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Science is a human endeavour in which curiosity, creativity, and perseverance are used to obtain a deeper understanding of the natural world. Science includes the interconnected disciplines of physics, chemistry, biology, Earth science, astronomy, and computer science. Science is a self-correcting way of knowing about the world that uses cyclical and iterative scientific methods to develop and refine scientific knowledge. Scientific methods include formulating scientific questions and hypotheses, then investigating them through objectively observing, collecting, and analyzing data to formulate conclusions and explanations based on evidence. Scientific knowledge refers to objective, evidence-based observations and explanations of testable phenomena that are accepted by the scientific community. Scientific knowledge is organized according to classification systems and subject to change when new evidence is presented. Science includes the critical thinking skills, scientific knowledge, and civic literacy required to respond to relevant personal, societal, and environmental issues. Science knowledge is enriched through the shared contributions of people from diverse cultures and perspectives. Science is essential in developing innovative ideas and solutions to address local and global challenges now and in the future.
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Organizing Idea
Matter: Understandings of the physical world are deepened through investigating matter and energy.
Guiding Question
How can the suitability of materials be determined?
Guiding Question
How can materials change?
Guiding Question
How can materials be managed safely?
Learning Outcome
Students investigate the properties of materials and relate them to a purpose.
Learning Outcome
Students investigate and analyze how materials have the potential to be changed.
Learning Outcome
Students investigate management of waste materials and describe potential personal and environmental impacts.
Knowledge
Materials are substances used to form objects.
Understanding
Materials can be combined in a variety of ways to build an object.
Skills & Procedures
Identify the materials used to make various objects.

Diagram the steps taken to create an object for a specific purpose.

Combine materials to create an object for a specific purpose.
Knowledge
Natural materials are any product or physical matter that comes directly from plants, animals, or the ground.

Processed materials are modified from natural materials and do not occur in the natural world.

Processed materials have been designed and manufactured for a particular purpose.

First Nations, Métis, and Inuit communities respectfully use natural materials, including
  • trees
  • rocks
  • ice
  • shells
  • plants
  • animals
First Nations, Métis, and Inuit communities use natural materials for particular purposes, including
  • lodges
  • tipis
  • iglus
  • medicines
  • teas
  • clothing
  • tools
Understanding
Materials exist in natural and processed forms.

Use of materials for First Nations, Métis, and Inuit traditional knowledge is guided by balance and harmony with the land.
Skills & Procedures
Identify examples of natural and processed materials.

Diagram the steps of how a natural material is processed to make a new material.

Compare natural and processed materials.

Discuss how use and selection of materials is guided by relationships with the land for First Nations, Métis, and Inuit communities.
Knowledge
Methods of waste management can include
  • using landfills
  • combusting
  • composting
  • recycling
Waste materials may be solids, liquids, or gases.
Understanding
Waste materials should be managed responsibly based on potential impact.

New materials created from natural materials can produce waste that must be carefully managed to protect the environment.
Skills & Procedures
Research the environmental impact of different methods of waste management.
Knowledge
Properties of materials that can be compared include
  • transparency
  • absorption of water
  • malleability
  • reflection
  • length
  • mass
Understanding
Materials have properties that can be observed, described, tested, and/or measured.
Skills & Procedures
Test properties of various natural and processed materials.

Measure the length and mass of various objects using non- standard measurement.
Knowledge
Three states of matter are solid, liquid, and gas.
Matter can change state if heated or cooled.
Understanding
Materials can be changed to alter their state.
Skills & Procedures
Safely perform simple experiments to demonstrate the three states of matter by heating and cooling water.

Discuss examples of daily activities that include heating and cooling.
Knowledge
Symbols are used to identify dangerous materials.

Hazard symbols used to identify dangerous materials can include
  • explosive
  • flammable
  • corrosive
  • poisonous
Dangerous materials may be solids, liquids, or gases.
Understanding
Some natural and processed materials may be dangerous and can be harmful to individuals’ health and to the environment if misused or disposed of unsafely.
Skills & Procedures
Identify dangerous products or materials used at home, at school, and in the community.

Interpret consumer chemical hazard symbols.

Explain the importance of safe disposal of dangerous materials as a way to minimize pollution to soil, water, and air.

Specify practices that individuals can follow to ensure personal and community safety from dangerous materials.
Knowledge
Natural materials are those that come from plants, animals, or the ground.

Processed materials are made by humans.
Understanding
Materials are natural or processed.

All processed materials must be derived from natural materials.
Skills & Procedures
Sort various materials as natural or processed.
Knowledge
A solid is a state of matter that has a definite shape and volume.

A liquid is a state of matter that has a definite volume but no definite shape.

A liquid flows and takes the shape of the container it is in.

A gas is a state of matter that has neither definite shape nor definite volume.

A gas flows easily and expands to the size of the container it is in.

Volume is the amount of space a solid, liquid, or gas takes up.
Understanding
Solids, liquids, and gases have definite properties.
Skills & Procedures
Discuss solid, liquid, and gas states of matter in terms of shape and volume.
Knowledge
Ways to reduce the environmental impact of waste materials can include
  • reducing
  • reusing
  • recycling
  • repurposing
  • repairing
Understanding
People can make choices that reduce the environmental impact of waste materials.
Skills & Procedures
Apply knowledge of recycling, reusing, reducing, repurposing, and repairing materials to develop a personal plan to reduce waste.

Research local programs for recycling, reusing, reducing, repurposing, and repairing materials.

Represent the recycling process using diagrams.

.
Knowledge
The same kind of object can be made from different materials.

Objects created from natural materials by First Nations, Métis, and Inuit can include
  • Dene birchbark baskets
  • Métis travois
  • canoes
  • Inuit scraping tools such as an ulu
Understanding
Natural and processed materials are used to make a variety of objects that serve a variety of purposes.
Skills & Procedures
Identify natural and processed materials that could be used for a specific purpose.

Identify a common object or structure that can be made from different materials.

Identify natural materials used by local First Nations, Métis, or Inuit and relate their use to a specific purpose.
Knowledge
Melting is a change of state from solid to liquid.

Freezing is a change of state from liquid to solid.

