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Physical Education and Wellness

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Physical education and wellness curriculum supports a strength-based focus that promotes the development of the whole individual and aims to nurture students in their pursuit of a healthy and active life. From Kindergarten to Grade 6, students are supported on their journey of achieving optimal well-being through a healthy school community that emphasizes
  • movement skills development
  • active living
  • growth and physical development
  • safety
  • personal development, mental health, and well-being
  • nutrition and healthy eating
  • healthy relationships
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Organizing Idea
Active Living: A healthy way of life includes regular practice of meaningful active living.
Guiding Question
How can a variety of physical activities be incorporated into an active lifestyle?
Guiding Question
In what ways can a variety of physical activities contribute to active living?
Guiding Question
What is the relationship between motivation and active living?
Learning Outcome
Students examine how choices support participation in physical activities.
Learning Outcome
Students examine how a variety of physical activities affects active living.
Learning Outcome
Students examine the effect of motivation on physical activity.
Knowledge
Components of physical fitness include
  • strength
  • flexibility
  • cardiorespiratory endurance
  • other types of endurance
Increased levels of physical fitness allow people to
  • be active for longer periods of time
  • have more strength
  • be more flexible
  • have healthier hearts and lungs
Understanding
A variety of physical activities can improve all components of physical fitness.

Participation in a variety of physical activities supports physical well-being.
Skills & Procedures
Describe how a variety of physical activities can make the body stronger and better coordinated.

Participate in physical activities that support different components of physical fitness.
Knowledge
Active living options can vary for individuals over time due to various factors, including
  • time
  • preference
  • injury
  • cost of activities and programs
  • access
  • availability
  • natural and built environments
  • sense of purpose
Understanding
Choice in physical activity can enhance exposure to a variety of active living options.

New activities of increasing challenge and complexity can build confidence.
Skills & Procedures
Investigate how the choice of physical activity may change over time in relation to various factors.

Experience and reflect upon the benefits of building knowledge and skills by playing regular team sports and individual sports every year.
Knowledge
Motivation is the process that initiates, guides, and maintains goal-oriented behaviours.

Factors influencing motivation can be
  • biological
  • social
  • emotional
  • cognitive
  • cultural
  • community
External motivation can include the benefits or rewards that encourage individuals to engage in physical activity.

Internal motivation can include the enjoyment, pleasure, or satisfaction that encourage individuals to engage in physical activity.
Understanding
Motivation and active living are interconnected.

Motivation can be internal and external and can change over time.

Motivation in physical activity can be enhanced when individuals feel safe, are connected with others, and have a sense of accomplishment.
Skills & Procedures
Describe internal and external factors that influence motivation to be physically active.
Knowledge
A plan involves identifying a goal and then listing the steps needed to reach that goal.

Planning for active living is an important step in leading a healthy life.
Understanding
Participation in a variety of physical activities enables individuals to pursue goals and plan activities that satisfy personal interests and preferences.

Exploration of a variety of physical activities can build transferable skills, self-knowledge, and resilience in the face of challenges.
Skills & Procedures
Participate in physical activities that lead to growth in abilities and resilience in overcoming challenges.
Knowledge
Flexibility is the ability of joints and muscles to move through a full range of motion.

Muscular strength is the maximal force produced by the muscles.

Muscular endurance is the ability of muscles to sustain a force for a period of time.

Cardiorespiratory endurance is the ability of the heart and lungs to provide muscles with oxygen and blood to produce work over a given period of time.
Understanding
A variety of physical activities can help individuals to plan and achieve physical fitness goals.

Courage plays a role in one’s participation in physical activity.

Courage increases one’s likeliness to achieve activity goals.
Skills & Procedures
Select a variety of physical activities to align with physical fitness goals.
Knowledge
Motivation increases the potential for regular physical activity.
Understanding
Choice in rewarding and engaging physical activity can foster motivation.
Skills & Procedures
Consider why motivation is important to active living.
Knowledge
Each season offers different opportunities for active living.

Diverse environments can present opportunities and barriers for active living.
Understanding
Making healthy decisions in diverse environments builds courage and resilience in the face of challenges.
Skills & Procedures
Overcome potential barriers by modifying plans to make the best of changing circumstances.
Knowledge
Enjoyment can influence choice related to physical activity.

Physical activity can be enjoyed by an individual or as a group.

Rewarding and engaging physical activity can foster motivation.
Understanding
Healthy choices related to physical activity can lead to higher levels of interest and engagement.
Skills & Procedures
Engage in physical activities that are enjoyable or rewarding.
Knowledge
Refinement of skills in adventure and challenge physical activities can support motivation.
Understanding
Safe engagement in adventure and challenge physical activities can broaden skills for active living.

