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Physical Education and Wellness

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Physical education and wellness curriculum supports a strength-based focus that promotes the development of the whole individual and aims to nurture students in their pursuit of a healthy and active life. From Kindergarten to Grade 6, students are supported on their journey of achieving optimal well-being through a healthy school community that emphasizes
  • movement skills development
  • active living
  • growth and physical development
  • safety
  • personal development, mental health, and well-being
  • nutrition and healthy eating
  • healthy relationships
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Organizing Idea
Active Living: A healthy way of life includes regular practice of meaningful active living.
Guiding Question
In what ways can a variety of physical activities contribute to active living?
Guiding Question
What is the relationship between motivation and active living?
Guiding Question
How can motivation support engagement in active living?
Learning Outcome
Students examine how a variety of physical activities affects active living.
Learning Outcome
Students examine the effect of motivation on physical activity.
Learning Outcome
Students establish and communicate how motivation supports personal growth through active living.
Knowledge
Active living options can vary for individuals over time due to various factors, including
  • time
  • preference
  • injury
  • cost of activities and programs
  • access
  • availability
  • natural and built environments
  • sense of purpose
Understanding
Choice in physical activity can enhance exposure to a variety of active living options.

New activities of increasing challenge and complexity can build confidence.
Skills & Procedures
Investigate how the choice of physical activity may change over time in relation to various factors.

Experience and reflect upon the benefits of building knowledge and skills by playing regular team sports and individual sports every year.
Knowledge
Motivation is the process that initiates, guides, and maintains goal-oriented behaviours.

Factors influencing motivation can be
  • biological
  • social
  • emotional
  • cognitive
  • cultural
  • community
External motivation can include the benefits or rewards that encourage individuals to engage in physical activity.

Internal motivation can include the enjoyment, pleasure, or satisfaction that encourage individuals to engage in physical activity.
Understanding
Motivation and active living are interconnected.

Motivation can be internal and external and can change over time.

Motivation in physical activity can be enhanced when individuals feel safe, are connected with others, and have a sense of accomplishment.
Skills & Procedures
Describe internal and external factors that influence motivation to be physically active.
Knowledge
Motivation is supported by setting goals and monitoring progress toward those goals.

Motivation supports planning, training, and achieving physical activity goals.

Training principles include
  • frequency
  • intensity
  • time
  • type
Understanding
Motivation in physical activity can support different training principles.

Motivation can support individual physical activity routines to improve personal fitness and health-related components.
Skills & Procedures
Connect daily routines and planned physical activities with active living goals.

Examine how training principles can contribute to active living.
Knowledge
Flexibility is the ability of joints and muscles to move through a full range of motion.

Muscular strength is the maximal force produced by the muscles.

Muscular endurance is the ability of muscles to sustain a force for a period of time.

Cardiorespiratory endurance is the ability of the heart and lungs to provide muscles with oxygen and blood to produce work over a given period of time.
Understanding
A variety of physical activities can help individuals to plan and achieve physical fitness goals.

Courage plays a role in one’s participation in physical activity.

Courage increases one’s likeliness to achieve activity goals.
Skills & Procedures
Select a variety of physical activities to align with physical fitness goals.
Knowledge
Motivation increases the potential for regular physical activity.
Understanding
Choice in rewarding and engaging physical activity can foster motivation.
Skills & Procedures
Consider why motivation is important to active living.
Knowledge
Motivation can lead to development of movement skills.

Motivation can lead to exposure to a variety of physical activities.
Understanding
Motivation can lead to accomplishment and performance across various physical activities.

Feedback and self-reflection can support motivation.
Skills & Procedures
Recognize the influence of motivation on personal skill development and proficiency in various physical activities.
Knowledge
Enjoyment can influence choice related to physical activity.

Physical activity can be enjoyed by an individual or as a group.

Rewarding and engaging physical activity can foster motivation.
Understanding
Healthy choices related to physical activity can lead to higher levels of interest and engagement.
Skills & Procedures
Engage in physical activities that are enjoyable or rewarding.
Knowledge
Refinement of skills in adventure and challenge physical activities can support motivation.
Understanding
Safe engagement in adventure and challenge physical activities can broaden skills for active living.

Refinement of movement skills and motivation are interconnected.
Skills & Procedures
Examine ways adventure and challenge physical activities introduce and support motivation for skill development.
Knowledge
Motivation can lead to commitment, personal growth, and higher levels of engagement.

Supports for motivation can include
  • parents and caregivers
  • teachers
  • role models
  • community organizations
  • coaches
  • Elders
  • Knowledge Keepers
  • team members
  • natural and built environments
Understanding
Active living in the community occurs when individuals are encouraged and supported.
Skills & Procedures
Describe personal and community supports associated with motivation for active living.
Knowledge
Awareness of community programs, activity spaces, and people who can support physical activity is helpful when planning for active living.
Understanding
Involvement in a variety of physical activities can be supported by local communities.
Skills & Procedures
Participate in physical activities that are available and accessible within local communities.
Knowledge
Social environments, including historical and cultural contexts, affect personal choice in active living.
Understanding
Perceptions of active living, recreation, and wellness evolve over time.
Skills & Procedures
Compare active living across historical contexts.

Compare sports that were played in different historical time periods.
Organizing Idea
Movement Skill Development: A healthy way of life includes regular movement.
Guiding Question
How can elements of movement support active living?
Guiding Question
How can diverse movement patterns contribute to success across physical activities?
Guiding Question
In what ways can movement patterns function to improve performance?
Learning Outcome
Students analyze and explain how elements of movement are integrated to support physical activity.
Learning Outcome
Students plan, adapt, and demonstrate various movement patterns to enhance skill development.
Learning Outcome
Students refine and apply movement patterns in controlled and dynamic physical activities.
Knowledge
Elements of movement include space, direction, and effort.

Locomotor movements can include dodging and crossover.

Non-locomotor movements can include lifting, extending, and flexing.
Understanding
Elements of movement are integrated through various combinations to create movement.

Combinations of elements can affect various movement skills.
Skills & Procedures
Integrate elements of movement in various physical activities.

Explore sports and physical activities, such as hockey, lacrosse, and basketball, that are significant to Alberta’s history.

Knowledge
Movement patterns can include locomotor, non-locomotor, and object manipulation.
Understanding
Movement patterns are combinations of movement skills.