Evaporation is a change of state from liquid to gas.

Condensation is a change of state from gas to liquid.

The temperature at which a material changes from solid to liquid is called the melting point.

The temperature at which a material changes from a liquid to a solid is called the freezing point.

The melting and freezing points of a material are the same temperature.

The temperature at which a material changes from liquid to gas is called the boiling point.

The melting/freezing point of water is 0ºC.

The boiling point of water is 100ºC.
Understanding
Materials can be described by their unique physical properties of melting/freezing and boiling points.
Skills & Procedures
Research and compare the melting/freezing and boiling points of various materials, including water.
Knowledge
Knowledge of the properties of materials and their purpose is important in many occupations, including
  • carpenter
  • builder
  • tailor
  • engineer
  • designer
  • architect
First Nations, Métis, and Inuit use of materials is informed by
  • traditional knowledge
  • time of year
  • availability of materials
  • practices of sustainability
Understanding
The purpose of an object influences the choice of materials used to produce it.

Some materials are more suitable than others for making a product.


Skills & Procedures
Compare the properties of materials, natural and/or processed, to determine what material is best for a specific purpose.

Explain the relationship between suitability of materials and purpose.

Select a material and use it to create an item for a specific purpose.

Discuss choice of material based on availability and sustainability.
Knowledge
In the water cycle, liquid water evaporates into water vapour, condenses to form clouds, and precipitates back to Earth.

Water in the environment can change state from solid to liquid and back again.

Water in the environment can change state from liquid to gas and back again.
Understanding
The water cycle is a process of change in which water on Earth moves continuously between bodies of water, land, and the atmosphere.
Skills & Procedures
Describe and diagram the changes of state of water in the environment using the water cycle.
Knowledge
A reversible change is a change that can be undone.

A permanent change is a change that cannot be undone.
Understanding
Changes to materials can be permanent or reversible, depending on the properties of the given materials.
Skills & Procedures
Discuss examples of changes to materials that are permanent and examples of changes to materials that are reversible.

Classify changes to materials as permanent or reversible.
Organizing Idea
Energy: Understandings of the physical world are deepened through investigating matter and energy.
Guiding Question
Where do light and sound come from and how do they move?
Guiding Question
How can forces relate to changes in movement?
Guiding Question
How can forces affect objects from a distance?
Learning Outcome
Students investigate the source, pathway, and behaviour of light and sound.
Learning Outcome
Students investigate and explain how forces affect movement of objects.
Learning Outcome
Students investigate how forces can act on objects without contact.
Knowledge
Sources of light include
  • the Sun
  • electricity
  • fire
  • living organisms (bioluminescence)
Sources of sound include anything that produces sound vibrations, such as
  • musical instruments
  • speakers and headphones
  • vocal cords of humans and animals
  • objects hitting each other
Understanding
The sources of light and sound can be identified.
Skills & Procedures
Identify sources of light and sound.
Knowledge
Newton’s first law of motion states that an object that is at rest will stay at rest until some force makes it move; and an object that is in motion will stay in motion until a force stops it.
Understanding
A force is a push or pull upon an object resulting from an interaction with another object or substance.
Skills & Procedures
Describe where forces may exist in everyday situations.

Perform simple experiments to demonstrate Newton’s first law of motion through observing, starting, or stopping the movement of an object.

Knowledge
Non-contact forces occur between objects that are not in direct contact.

Non-contact forces occur because of attraction or repulsion.

Understanding
Non-contact forces are invisible forces that can affect objects and materials.
Skills & Procedures
Describe how non-contact forces interact with objects.
Knowledge
Volume, duration, and pitch are characteristics of sound.

Sound is caused by vibrations of objects and air.

Vibration is a rapid back-and-forth movement.
Understanding
Sound is produced by an interaction between objects or substances that causes vibration.

Change in the rate of vibration can alter pitch.
Skills & Procedures
Explain how a change in vibration results in a change in sound.
Knowledge
Contact forces include forces that
  • are exerted by a person or an object upon another object (applied)
  • oppose the movement of objects when they come into contact with other objects or surfaces (friction)
  • are exerted by pulling on a string or rope connected to an object (tension)
  • are exerted by a compressed or stretched elastic object or spring upon any object that it is in contact with (elastic or spring)
Ways to apply a contact force to an object include
  • stretching
  • pulling
  • squeezing
  • pushing
Understanding
Contact forces occur between objects touching each other.
Skills & Procedures
Conduct investigations regarding the effects of friction, tension, applied force, and elastic or spring forces on the movement of objects.
Knowledge
Non-contact forces include magnetism and gravity.

Magnetism is the property of attracting or repelling magnetic materials.

Gravity on Earth pulls all objects toward the ground.

Understanding
Non-contact forces are caused by a specific source that can be identified.
Skills & Procedures
Identify the source of non-contact forces.

Perform simple experiments that demonstrate the effect of gravity on an object.

Knowledge
Characteristics of materials that affect the production of sound vibration can include
  • size
  • texture
  • shape
  • type
Understanding
Vibrations can produce different sounds depending on characteristics of materials.
Skills & Procedures
Experiment with the production of sound using various materials or substances.

Test a variety of materials that can produce vibrations.


Knowledge
Vocabulary used to describe the strength of a force can include strong and weak.

Vocabulary used to describe the direction of a force on an object can include
  • upward
  • downward
  • from the left
  • from the right
  • from both sides
  • from all directions
Understanding
A force is characterized by its direction and strength.
Skills & Procedures
Describe forces using vocabulary representing both direction and strength.
Knowledge
Magnetic materials contain iron, cobalt, or nickel.
Understanding
Some materials are attracted to a magnet and can become magnetized.
Skills & Procedures
Conduct investigations regarding the push and pull of magnetism on objects.

Create a magnet using a non-magnetized object.
Knowledge
Sound vibration travels through a variety of materials, including air, water, and solid materials.

Sound vibration travels in all directions and reflects off different surfaces.

Characteristics of materials that may amplify or muffle sound vibrations include
  • size
  • texture
  • shape
  • type
Understanding
Movement, including sound vibration, can be transferred from one object to another.

