must
  • use correct vocabulary
  • include all relevant data
  • be free from personal bias
  • be understood by the intended audience
Understanding
Evidence must be communicated clearly and accurately.
Skills & Procedures
Identify examples of inaccurate or unclear communication of evidence and evaluate the potential impact.

Use scientific vocabulary in various contexts.



Knowledge
Ways to share scientific evidence include
  • written texts
  • verbal presentations
  • oral traditions
  • graphs
  • tables
  • charts
  • diagrams
  • simulations
  • models
Understanding
Evidence can be summarized, represented, and shared in multiple ways to build a body of knowledge.
Skills & Procedures
Summarize, represent, and share evidence from an investigation in a variety of ways.

Represent data in graphs, tables, charts, diagrams, simulations, or models.
Knowledge
Some representations summarize all the data and some communicate only part of the data.
Understanding
Various representations of data communicate evidence differently.
Skills & Procedures
Determine if representations of data accurately represent and communicate evidence.

Discuss the benefits of diverse representations of data and evidence.
Knowledge
The common system of measurement used by the scientific community is the Système international d’unités (International System of Units).

Système international d’unités can be abbreviated as SI units.

Système international d’unités includes
  • time
  • length
  • mass
  • temperature
Understanding
A common system of measurement and symbols gives the scientific community a way to communicate data and evidence.
Skills & Procedures
Interpret representations of data and evidence that use SI units.