Patterns can be a planned set of movements that support success across a variety of physical activities.
Skills & Procedures
Combine movement skills to perform movement patterns in a variety of physical activities.
Knowledge
Similar patterns exist across a variety of physical activities.
Understanding
Patterns can be transferred across a variety of physical activities for individual or group success.
Skills & Procedures
Demonstrate how similar movement patterns are applied across various physical activities.
Knowledge
Object manipulation movements can involve
  • sending objects, including volleying
  • retaining objects, including dribbling
  • receiving objects, including catching and collecting
Understanding
Elements of movement can be manipulated to improve accuracy and control.
Skills & Procedures
Perform elements of movement when receiving, sending, and retaining an object using various parts of the body and equipment.

Manipulate movement elements to improve efficiency, accuracy, and control.
Knowledge
Patterns are sequences of movements.

Two-part sequences of movement can include
  • run and catch
  • run and throw
  • toss and hit
Three-part sequences of movement can include
  • run, turn, and catch
  • walk, turn, and throw
  • run, jump, and send
  • hop, skip, and jump
  • run, jump, and land
Between 1763 and 1900, prominent Indigenous and Canadian physical activities, which featured various movement patterns, were codified and regularized, including
  • curling
  • ice hockey
  • basketball
  • lacrosse
  • skiing
  • soccer
  • skating
Understanding
Patterns can repeat in a predictable manner.

Movement patterns can be expanded to include new and novel physical activity skills.
Skills & Procedures
Consider sequencing and repetition of movement patterns when engaging in locomotor, non-locomotor, and object-manipulation activities.
Knowledge
Feedback can be used to refine movement combinations, patterns, and sequences when performing movement skills.

Controlled physical activities can be activities that are structured, individual, or partnered.

Controlled physical activities allow for repeated practice of movement skills.

Dynamic physical activities are limited in structure yet fluid and changing.

Dynamic physical activities require immediate decision making and refinement of movement skills.
Understanding
Patterns can be customized to enhance proficiency of movement.

Patterns are essential to the development of specialized movement skills in a variety of physical activities.
Skills & Procedures
Adapt movement patterns to improve accuracy, speed, and proficiency in a variety of controlled and dynamic physical activities.
Knowledge
Elements of movement include space, direction, and effort.

Patterns and elements of movement are featured prominently in rhythmic and expressive activities, including folk dance.
Understanding
Patterns can be improved by adjusting elements of movement.
Skills & Procedures
Adapt elements of movement to enhance movement patterns.

Identify patterns and elements of movement that are visible in rhythmic and expressive activities.
Knowledge
Creativity in movement can be supported by including objects and changing tempo and rhythm.

Patterns are movements that enable the body to move in response to a stimulus.
Understanding
Movement combinations, patterns, and sequences can be adapted using creativity.

Skills & Procedures
Implement movement patterns in response to a variety of physical, verbal, visual, and musical stimuli.
Guiding Question
How can elements of movement and tactics support active living?
Guiding Question
How might tactics support decision making in dynamic physical activity contexts?
Guiding Question
How does structure bring organization to physical activity?
Learning Outcome
Students analyze strategies and tactics that support improvement of performance.
Learning Outcome
Students identify and implement strategies and tactics in a variety of physical activities.
Learning Outcome
Students examine and explain structure in physical activity.
Knowledge
Strategies are actions and choices used to set and achieve goals and enhance outcomes.

Strategies and tactics can be
  • individual
  • group
  • offensive
  • defensive
Understanding
Strategies and tactics can vary based on number of participants and approach.
Skills & Procedures
Practise offensive and defensive strategies and tactics in a variety of physical activities.
Knowledge
Strategic and tactical strengths can include
  • specific movement skills
  • communication
  • leadership
  • collaboration
  • prior experience
  • knowledge of game play
Understanding
Strategies and tactics take into consideration personal strengths and the strengths of others.
Skills & Procedures
Adjust strategies and tactics based on the strengths of participants in various physical activities and games.
Knowledge
Structural components of physical activities can have various characteristics and features, including
  • rules and guidelines
  • purpose or intent
  • number and roles of participants
  • required equipment
  • physical setting or environment
  • required movement skills
  • desired result
Structure has commonalities and varying levels of complexity across various physical activities.
Understanding
Structure provides an objective or purpose to the physical activity.

The components of physical activity structures involve various characteristics and features.
Skills & Procedures
Describe the structure of physical activities performed in the learning environment.

Apply understanding of structure in the creation and playing of games.
Knowledge
Similar strategies and tactics exist across physical activities.

Understanding
Strategies and tactics can be transferred across physical activities to improve individual or group success.
Skills & Procedures
Transfer strategies and tactics across various physical activities
Knowledge
Strategies and tactics can include
  • reducing open spaces by working with others
  • understanding the need to follow or cover players
  • drawing defenders toward self to create space for teammates
  • using the depth and width of a playing area to create space
Understanding
Creative thinking is required to generate strategies and tactics.
Skills & Procedures
Choreograph creative strategies and tactics.
Knowledge
Structure can be modified to meet the needs of various abilities by
  • changing equipment size and type
  • adjusting playing area
  • adjusting purpose or intent of the physical activity
  • providing more time
  • changing target size and distance
  • varying movement skills used
  • having players send objects while stationary or moving
Understanding
Structure provides parameters to support safety, engagement, and inclusion of all participants.
Skills & Procedures
Modify physical activities and games to improve safety, engagement, and inclusivity.
Knowledge
Roles can include
  • leader
  • follower
  • offender
  • defender
  • chaser
  • teammate
  • opponent
Understanding
Strategies and tactics can require team members to have specific roles and responsibilities.
Skills & Procedures
Apply strategies and tactics that capitalize on the strengths of individuals and groups.

Practise strategies and tactics in a variety of roles.
Knowledge
Strategies and tactics include skill execution and anticipation.

Strategies and tactics can include
  • modifying movement skills based on the task
  • adapting and combining skills in response to purpose
  • selecting the best option based on opposition’s position
  • selecting the best option based on personal strengths and opposition’s capabilities
  • positioning to create advantage
Understanding
Strategies and tactics involve making decisions with limited time and space.
Skills & Procedures
Demonstrate decision-making through the application of strategies and tactics.

Reflect on the outcomes of strategic and tactical decisions.
Knowledge
Structure contributes to making connections between physical activities.