Sound vibrations can be amplified or muffled by the characteristics of materials they come into contact with.
Skills & Procedures
Build a simple device to amplify or muffle sound.
Knowledge
The effects of force can include a change in the
  • shape of an object
  • size of an object
  • movement of an object
Understanding
Forces can affect the properties and movement of objects in different ways.
Skills & Procedures
Predict how different forces and directions of forces could affect stationary objects.

Perform simple experiments to demonstrate how forces can change the shape and/or size of objects.

Describe interactions between objects when a force is applied.
Knowledge
Properties that can affect how a non-contact force acts on an object include the object’s mass and the type of material it is made from.

Strength of non-contact forces decreases as objects get farther apart.
Understanding
The effects of forces on objects depends on the properties of materials.

Strength of non-contact forces depends on the distance between objects.

Non-contact forces may act through certain materials.

Skills & Procedures
Experiment with factors that influence the force of a magnet, including distance and properties of materials.


Knowledge
Light can move in various ways, including
  • in a straight line from its source
  • through bouncing off a surface (reflection)
  • through bending as it travels from one material to another (refraction)
  • through splitting into colours (dispersion)
Some objects allow light to move straight through them (transparent).


Objects that affect the movement path of light can include mirrors, water, and prisms.

Understanding
Objects can affect the movement path of light.
Skills & Procedures
Perform simple experiments to determine how the movement path of light is affected by a variety of materials.
Knowledge
Changes to an object’s movement when a force is applied include
  • speeding up
  • slowing down
  • starting
  • stopping
  • changing direction
Understanding
Forces can cause a change in an object’s movement.
Skills & Procedures
Predict how the movement of an object is affected by different strengths and directions of force.

Describe the effect of contact forces on the movement of objects.

Knowledge
Magnets have two poles.

Magnetic poles are known as north and south.

Opposite poles attract each other and like poles repel each other.

Both poles attract magnetic material.
Understanding
The poles of a magnet affect each other and magnetic material.
Skills & Procedures
Explain interactions between the poles of magnets.
Knowledge
The effect of a force can be investigated by observing and measuring the distance an object travels after a contact force.
Understanding
The effects of forces can be compared through observation and measurement.
Skills & Procedures
Test the effects of increasing forces on stationary objects.
Knowledge
Items that contain magnets include
  • refrigerators
  • computers
  • speakers and headphones
  • vehicles
  • MRI machines
  • musical instruments
Understanding
The capacity of magnetism to attract and repel can be useful in making common objects.
Skills & Procedures
Design a device that uses magnetism.
Knowledge
Simple machines can include
  • levers
  • wheels
  • axles
  • inclined planes
  • wedges
Simples machines are used to reduce the effort needed to lift or move objects.

Many First Nations, Métis, and Inuit have designed, tested, and continue to use simple machines that decrease effort, which can include
  • antler wedge
  • paddle
  • Inuit scraping tools such as an ulu
  • Métis travois
Understanding
The strength and direction of a force can be changed by simple machines.
Skills & Procedures
Represent contact force in relation to the use of simple machines through diagrams.

Demonstrate how simple machines work to reduce the effort needed to lift or move objects.

Design a device that uses simple machines.

Safely work with tools, materials, and equipment.

Research local First Nations, Métis, and Inuit simple machines and describe their purpose.

Organizing Idea
Earth Systems: Understandings of the living world, Earth, and space are deepened through investigating natural systems and their interactions.
Guiding Question
What is important about our planet, Earth?
Guiding Question
How are changes on Earth’s surface influenced by various factors?
Guiding Question
How does Earth sustain life?
Learning Outcome
Students investigate Earth, its landforms, bodies of water, and relationship to the Sun.
Learning Outcome
Students analyze and explain how the surface of Earth changes.
Learning Outcome
Students investigate the systems of Earth and reflect on how interconnections sustain life.
Knowledge
Components of Earth include
  • land
  • water
  • air
  • plants, animals, and humans
At this time, Earth is the only planet known to support life.

Scientists are looking for life on other planets and moons.
Understanding
Earth consists of many components that support life.
Skills & Procedures
Identify and represent various components of Earth.

Discuss how the various components of Earth interact to support life.
Knowledge
Changes that can occur to Earth’s surface over a long period of time can include
  • mountains wear down
  • rivers change course
  • lakes and seas dry out and can reappear
  • glaciers move, advance, and recede
Events that can change Earth’s surface in a short period of time can include
  • volcanic eruptions
  • earthquakes
  • landslides
  • tsunamis
  • flooding
  • melting and freezing
Changes to Earth’s surface can be shared by First Nations, Métis, and Inuit through
  • stories
  • traditional knowledge
  • language
Understanding
Earth’s surface changes over time.

Relationships with land have provided intergenerational knowledge of landscapes for many First Nations, Métis, and Inuit.

Skills & Procedures
Describe how natural events change Earth’s surface.

Discuss changes to Earth’s surface over time in stories shared by or through intergenerational knowledge of First Nations, Métis, or Inuit.

Compare young mountain ranges to old mountain ranges.

Investigate natural events that have changed local landforms or landforms within the province of Alberta.

Knowledge
Systems of Earth include
  • land
  • air
  • water
  • organisms
Earth scientists call Earth’s systems the “spheres,” including
  • lithosphere (land)
  • atmosphere (air)
  • hydrosphere (water)
  • biosphere (organisms)
Understanding
Systems of Earth are interconnected to sustain life.

First Nations, Métis, and Inuit hold understandings of the interconnectedness of all living things.




Skills & Procedures
Research how human activity can impact the relationships between land, air, water, and organisms.

Represent the interconnectedness of land, air, water, and organisms.


Knowledge
A landform is a natural feature of the Earth’s surface.

Landforms in Alberta include
  • plateaus
  • plains
  • mountains
  • valleys
  • hills
  • foothills
  • canyons
  • prairies
Understanding
Earth’s surface consists of various types of landforms.
Skills & Procedures
Identify landforms that are local or within the province.

Apply appropriate vocabulary when describing landforms.
Knowledge
In Alberta, the surfaces of most bodies of water change from liquid in summer to solid in winter.
Understanding
Surfaces of bodies of water can change between solid and liquid state.
Skills & Procedures
Investigate the conditions under which bodies of water can change state.

Discuss why it is important to be safe around bodies of water that have a surface of ice.
Knowledge
Sunlight is more direct at the equator.

The equator is warmer than the poles.

Sunlight is more direct and the length of daylight is longer in summer than in winter.


Understanding
Earth’s surface is warmed by the Sun, allowing for life.
Skills & Procedures
Explain how the amount of sunlight and warmth provided by the Sun throughout the year affects characteristics and behaviours of plants and animals in various locations on Earth.
Knowledge
Reasons for feeling a connection to a place or landform can include that its name
  • is in one’s first language
  • describes characteristics
  • reflects history or significance
  • has special personal meaning
  • is significant to personal background
Understanding
Names of places and landforms can hold meaning.

Names of places and landforms can be descriptive or observational.

Names of places and landforms in an environment can lead to feelings of connection.
Skills & Procedures
Explain personal connections to names of places and landforms.

Identify local landforms and bodies of water in local Indigenous language.
Knowledge
Water or ice can move or remove material as it flows.

Current glaciers are the remnants of ice sheets that once covered all of Canada.

Ice sheets were up to 4000 m thick in Alberta about 18,000 years ago.

Melting glacier ice creates runoff that formed and helps maintain many of the major rivers in Alberta.

The Earth is warming up from natural and human causes, which is melting the remaining glaciers faster.
Understanding
Water can shape the landscape of Earth.
Skills & Procedures
Represent how the movement of water on Earth changes the landscape.

Represent how water flow starts with rain, melting snow, or a glacier, moves through different bodies of water, and drains into the ocean.

Identify glacier-fed rivers that are local or within Alberta.
Knowledge
Water is a basic need for plants and animals and provides habitat for many organisms.

For many First Nations, Métis, and Inuit, water is sacred, as it sustains life.

Understanding
Most organisms on Earth require water to meet their needs.

First Nations, Métis, and Inuit hold a sense of responsibility to protect water and sources of water.
Skills & Procedures
Discuss ways that plants and animals use water to meet their basic needs.

Research plants and animals that exist in various bodies of water.

Discuss the importance of water to First Nations, Métis, and Inuit and how it sustains life.
Knowledge
Landforms that may hold many names can include mountains, rivers, and lakes.

Names for places and landforms may be connected to cultural
  • relevance
  • practices
  • stories
  • songs
In Stoney language, Calgary is Wichispa Oyande, which translated means “elbow town.”

In Cree language, Edmonton is amiskwaciy-wȃskahikan, which translated means “beaver hill house.”
Understanding
There may be many names for the same specific landform in an environment.
Skills & Procedures
Discuss the origin of different names for the same landform in a local environment or in Alberta.

Discuss the meaning of traditional Indigenous place names, including those for Calgary and Edmonton.
Knowledge
Wind and water can interact to move or remove material, which changes a landscape.

Landscapes that have been shaped by interactions with wind and water include Alberta’s badlands and the Grand Canyon in the United States.
Understanding
Changes to Earth’s landscape can occur through interactions with wind and water.
Skills & Procedures
Describe how wind and water change landforms over time.
Knowledge
Changes made to one system that can impact another system can include
  • number of organisms
  • food sources
  • habitat
  • water cleanliness
  • migration patterns
  • weather patterns
Understanding
Changes in one of Earth’s systems can affect other systems.

Small changes to an environment can significantly impact organisms in that environment.
Skills & Procedures
Explain how changes made to one system can have impacts on other systems.

Research and discuss how Indigenous communities work alongside Parks Canada to further understand multisystem impacts.
Knowledge
Characteristics of a landform include slope, size, or terrain.

Slope is the length and gradient of the land.

Sloped landforms can include
  • valleys
  • glaciers
  • slides
  • badlands
  • mountains
Terrain refers to the features of the surface of a piece of land.

Terrain can be described as
  • hilly
  • rocky
  • tundra
  • forest
Understanding
Landforms on Earth have varying characteristics.
Skills & Procedures
Compare various landforms on Earth’s surface.
Knowledge
Human activities that can impact the land in positive and negative ways include
  • living on the land
  • building towns and cities
  • getting and using resources
  • farming
  • pollution
  • stewardship
Plant and animal activities that can shape landscapes include
  • overpopulation
  • using resources
  • parasites, such as the mountain pine beetle
  • plants or animals burrowing
  • beavers chewing down trees
Understanding
Human, animal, and plant activities can cause changes to land on Earth.
Skills & Procedures
Investigate how plants and the activity of animals change Earth’s surface.

Research how human activities have changed Earth’s surface.

Discuss the interconnectedness of human activities and responsibilities to maintaining Earth.

Knowledge
Natural resources include
  • air
  • water
  • soil
  • minerals
  • metals
  • organisms
Understanding
Earth’s systems include natural resources.
Skills & Procedures
Investigate natural resources found locally.
Knowledge
Bodies of water on Earth’s surface include
  • oceans
  • glaciers
  • lakes
  • wetlands
  • rivers
Bodies of water in Alberta include
  • glaciers
  • lakes
  • wetlands
  • rivers
Water flows downhill from smaller bodies of water to larger bodies of water in the following ways:
  • small creeks flowing downhill and merging to form small streams
  • small streams merging to form larger streams and rivers
  • streams and small rivers merging to form larger rivers
  • larger rivers merging into major waterways such as oceans
Understanding
Earth’s surface is mostly covered by bodies of water.
Skills & Procedures
Research and identify local and provincial bodies of water.

Diagram steps demonstrating how water flows from small creeks to the ocean.

Create a model to represent various types of landforms and bodies of water.
Knowledge
Landscapes on Earth contain layers that have been deposited over long periods of time.
Understanding
The history of landscapes on Earth can be explained through examining their layers.
Skills & Procedures
Examine how layers of Earth’s surface hold information about the past.
Knowledge
Conservation is the preservation and protection of Earth’s systems from pollution, depletion, or extinction.

Conservation can be informed by a variety of
  • methods
  • understandings
  • First Nations, Métis, and Inuit perspectives
  • processes
Understanding
Conservation can impact land, natural resources, and organisms.