Structure provides opportunities for critical and creative thinking.

Understanding
Strategy and tactics are supported through an understanding of the structure of physical activities and games.
Skills & Procedures
Utilize an understanding of structure to inform strategy and tactics.
Knowledge
Strategies and tactical actions and formations can include
  • changing direction
  • positioning of players
  • adjusting elements of movement
  • use of equipment
  • time of possession
Understanding
Strategy and tactics can involve actions or formations that enhance performance.
Skills & Procedures
Implement strategies and tactics to improve performance.

Reflect on strategies and tactics used in various physical activities to enhance performance.

Knowledge
Physical activity and game structures can include
  • rules
  • time
  • positions
  • boundaries
  • safety considerations
  • objective of game
Understanding
Tactics require an understanding of how games and physical activities are structured.
Skills & Procedures
Assess the effectiveness of tactics in a variety of physical activity and game structures.

Recognize how changes in rules influence the tactics being used.
Knowledge
Modification for game situations can include
  • changes in the environment
  • number of participants
  • equipment used
  • rule changes
Understanding
Strategies and tactics can be adapted or changed when the game situation is modified.
Skills & Procedures
Modify strategies and tactics based on changing game situations.
Knowledge
Tactics and skills have enabled First Nations, Métis, and Inuit to effectively adapt to diverse geographical challenges.
Understanding
Tactics and skills historically used by First Nations, Métis, and Inuit for survival on the land have been adapted and applied in contemporary settings.
Skills & Procedures
Explore how traditional First Nations, Métis, or Inuit tactics have been integrated into contemporary settings for effective use.
Guiding Question
How can teamwork enhance participation in physical activity?
Guiding Question
What is the relationship between collaboration and physical activity?
Guiding Question
How can conflict resolution support engagement in physical activity?
Learning Outcome
Students analyze and explain how teamwork enhances participation in physical activity.
Learning Outcome
Students examine how collaboration influences physical activity.
Learning Outcome
Students analyze the influence of conflict resolution on physical activity.
Knowledge
Team success is optimized through the contribution of all members.

Team members show accountability by being responsible for their actions or decisions.
Understanding
Teamwork provides individuals with opportunities to be accountable for their contributions.
Skills & Procedures
Reflect on contributions made during team activities.
Knowledge
Collaboration is working with others to achieve a common goal, including exchanging ideas and sharing responsibilities.

Collaboration during physical activity can involve
  • identifying goals
  • planning strategy
  • exchanging ideas
  • making and implementing decisions
  • evaluating success
  • co-constructing experiences
Understanding
Teamwork requires collaboration to create and enhance strategies.

Skills & Procedures
Practise collaboration during physical activity
Knowledge
Team success can be influenced by conflict.

Practices to manage conflict can include
  • acknowledging the conflict
  • discussing the impact
  • agreeing to a cooperative process
  • understanding emotions
  • clarifying facts and understanding
  • listening to understand
  • proposing solutions
Understanding
Team effectiveness can be influenced by the ability to manage conflict.

Teamwork requires collaboration when coming to a resolution.

Successful teams develop practices to manage conflict.
Skills & Procedures
Practise conflict resolution.

Reflect on practices used to resolve conflict.
Knowledge
Teamwork strategies can include
  • constructive feedback
  • clarifying rules
  • clarifying role expectations
  • creating a safe environment
  • praise and encouragement of others
  • consideration of individual and group strengths
Understanding
Teamwork can involve individuals creating and enhancing strategies in physical activity.
Skills & Procedures
Demonstrate effective teamwork strategies during physical activity.
Knowledge
Consideration of team perspectives can support decision making and the achievement of goals.
Understanding
Teamwork acknowledges the perspectives of all members.
Skills & Procedures
Respect the contributions and perspectives of others when working together to make decisions or achieve team goals.
Knowledge
Cooperative and competitive situations can influence individual and group experiences.

Understanding
Cooperative and competitive situations may require members to adjust thinking or actions.
Skills & Procedures
Demonstrate how cooperative and competitive situations influence thinking and actions.
Knowledge
Participants can promote teamwork, safety, and positive outcomes through contributions made in different roles.

Communication skills can help establish roles and responsibilities.
Understanding
Team performance can be enhanced through effective communication.
Skills & Procedures
Experience a variety of roles and responsibilities that support team performance.

Communicate the impact of role clarity and responsibilities during physical activity.

Organizing Idea
Character Development: Exploration of life opportunities and virtues develops resiliency and personal talents and promotes lifelong learning.
Guiding Question
How can a variety of life experiences influence resiliency and perseverance?
Guiding Question
How can a variety of life experiences influence resiliency and perseverance?
Guiding Question
How can life opportunities shape personal talents, virtues, and hope?
Learning Outcome
Students interpret and reflect how resiliency and perseverance can be influenced by a variety of life experiences.
Learning Outcome
Students reflect and analyze how personal talents, virtues, and the development of perseverance are supported through life experiences.
Learning Outcome
Students examine how personal talents, virtues, and hope connect to life opportunities in a variety of contexts.
Knowledge
Individuals can seek out experiences based on their
  • interests
  • talents
  • desired outcomes
  • curiosity
  • personal enjoyment
  • ambitions
Experiences can occur in variety of contexts, including
  • physical
  • social
  • emotional
  • financial
  • career
Understanding
Experiences can be individual or shared and can occur in a variety of contexts.

Experiences can provide a sense of purpose and belonging.
Skills & Procedures
Determine a variety of contexts in which experience can be individual or shared.

Investigate experiences in a variety of contexts.
Knowledge
Life experiences can inform
  • strengths
  • preferences
  • areas of growth
  • beliefs
  • attitudes
  • decision making
  • virtues
Understanding
Life experiences can influence understanding of events or situations and responses to them.
Skills & Procedures
Examine how life experiences can shape understanding over time.
Knowledge
Knowledge of personal talents, assets, strengths, virtues, and interests can provide hopeful insight into life roles.

Independence is having the confidence and ability to make decisions to try new or challenging activities.

Independence supports the development of initiative.
Understanding
Changing life roles may require increased independence to develop personal talents.
Skills & Procedures
Relate personal skills and interests to various life roles.
Knowledge
Experiences can be represented through places, languages, and cultural artifacts.