Many First Nations, Métis, and Inuit practise traditional methods of conservation.
Skills & Procedures
Identify ways in which plants, animals, and land can be protected or maintained through conservation practices.

Discuss First Nations, Métis, and Inuit conservation practices that include giving and taking only what is needed.
Knowledge
Freshwater bodies can include
  • glaciers
  • most lakes
  • wetlands
  • rivers
Saltwater bodies can include oceans and seas.
Understanding
Water found on Earth can be either fresh or salt water.
Skills & Procedures
Identify bodies of water on Earth that contain salt water and fresh water.
Knowledge
Soil includes
  • living plants and animals
  • decaying plants and animals
  • rock particles
  • air
  • water
Understanding
Soil is a continually changing upper layer of Earth’s crust in which plants grow.
Skills & Procedures
Examine soil in the local community.

Describe how soil helps plants and animals survive.
Knowledge
Conservation practices can be implemented in natural and cultivated areas.

Conservation involves creating parks, including
  • local
  • provincial
  • national
Understanding
Conservation aims to minimize disturbance and impact on plants, animals, and land.
Skills & Procedures
Identify examples of conservation practices in natural and cultivated areas.

Evaluate the benefits of creating provincial and national parks.

Discuss how to balance human use of parks and conservation of wildlife.
Knowledge
Earth’s revolution around the Sun takes a year.

Earth’s rotation on its axis takes a day.
Understanding
Earth rotates on an axis and revolves around the Sun.
Skills & Procedures
Describe the relationship between Earth and the Sun.

Represent ways that Earth’s rotation connects to patterns of day and night.
Knowledge
Habitat is a natural environment where a plant or an animal establishes a home.

Animals whose habitat is soil can include
  • worms
  • mice
  • gophers
  • rabbits
Understanding
Soil provides a habitat for many animals.
Skills & Procedures
Research animals in Alberta that spend all or part of their life underground.

Consider how animals that live underground change soil.
Knowledge
Conservation can be practised through actions around
  • use of electricity
  • use of water
  • reducing waste
  • daily life choices
Understanding
Conservation of Earth’s systems requires taking deliberate actions.

Conservation of Earth’s systems requires planning and design.
Skills & Procedures
Describe examples of personal actions that contribute to conservation in daily life.

Create a plan to implement a conservation practice in a local environment.
Organizing Idea
Living Systems: Understandings of the living world, Earth, and space are deepened through investigating natural systems and their interactions.
Guiding Question
How do plants and animals live and grow?
Guiding Question
How do plants and animals interact?
Guiding Question
How are organisms designed for survival?
Learning Outcome
Students investigate the growth and development of plants and animals and consider their relationship to humans.
Learning Outcome
Students analyze and describe how plants and animals interact with each other and with the environment.
Learning Outcome
Students analyze organisms and relate their external structures to functions.
Knowledge
Human behaviour that can positively affect plants and animals includes
  • reducing, reusing, recycling, and repurposing
  • recovering natural areas
  • protecting and not disrupting natural spaces
  • creating natural areas and parks
Human behaviour that can negatively affect plants and animals includes
  • littering
  • polluting
  • depleting resources plants and animals need to live
  • introducing plants and animals that are not native to the area
Understanding
Plants and animals can be affected by human behaviour.
Skills & Procedures
Discuss the importance of caring for and treating plants and animals in the environment with respect.

Demonstrate respect and care while interacting with plants and animals in various environments.

Explain the positive and negative impacts of human behaviour on plants and animals.

Knowledge
A food chain displays the order in which plants and animals depend on each other for food.

A food chain can be represented through an illustration, a diagram, a story, or words.

A food chain only represents one possible way that plants and animals interact.

Plants and animals are part of many different food chains.

Understanding
Plants and animals interact with each other in ways that can be represented by a food chain.
Skills & Procedures
Represent various food chains in local and other Canadian environments.
Knowledge
Micro-organisms include bacteria.

Ways to classify organisms can include
  • appearance
  • habitat
  • structures
Structures, including body parts, are features of organisms that serve a purpose or function.
Understanding
Organisms are individual animals, plants, or single-celled life forms.

Organisms can be classified in various ways.
Skills & Procedures
Find examples of local plants and animals and describe their appearance and habitat.
Knowledge
Plants’ or animals’ children are called offspring.
Understanding
Plants and animals have similar characteristics to their parents.
Skills & Procedures
Identify similarities between offspring and their parents.
Knowledge
Carnivores eat only animals.

Herbivores eat only plants.

Omnivores eat animals and plants.
Understanding
Animals can be classified as carnivores, herbivores, or omnivores based on what they eat.
Skills & Procedures
Identify carnivores, herbivores, and omnivores in a food chain.
Knowledge
External structures of organisms can include
  • roots
  • stems
  • leaves
  • flowers
  • fruit
  • claws
  • teeth
  • legs
  • shells
  • skins
Understanding
Organisms have external structures.
Skills & Procedures
Represent the external structures of plants and animals.

Find examples of local plants and identify their external structures.

Classify plants and animals by external structures and appearance.
Knowledge
Ways to represent life cycles can include
  • illustrations
  • diagrams
  • models
  • stories
Understanding
Plants and animals have observable patterns or stages in their development that can be represented by life cycles.
Skills & Procedures
Represent the life cycles of various plants and animals.

Compare life cycles of various plants and animals.

Discuss observations about life cycles of various plants and animals.
Knowledge
Sensory stimuli can include
  • water
  • food
  • temperature
  • light
Animals can use their senses to detect the presence of food, predators, or other members of their species.
Understanding
Plants and animals sense and respond to stimuli in order to survive.
Skills & Procedures
Investigate how plants and animals respond to stimuli in the natural environment.

Discuss how plants and animals respond to stimuli to survive.
Knowledge
Functions of structures in an organism can include eating, moving, and protecting.
Understanding
Organisms have structures that serve various functions.
Skills & Procedures
Compare structures of various plants and animals in relation to function.

Explain the relationship between external structures and function.
Knowledge
Some First Nations, Métis, and Inuit have perspectives that consider plants and animals to be equal to human beings.
Understanding
People have various perspectives about the roles of plants and animals.