Experiences can represent personal development.
Understanding
Experiences on the land are significant to learning and personal development in First Nations, Métis, and Inuit communities.
Skills & Procedures
Discuss how experiences in places or with artifacts hold significant meaning.
Knowledge
Life experiences are the effects or influences of an event or subject on an individual.
Understanding
Events or situations provide opportunities for gaining life experiences.
Skills & Procedures
Identify life experiences that have influenced thinking or behaviour.
Knowledge
Learning can occur through challenging and adverse experiences.

Involvement in a variety of activities can provide opportunities for personal development.
Understanding
Personal potential develops over time and can evolve from experiences.

Learning is a lifelong process.
Skills & Procedures
Examine changes in personal interests, strengths, and skills.

Reflect on personal skills and interests for continued development and growth.
Knowledge
Strategies that support resilience can include
  • identifying a purpose
  • seeking positive role models
  • focusing on the solution not the challenge
  • breaking down tasks into smaller, achievable goals
Understanding
Resilience may result in the increased ability to respond to future adversity.

Resilience is supported by developingment of perseverance over time.
Skills & Procedures
Describe strategies that support resilience.
Knowledge
Life experiences can result in
  • personal growth
  • acquisition of knowledge or skills
  • development of personal talents and potential
  • application of learning to produce favourable outcomes
Understanding
Life experiences can expose individuals to challenges and learning opportunities.


Skills & Procedures
Reflect on personal learning and development in a variety of experiences.
Knowledge
Strategies for learning and personal development can include
  • managing time
  • acknowledging feedback
  • prioritizing tasks
  • organizational skills
  • clarifying expectations
  • asking questions
  • reflection
  • establishing routines
Understanding
Individuals can apply a variety of strategies to maximize learning potential and support personal development.
Skills & Procedures
Develop and apply personal strategies to support learning and development.
Knowledge
Perseverance involves effort, courage, commitment, and belief in one’s abilities to be successful.

Personal success is unique to
each person.
Understanding
Perseverance is continuing with a difficult task for a short or long period of time.

Perseverance can enable individuals to succeed despite obstacles.
Skills & Procedures
Examine how challenging situations can involve perseverance.
Knowledge
Volunteering is an experience that contributes to the common good and provides individuals with opportunities to make meaningful contributions to the community.
Understanding
Each individual has the ability and potential to contribute to their community in different ways.
Skills & Procedures
Connect personal knowledge and skills to potential opportunities for volunteering and providing service to others in the community.
Knowledge
Exposure to a variety of volunteering experiences provides options when making decisions about life and career opportunities.
Understanding
Volunteering provides possibilities for social connectedness.
Skills & Procedures
Describe the effects of volunteering on self and the community.

Plan for potential volunteer opportunities in the school and community.
Knowledge
Perseverance is supported by
  • goal setting
  • practice
  • determination
  • stamina
  • self-regulation
  • reflection
Understanding
Reflection and feedback on success and failure provides opportunities for personal growth and learning.

Perseverance is finding ways to continue to improve skills and motivate oneself in difficult situations.
Skills & Procedures
Examine the connection between perseverance and personal growth and learning.

Explain how perseverance affects skill development and motivation.
Knowledge
Perseverance can be demonstrated by individuals, groups, or communities.

Understanding
Perseverance can lead to positive feelings when achieving personal or community goals.
Skills & Procedures
Connect perseverance to improvements in individual or community circumstances.
Knowledge
Discipline is taking proactive steps to protect and improve well-being.

Proactive steps to build discipline can include
  • motivation strategies
  • goal attainment strategies
  • responding positively to successes and challenges
Understanding
Discipline encourages a positive future and inclination to expect favourable life outcomes.
Skills & Procedures
Identify experiences in which discipline can have a positive effect on well-being.
Knowledge
Volunteerism is an experience of donating time, talent, and energy for the benefit of people and community.

Volunteerism can provide opportunities to
  • develop skills
  • explore talents and interests
  • contribute to the community
  • create a sense of satisfaction
  • build confidence and resiliency
  • provide a sense of commitment
Understanding
Volunteer experiences can enable individuals to function as balanced, contributing members of a community.
Skills & Procedures
Identify ways volunteering can contribute to a sense of purpose and belonging.

Knowledge
Protective factors can include
  • parents
  • caregivers
  • teachers
  • Knowledge Keepers
  • safe and caring schools
  • social groups
Understanding
Perseverance can be supported by protective factors within the community.
Skills & Procedures
Identify protective factors that can support perseverance.
Knowledge
Motivation strategies can include
  • focusing on positive aspects of situations or events
  • reflecting on gratitude
  • telling stories of success
  • seeking positive encouragement and supports
Understanding
Hope can be cultivated through applying motivation strategies.
Skills & Procedures
Apply motivation strategies in a variety of contexts.
Knowledge
Effects of perseverance on well-being can include
  • positive mental health
  • increased confidence
  • belief in one’s abilities to achieve specific goals
  • sense of accomplishment
  • lifelong learning
Understanding
Perseverance can have positive effects on well-being.
Skills & Procedures
Describe the effects of perseverance on well-being.
Knowledge
Goal achievement strategies that build hope can include
  • listing personal priorities
  • setting specific goals
  • ranking goals by importance
  • breaking goals into small steps
  • recognizing that everyone faces obstacles
  • developing creative ways to overcome obstacles
Understanding
Hope can be cultivated through applying strategies to achieve goals.
Skills & Procedures
Relate strategies to achieving goals in a variety of contexts.
Organizing Idea
Safety: A lifetime of optimal well-being is supported by prioritizing health and safety.
Guiding Question
How can taking responsibility impact safety?
Guiding Question
How can responsibility lead to a desired outcome?
Guiding Question
In what ways might risk influence the outcome of an action?
Learning Outcome
Students analyze and explain responsibility and how it can impact personal and group safety.
Learning Outcome
Students analyze responsibility and consider the impact on well-being.
Learning Outcome
Students examine risk and identify the factors that influence action.
Knowledge
Responsibility is the opportunity, ability, or right to act independently or make decisions.

Responsibility is making decisions to ensure self or others are not in unsafe and uncomfortable situations.
Understanding
Responsibility can impact personal and group safety.
Skills & Procedures
Describe responsibility and its impact on personal and group safety in a variety of contexts.
Knowledge
Responsibility is being accountable for actions and decisions and accepting the results or consequences.

Responsibility includes clearly communicating refusal or giving or obtaining consent.