Some First Nations, Métis, and Inuit practise taking only what is needed from the land, which can demonstrate care and consideration for the land and those around us.
Skills & Procedures
Identify ways of understanding and relating with plants and animals.

Discuss how taking only what is needed from the land reduces waste and limits negative impacts on the environment, plants, and animals.
Knowledge
Actions that can be taken to protect plants and animals in the local environment include
  • respectfully interacting with natural environments
  • minimizing disturbance to plants and animals
  • being aware of animal crossings
  • following fishing and hunting regulations
  • counting and tracking populations
Understanding
Understanding the interactions of plants and animals in a particular environment helps us protect them.

Skills & Procedures
Reflect on actions that can be taken to protect plants and animals in the local environment.

Demonstrate respectful and safe practices during observations of plants and animals.
Knowledge
Movements supported by structures of organisms can include
  • flying
  • crawling
  • swimming
  • hopping
  • slithering
  • jumping
  • running
Understanding
Organisms have structures that support movement.
Skills & Procedures
Connect structures of various animals to movement.
Knowledge
Diverse plants and animals can be found in Canada’s
  • forests
  • prairies
  • lakes and rivers
  • mountains
  • oceans
Understanding
Plants and animals exist in variety and are dispersed over Earth.
Skills & Procedures
Investigate plants and animals in various environments in Alberta and Canada.
Knowledge
Ways that external structures support growth and survival include how plants and animals sense their environment and meet their needs.
Understanding
Organisms have external structures that support growth and survival.
Skills & Procedures
Describe how external structures are connected to survival.
Knowledge
Plants and animals may depend on each other for food and habitat.

First Nations, Métis, and Inuit knowledge of plants and animals can include
  • animal behaviour
  • diet
  • migration paths
  • patterns
Understanding
Plants and animals depend on each other and their environment to survive.
Skills & Procedures
Explain the interconnections in the environment, including how plants depend on animals and how animals depend on plants to survive.

Relate First Nations, Métis, and Inuit peoples’ connection with the environment to their knowledge of and relationships with plants and animals.

Organizing Idea
Space: Understandings of the living world, Earth, and space are deepened through investigating natural systems and their interactions.
Guiding Question
What are astronomical phenomena?
Learning Outcome
Students investigate and describe astronomical phenomena in connection to daily life.
Knowledge
Objects in space include
  • the Moon
  • the Sun (a star)
  • stars and their planets
  • planets and their moons
Technologies for viewing astronomical phenomena can include
  • binoculars
  • telescopes
  • planetariums
Understanding
Astronomical phenomena are observable events that happen among objects in space.
Skills & Procedures
Record observations of stars, planets, the Sun, and the Moon, using protective equipment when necessary.

Compare technologies for viewing astronomical phenomena.
Knowledge
Most astronomical phenomena are more easily observed at night.

The Sun is not observable at night.
Understanding
Astronomical phenomena can be observed differently during the day and night.
Skills & Procedures
Compare observations of astronomical phenomena taken during the day and night.
Knowledge
Historically, people noticed groups of stars and created patterns out of them for purposes like navigation and tracking the passage of time.

The recognizable patterns of stars are called constellations.

Constellations have names that come from a variety of sources.

Stars in the same constellation may be millions of kilometres apart.

Star maps of the constellations have been created by many First Nations and Inuit.
Understanding
Groups of stars can appear to be arranged in recognizable patterns when observed from Earth.


Skills & Procedures
Research constellations in relation to location in the sky and seasons when they can be observed.

Investigate First Nations, Métis, and Inuit stories of star names and constellations.

Knowledge
Polaris, the North Star, shows the approximate direction of the North Pole.

The Orion constellation can be used to find the South Pole.

The Sun and stars appear to travel across the sky from east to west because of the rotation of Earth.

Understanding
Stars can provide ways to navigate.
Skills & Procedures
Explain ways in which stars can be used for navigation.

Explore the local traditional names of the North Star and relate them to navigation.
Knowledge
The Moon has been used to measure time throughout history.

The Western (Gregorian) calendar is based on the amount of time it takes Earth to revolve around the Sun.

Most of society follows the Western (Gregorian) calendar in daily life.

Indigenous peoples traditionally use a lunar calendar to measure time.

Understanding
Many cultures have unique observations of astronomical phenomena that are connected to time, place, and daily life.
Skills & Procedures
Research how people have understood and continue to understand and respond to astronomical phenomena.

Represent observations of astronomical phenomena as they connect to patterns or repeating cycles, including seasons and plant and animal growth and behaviour in a local area.

Describe the connections between the seasonal movements and activities of local Indigenous people as depicted in a traditional lunar calendar.
Organizing Idea
Computer Science: Problem solving and scientific inquiry are developed through the knowledgeable application of creativity, design, and computational thinking.
Guiding Question
How can creativity be used to ensure that instructions lead to the desired outcome?
Guiding Question
To what extent is creativity related to contributions in science?
Guiding Question
How can design resolve a problem?
Learning Outcome
Students apply creativity when designing instructions to achieve a desired outcome.
Learning Outcome
Students investigate creativity and its relationship to computational thinking.
Learning Outcome
Students investigate and apply design in the context of computer science and technology.
Knowledge
Creativity is the ability to create something new or original.

Creativity can be used to design instructions for
  • games
  • sports
  • science experiments
  • recipes
  • computer programs
Understanding
Instructions are designed using creativity.
Skills & Procedures
Consider how creativity is used when designing instructions for games, sports, or science experiments.

Recognize and discuss how creativity can help generate new ideas, technology, tools, or products.
Knowledge
Computational thinking can include
  • breaking a task into smaller chunks
  • finding patterns and similarities in tasks
  • identifying the important details when reading or solving a problem
  • designing instructions
  • working backward if a mistake was made
Understanding
Computational thinking is a problem-solving process that requires creativity.

Computational thinking enables humans to more efficiently communicate with computers.

Humans use creativity to develop instructions that can be followed by people or machines.