Responsibility requires individuals to reflect on actions and decisions to manage and improve situations.
Understanding
Personal actions and decisions can affect physical, social-emotional, and financial well-being.
Skills & Procedures
Reflect on how the results or consequences of personal actions and decisions can affect well-being of oneself and others.
Knowledge
Risk is the overall assessment and identification of hazards related to personal safety and vulnerability.

Considering possible outcomes of risk taking can affect decisions regarding consent.

Risk involves taking action that may evoke a feeling of uncertainty, fear, and vulnerability.

Digital privacy is important to protect personal information.

The internet and social media can expose you to unwanted communication or harmful images and information, including explicit images.

Sharing explicit pictures of someone can be illegal.
Understanding
Taking measured risks can occur in stages.

Taking measured risks is more likely to occur when individuals feel safe, respected, and trusted.

Taking steps to ensure safe online and digital/social media practices can reduce risk.
Skills & Procedures
Discuss how feelings associated with risk taking affect actions and decisions.

Assess safety and vulnerability risks associated with use of digital technology, including intrusion of privacy, bullying, and freedom of expression and its legal limits.

Discuss the negative consequences of viewing explicit media.

Identify potential harms from online and social media use, and explain how to deal with unwanted communication or images.
Knowledge
Consent is critical to respecting others rights, feelings, and belongings.
Understanding
Responsibility is respecting the rights and feelings of others.
Skills & Procedures
Identify situations where responsibility supports the rights and feelings of others.
Knowledge
Responsibility can be developed by taking on leadership roles to promote safety of oneself and others.
Understanding
Personal roles and responsibilities include promoting the safety of oneself and others.
Skills & Procedures
Describe situations where responsible leadership supports the safety and well-being of oneself and others.
Knowledge
Short- or long-term risk can be managed or reduced through planning, rehearsal, and evaluation.
Understanding
Risk can lead to an increased likelihood of complications in various contexts.
Skills & Procedures
Describe positive and negative consequences and complications that may result from risk taking in various contexts.
Knowledge
Responsibility occurs in a variety of contexts, including
  • home
  • learning environment
  • workplace
  • community
  • online
  • social events and gatherings
Understanding
Responsibility includes an awareness of surroundings to determine the safety of a situation.
Skills & Procedures
Examine how responsibility can impact safety in a variety of situations.
Knowledge
Safety of oneself and others can be enhanced through community programs and supports, including first aid training and health professionals.

Responsibility to ensure the safety of oneself and others includes following
  • laws
  • rules
  • practices
  • protocols
  • policies
  • digital citizenship (responsible conduct and safety)
Understanding
Responsibility includes ensuring the safety of oneself and others.
Skills & Procedures
Identify laws, rules, practices, protocols, and policies that support safety and well-being in a variety of contexts.

Practise digital citizenship (responsible conduct and safety) by being considerate of others.
Knowledge
Risks of substance use can include
  • addiction
  • impaired brain development
  • decreased mental health
  • altered mood
  • impaired thinking
Understanding
Several risks connected to substance use can have short- and long-term effects.
Skills & Procedures
Recognize the risks associated with substance abuse.

Identify positive choices and actions that can reduce risks associated with substance abuse.
Knowledge
Aspects of life impacted by risk can include
  • mental health
  • physical well-being
  • environment
  • safety
  • financial well-being
Understanding
Risk has potential to positively or negatively impact several aspects of life.
Skills & Procedures
Reflect on the mental, physical, emotional, environmental, and financial impacts of risk taking in a variety of contexts.
Organizing Idea
Healthy Eating: A lifetime of optimal well-being and physical wellness is supported by prioritizing nutrition and healthy eating.
Guiding Question
How can nutrition influence health?
Guiding Question
To what extent does nutrition contribute to health and well-being?
Guiding Question
How might access to food affect nutrition?
Learning Outcome
Students investigate nutrition and explain how it informs decisions about food.
Learning Outcome
Students evaluate aspects of nutrition and examine their benefits to well-being.
Learning Outcome
Students examine access to food and its effect on making decisions related to nutrition.
Knowledge
Macronutrients include
  • fats
  • proteins
  • carbohydrates
  • water
Micronutrients include vitamins and minerals.
Understanding
Nutrients are grouped into the two categories of macronutrients and micronutrients.
Skills & Procedures
Research the ways nutrients contribute to brain and body functions.

Explain the effect of nutrition on well-being.
Knowledge
Nutrition and hydration can affect
  • learning
  • concentration
  • activity
  • behaviour
In First Nations, Métis, and Inuit communities, nutrition can contribute to holistic, medicinal, or healing practices that enhance physical and emotional well-being.
Understanding
Nutrition is essential to good health, disease prevention, and longevity of life.
Skills & Procedures
Describe how nutrition can affect physical and mental health and well-being.
Knowledge
Factors can include
  • climate
  • season
  • cost of food
  • budget
  • food-preparation skills
  • location
Access to food can include
  • the land
  • farms
  • gardens
  • grocery stores
  • farmers’ markets
  • restaurants
Whole foods can be more expensive than processed foods.
Understanding
Access to healthy and traditional foods is affected by a variety of factors.

Access to healthy and traditional foods is different for individuals.
Skills & Procedures
Identify factors that affect food access.
Knowledge
Sources of nutritional information can include
  • health professionals
  • Knowledge Keepers
  • Elders
  • the natural world
  • nutrition guidelines
  • food labels
Understanding
Credible nutritional information for making healthy decisions can come from a variety of sources.
Skills & Procedures
Identify credible sources of nutritional information to determine the requirements for healthy and balanced food choices.

Consider nutritional information that supports decisions related to healthy and balanced food choices.
Knowledge
Nutrition and hydration can affect body systems, including
  • cardiovascular
  • digestive
  • musculoskeletal
  • reproductive
Understanding
Nutrition provides energy and nourishment to the body and supports body systems.
Skills & Procedures
Research the effects of nutrition and hydration on body systems.
Knowledge
Food access is adequate availability of food that meets individual dietary and cultural needs and food preferences.

Lack of food access can affect well-being.
Understanding
Access to food affects nutritional intake and one’s ability to make healthy food choices.
Skills & Procedures
Relate food access to the ability to make nutritional food choices.

Discuss the effects of limited nutritional food choices on physical and mental well-being.
Knowledge
Food labels provide nutritional information on nutrient contents and ingredients.