Skills & Procedures
Create a set of instructions that could be followed by a human or a machine to complete a task.
Knowledge
The design process involves
  • understanding the problem
  • forming ideas (ideating)
  • planning
  • creating
  • analyzing
  • troubleshooting (debugging)
Feedback helps to ensure all needs are considered during the design process.

Designs are tested to determine if they meet needs.
Understanding
Design is the structured process of creating something that can be used to meet needs.
Skills & Procedures
Plan a sequence of steps necessary to create a model that addresses a design challenge.

Create a model for a specific purpose.

Provide feedback to others during the design process.

Describe a test to confirm if a model meets all needs.
Knowledge
Precise instructions can include
  • verbs
  • simple language
  • clear steps
  • a starting point
  • a stopping point
Understanding
Instructions must be created using precision in order to achieve the desired outcome.
Skills & Procedures
Describe instructions using precise words, pictures, or diagrams.
Knowledge
There are many ways to achieve the same outcome.

Divergent thinking is the process of generating multiple unique ideas or solutions.
Understanding
Creativity can be used to develop different ways to achieve the same outcome.

Creativity involves divergent thinking.
Skills & Procedures
Collaborate to write two sets of instructions that achieve the same outcome.
Knowledge
An algorithm is a sequence of instructions.
Understanding
The process of design is used to create algorithms.
Skills & Procedures
Collaborate with others to design an algorithm to solve a simple problem.
Knowledge
Reliability of instructions means they consistently lead to the same desired outcome.

Efficiency of instructions refers to designing in a way that yields desired outcomes with the least amount of wasted energy, time, or steps.

The reliability and efficiency of instructions can be affected by
  • form
  • order
  • language used
  • repetition
Understanding
How instructions are created and communicated may or may not affect the outcome.

Reliability and efficiency are important components of instructions.

Skills & Procedures
Predict the outcome of instructions that have three to four steps.

Discuss the reliability and efficiency of a set of instructions.

Refine instructions to more efficiently achieve a desired outcome.

Knowledge
Creativity is an important part of computer science, technology, and engineering.
Understanding
Creativity is a means to explore possibilities.
Skills & Procedures
Identify examples of creativity in computer science, technology, and engineering.
Knowledge
Artifacts are objects or products made by humans, machines, or computers through the process of design.

Design can produce many artifacts, including
  • algorithms
  • models
  • prototypes
  • blueprints
  • programs
  • experiments
  • objects
Design can deal with open, complex problems.
Understanding
Design is a process that starts with an idea of what should happen and progresses to a more concrete artifact.
Skills & Procedures
Implement a design plan by creating physical or computational artifacts to achieve specific outcomes or purposes.

Share ideas for possible improvements to a design or the design process used.
Knowledge
Daily activities that include repeated steps or instructions can include
  • brushing teeth in a repeated motion
  • tying one shoe and then using the same process on the other
  • creating repeating patterns
Understanding
Instructions may be simplified by repeating steps.
Skills & Procedures
Describe a situation in which repetition simplifies instructions.
Knowledge
Creativity involves imagination, observation, and making connections.

Canadians are responsible for many creative inventions.

Understanding
Creativity is the ability to combine, change, or reapply existing ideas to produce something new.
Skills & Procedures
Describe skills and processes that are important to creativity.

Discuss how new technologies, engineering, and computing are developed through creativity.

Research a famous Canadian creative invention.
Knowledge
Design processes should consider criteria, including
  • user needs
  • materials availability
  • cost
  • purpose
  • environment in which it will be used
  • aesthetics
Understanding
Design processes consider purpose and criteria in the creation of an ideal artifact
Skills & Procedures
Design an artifact that considers the design requirements.
Knowledge
Debugging is the process of identifying and removing errors in a set of instructions to achieve the desired outcome.
Understanding
Instructions may not always achieve the desired outcome.
Skills & Procedures
Test a three- to four-step sequence to verify that the desired outcome is achieved.

Remove or debug any errors in a set of instructions to achieve the desired outcome.

Knowledge
Many activities at school and in the workplace require creative collaboration to improve ideas.
Understanding
Creativity and problem solving can be enhanced through practice and collaboration with peers.
Skills & Procedures
Discuss advantages of collaboration when engaging creatively to solve problems.

Exchange ideas to design clear three- to four-step instructions, including repetition, to achieve a desired outcome.
Organizing Idea
Scientific Methods: Investigation of the physical world is enhanced through the use of scientific methods that attempt to remove human biases and increase objectivity.
Guiding Question
What methods and processes can be used in scientific investigation?
Guiding Question
How can investigation help to develop knowledge in science?
Guiding Question
How can evidence advance knowledge in science?
Learning Outcome
Students examine investigation and explain how it is influenced by purpose.
Learning Outcome
Students engage in investigation and consider its potential to build understanding of the natural world.
Learning Outcome
Students investigate the nature of evidence and reflect on its role in science.
Knowledge
Procedures scientists use to guide investigations can include
  • asking questions
  • making predictions
  • planning the investigation
  • observing and recording data
  • analyzing data
  • reaching conclusions
  • discussing observations and conclusions
Understanding
Investigations have systematic procedures to guide the study of natural phenomena.
Skills & Procedures
Reflect on how purpose and planning influence an investigation.

Make various predictions based on questions to be investigated.

Test predictions by observing and recording data.
Knowledge
Three types of scientific investigations are descriptive, comparative, and experimental.

Descriptive investigations involve gathering observations to describe the physical world.

Comparative investigations involve collecting sets of data to make comparisons.

Experimental investigations involve designing experiments to determine if there is a cause-and-effect relationship.
Understanding
Investigation is a process that aims to explain observable phenomena.

Investigation can be approached in multiple ways depending on context and purpose.
Skills & Procedures
Investigate through description, comparison, and simple experiments.

Develop conclusions from descriptive, comparative, and experimental investigations based on observation.

Knowledge
Types of data include qualitative and quantitative.

Qualitative data is descriptive and usually categorized and expressed using words.

Quantitative data is measured and expressed using numbers and counts.
Understanding
Evidence is produced through the study and interpretation of data.
Skills & Procedures
Analyze data collected from investigations.

Differentiate between qualitative and quantitative data.

Knowledge
Being objective means not being influenced by personal thoughts, feelings, or expectations.