Food portion sizes and number of servings inform healthy nutrition choices.

Food choices, including being vegetarian or vegan, can influence nutrition.
Understanding
Food choices can affect the ability to acquire essential nutrients.
Skills & Procedures
Explore benefits associated with various foods.

Investigate food choices that require alternative sources of nutrition.
Knowledge
Social and cultural experiences influence decisions related to healthy food choices.

First Nations, Métis, and Inuit cultural knowledge about healthy food choices are tied to the land.
Understanding
Nutrition sources and traditional and cultural practices are connected.

First Nations, Métis, and Inuit gatherings, ceremonies, practices, and protocols can influence heathy nutrition choices.
Skills & Procedures
Compare sources of nutrition from various cultures and traditions.
Knowledge
Contexts where nutrition choices may be affected can include
  • restaurants
  • social events
  • recreational events
  • workplace
  • learning environments
Cost of food can vary depending
on context.

Access to energy-dense fast foods is greater than access to healthier foods.
Understanding
Access within a variety of contexts can affect nutrition choices.
Skills & Procedures
Examine how access affects nutrition choices in a variety of contexts.

Compare cost of food in a variety of contexts.
Knowledge
Nutrition requirements change at various developmental ages.

Nutrition choices can be affected by individual eating cues, including hunger, appetite, and satiety.
Understanding
Specific activities have different nutritional requirements.

Nutrition and hydration may need to be adjusted in response to different nutritional requirements.
Skills & Procedures
Investigate how various personal factors can influence nutrition and hydration requirements.
Knowledge
Eating a variety of foods provides a balanced range of nutrients, including
  • fats
  • proteins
  • carbohydrates
  • vitamins
  • minerals
Food portion sizes and number of servings inform healthy nutrition choices.
Understanding
Nutrition can be improved through planning and preparation of healthy, balanced meals and snacks.
Skills & Procedures
Assess the nutritional value of snacks, meals, and daily meal plans.
Organizing Idea
Healthy Relationships: Personal well-being is supported through positive relationships built on communication, collaboration, empathy, and respect.
Guiding Question
How can resolving conflict and healthy relationships be mutually supportive?
Guiding Question
How might healthy relationships support understanding in various social contexts?
Guiding Question
How can perspectives influence healthy relationships?
Learning Outcome
Students reflect on resolution and draw conclusions about its value in healthy relationships in a variety of contexts.
Learning Outcome
Students acknowledge perspectives of self and others to develop collaboration in various social contexts.
Learning Outcome
Students consider and describe a variety of perspectives that support the development of healthy relationships.
Knowledge
Conflict resolution can occur using a variety of strategies, including
  • creating a safe environment
  • positive body language
  • respectful communication
  • negotiating skills
  • reflecting on actions taken
  • implementing solutions that seem most appropriate
  • diversifying approaches and making repeated efforts to solve a problem
Resolution requires personal responsibility and acknowledgement of conflict.
Understanding
Resolution supports healthy relationships.
Skills & Procedures
Describe strategies that can be used to support resolution to a problem, conflict, or challenge.
Knowledge
Perspectives can support collaboration through shared interpretations, understandings, and findings.

Perspectives can be influenced by
  • culture
  • virtues
  • peers
  • media
  • environment
  • experience
Understanding
Perspectives include how we perceive, understand, and feel in various social or physical activity contexts.

Perspectives can be individual or shared.

Perspectives are influenced by a variety of personal and environmental factors.
Skills & Procedures
Describe how experiences can affect individual or group perspectives.

Identify personal and environmental factors that influence perspectives.
Knowledge
Pro-social behaviours can include
  • accepting others
  • being cooperative
  • helping others
  • charity
  • honesty
  • acknowledging diversity
  • sharing
  • volunteering
Understanding
Healthy relationships and pro-social behaviours can be enhanced by considering the perspectives of others.
Skills & Procedures
Examine the effects of taking different perspectives on the development and maintenance of healthy relationships.
Knowledge
Bullying is repeated, deliberate, and targeted behaviour with intent to harm.

Bullying behaviour can be
  • verbal
  • social
  • relational
  • physical
  • digital
Roles individuals play in bullying include the bully, the bullied, and the bystander.

Actions to address bullying can include
  • speaking up
  • walking away
  • getting help
  • not responding
  • safely intervening
Individuals should be able to live in a healthy and safe environment, free from bullying of any kind; there is no good reason to bully anyone.
Understanding
Unhealthy relationships can be detrimental to social-emotional well-being.

It is important to not tolerate bullies, to resist peer pressure, and to stand up or speak out on behalf of self and others.
Skills & Procedures
Recognize relationships that may be unhealthy or harmful, including bullying.

Identify actions that can be taken when bullying occurs.
Knowledge
Individuals or groups may have shared perspectives.

Effective listening and communication skills include
  • listening for understanding
  • asking clarifying questions
  • checking for understanding
  • paraphrasing or restating statements
  • decoding
  • considering the audience
  • considering point of view
  • having respectful interactions
Understanding
Perspectives can be shaped or shared through effective listening and communication skills.

Establishing trust enables positive relationships between group members.
Skills & Procedures
Describe how listening and communication skills can support understanding of individual and group perspectives.

Identify ways to reach shared understandings when perspectives or opinions within a group are different.

Demonstrate respectful communication skills when working in small groups on movement tasks or challenges.
Knowledge
Perspectives of others within relationships should be clarified rather than assumed.

Perspective taking is recognizing and appreciating the point of view of others.

Empathy involves trying to understand or share the feelings of another person.
Understanding
Healthy relationships require developing an understanding that others may have different opinions, thoughts, feelings, beliefs, and needs.

Perspective can be gained by putting yourself in the place of others.

Skills & Procedures
Consider ways in which other diverse perspectives align or differ.

Identify how the consideration of others’ perspectives contributes to empathy.
Knowledge
First Nations, Métis, and Inuit communities have traditional events, processes, and ceremonies to renew relationships, restore balance, and reconcile conflict.
Understanding
In First Nations, Métis, and Inuit communities, resolution involves restoring harmony and balance to maintain individual and community well-being.
Skills & Procedures
Discuss the importance of traditional First Nations, Métis, or Inuit events and ceremonies and how they are effective for reconciling relationships.
Knowledge
Recognition and appreciation of social and cultural perspectives can contribute to acceptance, inclusion, and the common good.
Understanding
Perspectives can contribute to a sense of belonging and interconnectedness.
Skills & Procedures
Examine the connections between perspectives and social and emotional well-being.
Knowledge
Empathy can be improved through
  • role modelling
  • instruction
  • practice
  • reflection
Understanding
Understanding the perspectives of others is linked to empathy.

Development of empathy can reduce bullying behaviours.
Skills & Procedures
Examine how empathy toward others with different perspectives supports healthy relationships.

Knowledge
Resolution involves recognizing that actions have consequences for oneself, others, and the community.
Understanding
Resolution requires the sharing of multiple points of view.
Skills & Procedures
Explain the significance of acknowledging conflict and taking responsibility when working toward resolution.

Discuss multiple points of view involved in a resolution.
Organizing Idea
Growth and Development: Decision making that optimizes personal health and well-being is informed by understanding growth and development.
Guiding Question
How is change reflected through development?
Guiding Question
In what ways can puberty and the capacity for human reproduction reflect change?
Guiding Question
How can human reproduction support growth and development?
Learning Outcome
Students examine how development and puberty are connected.
Learning Outcome
Students examine the connection between puberty and the capacity for human reproduction.
Learning Outcome
Students investigate human reproduction from fertilization to birth.
Knowledge
Puberty is a period of rapid growth and progression from childhood through adolescence to adulthood.

Puberty marks the beginning of the life stage of adolescence.

A growth spurt can be an indicator of the beginning of puberty.

A growth spurt can include change in an adolescent’s height and weight.

Puberty prepares the human body to be able to produce children.
Understanding
Puberty can allow individuals to take on new roles and responsibilities and experience new learning opportunities.
Skills & Procedures
Recognize that puberty marks the beginning of a new life stage as individuals move toward becoming mature adults.
Knowledge
Each part of the human reproductive system serves a specific function.

The human reproductive system and other body systems are interconnected.
Understanding
Reproductive health includes human reproductive processes, functions, and systems at all stages of life.
Skills & Procedures
Identify the basic components of the human reproductive system.

Describe the functions of the various components of the human reproductive system using correct terminology.
Knowledge
Pregnancy can occur as a result of sexual intercourse.

Pregnancy can be confirmed by a test.

Abstinence means choosing not to have sexual intercourse.

Sexual activity should never be forced or make individuals feel uncomfortable.

Pressuring or forcing someone to engage in sexual activity has serious adverse moral, social, and legal consequences.

Self-control is a necessary virtue.

It is important to think clearly before giving consent to anything that may have long-term physical, emotional, or social consequences.

Different types of artificial birth control available in Canada can have varying levels of effectiveness and risks.

Sexual activity can expose individuals to the risk of sexually transmitted infections, which can be incurable.

Some birth control measures can lower the risk of sexually transmitted infections.
Understanding
Pregnancy is a natural human process.

Abstinence is the most effective way to prevent pregnancy.

Sexual activity without consent is sexual assault and is never okay.

Birth control can help prevent pregnancy.

Some methods of birth control choices can also help prevent sexually transmitted infections.
Skills & Procedures
Identify possible outcomes of human reproductive activity.

Identify the most effective ways to prevent pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections.
Knowledge
Puberty is a process of maturation that includes major changes.

The age at which puberty begins, its duration, and the rate of progression differs from adolescent to adolescent.

Physical changes in puberty can include
  • changes in body size
  • growth of body hair
  • skin changes
  • voice changes
Social-emotional changes in puberty can include
  • increased intensity of feelings
  • friendships becoming more important
  • mood swings
  • emphasis on body image
  • wanting to fit in and be liked
  • feeling lonely and confused
  • thinking about the future
Understanding
Differences in the physical characteristics of males and females can occur after puberty.

Puberty progresses differently for each individual.

Awareness of changes that happen in puberty support mental health and emotional well-being.
Skills & Procedures
Describe changes that happen during puberty.
Knowledge
Changes in puberty can include
  • increases in size and functioning of the sex glands
  • maturation of the reproductive organs
  • appearance of secondary sex characteristics
  • production of hormones, including estrogen, progesterone, and testosterone
Understanding
Puberty signals changes in a person’s reproductive capability.
Skills & Procedures
Describe the how physical changes in puberty affect reproductive capability.
Knowledge
Factors that influence reproductive decisions can include
  • age
  • financial preparedness
  • health
  • family, caregiver, and community supports
Understanding
In Canada, individuals have the right to make decisions about reproductive health and can decide if, when, and how often to reproduce.
Skills & Procedures
Discuss factors that can influence decisions related to reproductive health.
Knowledge
Some cultures have different celebrations that recognize the transition into puberty.

First Nations, Métis, and Inuit rites of passage recognize significant transitions in an individual’s life.
Understanding
Cultural traditions can mark the transition from childhood to adulthood.
Skills & Procedures
Recognize that First Nations, Métis, or Inuit entry into puberty can be accompanied by opportunities that support the ongoing transition into adulthood.
Knowledge
Menstruation is the monthly shedding of the lining of the uterus.

Hormonal changes regulate ovulation.

Fertilization is more likely to occur at a specific point in the menstrual cycle.

Fertilization occurs when a human egg and a sperm cell combine.

Sperm are reproductive cells that are produced in the testicles.

Some males may experience release of fluids at night.
Understanding
Both female and male bodies have important roles in human reproduction.

Human reproduction includes a sequence of biological processes.

Puberty in females is often associated with the process of menstruation.

Puberty in males can be associated with the onset of nocturnal emissions.
Skills & Procedures
Describe the processes of menstruation and sperm production.
Knowledge
The length of pregnancy is approximately nine months.

The length of a pregnancy is divided into three stages called trimesters.

A child born before 37 weeks of pregnancy is called a pre-term birth.

Fetal development during pregnancy can be adversely affected by
  • poor nutrition
  • smoking
  • alcohol use
  • drug use
Adverse effects can include
  • fetal alcohol syndrome
  • premature delivery
  • increased neonatal mortality
Understanding
Fetal development occurs in stages throughout a pregnancy.
Skills & Procedures
Examine fetal development in each of the three trimesters.

Discuss factors that can adversely affect fetal development.
Knowledge
Adolescents may have questions about puberty and its associated changes.