Techniques that scientists use to remain objective can include
  • recording accurate observations
  • choosing appropriate tools
  • carefully measuring
  • basing conclusions on facts and data
Understanding
Investigation in science involves collecting and analyzing data objectively to form conclusions.
Skills & Procedures
Carry out simple investigations in an objective manner using appropriate tools and techniques.
Knowledge
Scientific attitudes and values are based on objectivity and include accuracy in recording data and honesty in communicating data.

Objectivity in science is an attempt to learn about the world using methods that remove the influence of personal thoughts, feelings, and expectations.
Understanding
Investigation requires the understanding and application of scientific attitudes and values.

Skills & Procedures
Identify possible issues that may occur during an investigation, including dishonestly recording and communicating data.

Demonstrate objectivity during an investigation by accurately recording and honestly communicating the data.
Knowledge
Relevant data addresses the question that is being investigated.

All relevant data must be considered.

Understanding
Evidence can be used to support or refute predictions based on the question being investigated.

Some observations and data are not relevant to the question being investigated.

Skills & Procedures
Determine what observations and data should be collected to address the question being investigated.
Knowledge
Data that can be combined includes observations and counts.

Data that can be combined must be collected using similar procedures.
Understanding
Data from investigations can be combined.
Skills & Procedures
Collaborate to compile recorded data into a single list or chart.
Knowledge
Investigations can build on previous knowledge by
  • confirming previous understanding
  • finding new evidence that conflicts with previous understanding
  • deepening previous understanding
Understanding
Investigations build on previous knowledge and contribute to learning.
Skills & Procedures
Reflect on how conducting an investigation contributes to learning.
Knowledge
Reliable means that observations and measurements consistently produce similar data and evidence.

Valid means that data and evidence is gathered using observations and tests that measure what they are supposed to.

Evidence is reliable and valid if objectivity was maintained during data collection and analysis through
  • gathering enough data
  • performing enough trials
  • using appropriate procedures and tools
  • recording and representing data accurately
Understanding
Reliable and valid data and evidence leads to appropriate conclusions during investigations.

Conclusions drawn must reflect the data and evidence collected in order to be valid.

Only conclusions drawn from reliable and valid data and evidence, and analyzed using scientific methods, are trustworthy.
Skills & Procedures
Collect reliable data and evidence from investigations.

Interpret data collected from investigations.

Draw valid conclusions using evidence from investigations.

Evaluate the trustworthiness of conclusions drawn during simple investigations based on the data, evidence, and methods used.

Knowledge
Scientists may perform an investigation many times or compare with others to make sure results are similar.

Repetition of an investigation includes performing the same procedure using the same materials in the same context.
Understanding
Results of investigations should be consistent if repeated by another scientist.
Skills & Procedures
Compare observations and data with others.
Knowledge
Observations and results from investigations can be analyzed by
  • making connections to previous knowledge
  • asking questions
  • noticing changes that happen
  • discussion
  • collaboration
Understanding
Observations and results from investigations should be analyzed to confirm accuracy and build knowledge.
Skills & Procedures
Discuss observations and the results of investigations.

Analyze observations and the results of investigations.

Ask questions about observations and the results of investigations.
Knowledge
Data gathered during a descriptive investigation is used as evidence to describe characteristics of components of the physical world.

Data gathered during a comparative investigation is used as evidence to make comparisons between components of the physical world.

Data gathered during an experimental investigation is used as evidence to determine cause and effect.
Understanding
Data can be gathered in a variety of ways to build up a body of evidence.
Skills & Procedures
Collect data to answer questions about natural phenomena using descriptive, comparative, or simple experimental investigations.

Describe the importance of collecting data using a variety of investigational approaches.
Knowledge
All recorded observations should relate to the purpose of an investigation.
Understanding
The purpose of investigations is to find answers to specific questions.
Skills & Procedures
Relate observations to the purpose of the investigation.
Knowledge
Scientists often use their own investigations and those of other scientists to develop new questions for further study.
Understanding
Analysis of data and scientific results may spark new questions for investigation.
Skills & Procedures
Develop new questions for further study from an analysis of data and the results of a simple investigation.
Knowledge
New evidence may require the scientific community to adjust previous thinking or predictions.
Understanding
Ongoing collection of evidence allows the scientific community to attach new learning to what was previously understood.



Skills & Procedures
Research how past scientific understandings have changed based on new evidence.
Knowledge
Creative scientific processes can include
  • asking questions
  • connecting to scientific knowledge
  • planning ways to problem solve
  • designing
  • inventing
  • trial and error
Understanding
Creative scientific processes can be used during investigation to solve problems and to learn.
Skills & Procedures
Apply creative scientific processes during investigation.
Knowledge
Sources of information or data can include
  • experts
  • text
  • personal observations
  • websites
  • Elders
  • community members
Some sources of information are more trustworthy than others.
Understanding
Information or data from investigations can be used to make decisions.
Skills & Procedures
Use data to determine if a statement is true or false.

Discuss the trustworthiness of sources of information or data.
Knowledge
Data from observations can be recorded or measured more accurately using tools and technology.
Understanding
Accurate evidence requires the careful use of measuring tools and technology.
Skills & Procedures
Produce reliable and valid evidence by using appropriate measuring tools and technology to collect accurate data.

Discuss technologies used in investigations to improve observation or measurement.

Knowledge
Ways to share scientific evidence include
  • written texts
  • verbal presentations
  • oral traditions
  • graphs
  • tables
  • charts
  • diagrams
  • simulations
  • models
Understanding
Evidence can be summarized, represented, and shared in multiple ways to build a body of knowledge.
Skills & Procedures
Summarize, represent, and share evidence from an investigation in a variety of ways.

Represent data in graphs, tables, charts, diagrams, simulations, or models.
Knowledge
The common system of measurement used by the scientific community is the Système international d’unités (International System of Units).

Système international d’unités can be abbreviated as SI units.

Système international d’unités includes
  • time
  • length
  • mass
  • temperature
Understanding
A common system of measurement and symbols gives the scientific community a way to communicate data and evidence.
Skills & Procedures
Interpret representations of data and evidence that use SI units.