Credible sources of support during puberty can include
  • health professionals
  • counsellors
  • parents or caregivers
  • Knowledge Keepers
  • Elders
Understanding
Sources of support are available for adolescents during the exciting and anxious time of puberty.
Skills & Procedures
Identify credible sources in the community to support individuals through the changes that occur during puberty.
Knowledge
Genetics is the study of heredity, or how certain features pass from parents to their offspring.

Environmental factors can include physical activity, nutrition, and stress.
Understanding
Puberty can be dependent on genetics and environmental factors.
Skills & Procedures
Identify genetic and environmental factors that can impact the onset, duration, and rate of progression of puberty.
Knowledge
Supportive health practices for pregnancy can include
  • maintaining a healthy weight
  • adequate nutrition
  • early and consistent medical visits
Understanding
Supportive health practices can enhance reproductive health, healthy pregnancy, and safe childbirth.
Skills & Procedures
Identify health practices that support a healthy pregnancy.
Knowledge
Changes to hygiene habits can include
  • using deodorant or antiperspirant
  • showering or bathing more frequently
  • changing and washing clothes regularly
  • reduced sharing of personal belongings
Understanding
Puberty can require changes in personal hygiene habits.
Skills & Procedures
Identify how personal hygiene habits may need to be modified as the body changes.
Knowledge
Credible sources of reproductive health information can include
  • parents and caregivers
  • Elders
  • health professionals
  • teachers
  • Knowledge Keepers
Understanding
Credible sources can provide accurate information on reproductive health and support healthy reproductive decisions.
Skills & Procedures
Identify credible sources of reproductive health information.
Knowledge
There are diverse traditional, cultural, and religious beliefs regarding reproductive health.
Understanding
Traditional, cultural, and religious beliefs can affect understandings of human reproduction.
Skills & Procedures
Consider ways that human reproduction can be influenced by traditional, cultural, and religious beliefs.
Guiding Question
How is change reflected through development?
Guiding Question
How are maturation, growth, and development interconnected?
Guiding Question
How can decision making support change during maturation?
Learning Outcome
Students examine development related to stages of life.
Learning Outcome
Students investigate maturation and identify changes during adolescence.
Learning Outcome
Students analyze the benefits and challenges of maturation during adolescence.
Knowledge
Social-emotional changes can include
  • self-image
  • self-confidence
  • humility
  • emotions
  • behaviour
  • motivation
  • relationships
  • social skills
Understanding
Social-emotional factors influence positive mental health and well-being.
Skills & Procedures
Describe changes related to social-emotional development.

Connect how an individual’s development can have an effect on behaviours, motivations, emotions, and choice.
Knowledge
Changes in the brain associated with maturation can include
  • greater efficiency and effectiveness
  • increased connectivity among brain regions
  • increased neurons
  • growth of myelin
  • changes in the frontal lobe, pre-frontal cortex, and executive function
Understanding
Maturation occurs from birth and is significant during adolescence.

Maturation can result in changes in the brain.
Skills & Procedures
Describe the impact maturation has on the brain.
Knowledge
Changes during maturation may have implications on well-being.

Social changes during maturation can include
  • curiosity in trying new things
  • shifting friendships
  • questioning of personal beliefs
  • increased importance of peers
  • increased financial decision making
  • changes in self-knowledge and self-image
Understanding
Maturation can result in changes in coordination when performing skills and activities.

Maturation can result in an increase in ability, adaptability, and capacity in a variety of contexts.

Skills & Procedures
Consider the implications of physical, cognitive, emotional, and social changes during maturation in adolescence.
Knowledge
Social development is developing an awareness of a variety of social and cultural contexts.

Social development can include
  • expanding social networks
  • taking on new responsibilities
  • embracing new challenges
  • solving conflicts and compromising
Understanding
Social development helps build and maintain positive relationships.
Skills & Procedures
Consider how to interact and respond to others in a variety of contexts and situations.
Knowledge
Maturation is a process that is different for every individual.

Physical changes can include significant changes in height and weight.

Bones grow faster than muscle during maturation in adolescence.

Behavioural changes can include
  • setting personal goals
  • risk taking
  • increased awareness of financial decision making
  • seeking independence
  • consideration of others
Cognitive changes can include
  • ability to retain, process, and organize larger amounts of information
  • enhanced critical-thinking, reasoning, and decision-making skills
  • strong willingness to learn based on interest and personal relevance
  • analyzing situations with a cause-and-effect relationship
  • conceptualizing hypothetical scenarios
Understanding
Maturation involves an awareness of the interconnectedness of physical, cognitive, and behavioural changes.

The way individuals think of themselves, and describe themselves to others, is unique and should be respected.

Maturation can result in uneven bone and muscle development.

Maturation results in changes in the body that can occur at different rates.
Skills & Procedures
Connect physical, cognitive, and behavioural changes that occur during adolescence.
Knowledge
Maturation can be supported through various personal and environmental factors, including
  • reducing toxic stress
  • positive mental health
  • immunization
  • regular physical activity
  • avoidance of substance use
  • adequate sleep
  • adequate rest
  • proper nutrition
Understanding
Maturation can be supported through various personal and environmental factors.
Skills & Procedures
Identify personal and environmental factors that can influence well-being and maturation during adolescence.

Connect how personal and environmental factors can influence decision making during adolescence.
Knowledge
Intellectual development is the critical and creative use of the mind to its fullest potential.

Intellectual development can include
  • concentration
  • perception
  • problem solving
  • memory
  • increasingly complex ways of thinking
Understanding
Intellectual development can enable individuals to think, reason, and organize ideas and thoughts to make informed decisions.
Skills & Procedures
Describe changes related to intellectual development.
Knowledge
Fluctuations in energy levels and metabolism can result in
  • extreme restlessness
  • fatigue and changes in sleep patterns
  • increased nutritional demands
  • increased appetites
  • improper decision making regarding nutritional choices
Understanding
Maturation can lead to increased nutritional demands, fluctuations in metabolism, and changing energy levels.
Skills & Procedures
Connect physical needs to maturation changes during adolescence.
Knowledge
Social-emotional, intellectual, and spiritual development can include
  • listening
  • observing
  • speaking
  • speaking first language
  • understanding
  • learning
Understanding
Social-emotional, intellectual, and spiritual development are supported in many ways.
Skills & Procedures
Recognize that observing, interacting, learning, and understanding are important ways of supporting development.