Refinement of movement skills and motivation are interconnected.
Skills & Procedures
Examine ways adventure and challenge physical activities introduce and support motivation for skill development.
Knowledge
Participation in risk-taking and adventurous play with reasonable risk can broaden skills for active living.
Understanding
Participation in active living provides individuals with options to develop a sense of ownership and independence.
Skills & Procedures
Participate in activities that develop a sense of ownership and independence.
Knowledge
Awareness of community programs, activity spaces, and people who can support physical activity is helpful when planning for active living.
Understanding
Involvement in a variety of physical activities can be supported by local communities.
Skills & Procedures
Participate in physical activities that are available and accessible within local communities.
Organizing Idea
Movement Skill Development: A healthy way of life includes regular movement.
Guiding Question
How can elements of movement support movement competence?
Guiding Question
How can elements of movement support active living?
Guiding Question
How can diverse movement patterns contribute to success across physical activities?
Learning Outcome
Students investigate and describe how elements of movement support physical activity.
Learning Outcome
Students analyze and explain how elements of movement are integrated to support physical activity.
Learning Outcome
Students plan, adapt, and demonstrate various movement patterns to enhance skill development.
Knowledge
Locomotor movements can include sliding and chasing.

Non-locomotor movements can include twisting, rising up, and lowering.

Object manipulation movements can involve
  • sending objects, including punting and striking
  • retaining objects, including cradling
  • receiving objects, including catching and collecting
Elements of movement include space, direction, and effort.
Understanding
Elements of movement can be modified to make creative movements.
Skills & Procedures
Apply specific movement elements, including space, direction, and effort, when engaging in physical activity.
Knowledge
Elements of movement include space, direction, and effort.

Locomotor movements can include dodging and crossover.

Non-locomotor movements can include lifting, extending, and flexing.
Understanding
Elements of movement are integrated through various combinations to create movement.

Combinations of elements can affect various movement skills.
Skills & Procedures
Integrate elements of movement in various physical activities.

Explore sports and physical activities, such as hockey, lacrosse, and basketball, that are significant to Alberta’s history.

Knowledge
Movement patterns can include locomotor, non-locomotor, and object manipulation.
Understanding
Movement patterns are combinations of movement skills.

Patterns can be a planned set of movements that support success across a variety of physical activities.
Skills & Procedures
Combine movement skills to perform movement patterns in a variety of physical activities.
Knowledge
Space is the area around or taken up by the body.

Space can be
  • general
  • personal
  • in relation to people, objects, and the surrounding environment
Understanding
The element of space can be explored through body movement.
Skills & Procedures
Adjust movement in response to the element of space.
Knowledge
Object manipulation movements can involve
  • sending objects, including volleying
  • retaining objects, including dribbling
  • receiving objects, including catching and collecting
Understanding
Elements of movement can be manipulated to improve accuracy and control.
Skills & Procedures
Perform elements of movement when receiving, sending, and retaining an object using various parts of the body and equipment.

Manipulate movement elements to improve efficiency, accuracy, and control.
Knowledge
Patterns are sequences of movements.

Two-part sequences of movement can include
  • run and catch
  • run and throw
  • toss and hit
Three-part sequences of movement can include
  • run, turn, and catch
  • walk, turn, and throw
  • run, jump, and send
  • hop, skip, and jump
  • run, jump, and land
Between 1763 and 1900, prominent Indigenous and Canadian physical activities, which featured various movement patterns, were codified and regularized, including
  • curling
  • ice hockey
  • basketball
  • lacrosse
  • skiing
  • soccer
  • skating
Understanding
Patterns can repeat in a predictable manner.

Movement patterns can be expanded to include new and novel physical activity skills.
Skills & Procedures
Consider sequencing and repetition of movement patterns when engaging in locomotor, non-locomotor, and object-manipulation activities.
Knowledge
Direction is body movement in various directions, levels, and pathways.

Directions include
  • forward
  • backward
  • up
  • down
  • left
  • right
  • lateral
  • diagonal
Levels include elevations that are
  • low
  • medium
  • high
Pathways include
  • zigzag
  • over
  • under
  • curved
  • linear
  • wavy
Understanding
The element of direction can be manipulated by the body.
Skills & Procedures
Demonstrate directional movement in physical activity.
Knowledge
Elements of movement include space, direction, and effort.

Patterns and elements of movement are featured prominently in rhythmic and expressive activities, including folk dance.
Understanding
Patterns can be improved by adjusting elements of movement.
Skills & Procedures
Adapt elements of movement to enhance movement patterns.

Identify patterns and elements of movement that are visible in rhythmic and expressive activities.
Knowledge
Force involves a push or a pull.

Forces can be strong or light.

Speed can be
  • slow
  • fast
  • sustained
  • sudden
Time can involve tempo, beat, and rhythm.
Understanding
The element of effort determines speed, time, and force.
Skills & Procedures
Experiment with effort in a variety of movement contexts.
Guiding Question
How can elements of movement and tactics support movement competence?
Guiding Question
How can elements of movement and tactics support active living?
Guiding Question
How might tactics support decision making in dynamic physical activity contexts?
Learning Outcome
Students examine and integrate tactics in a variety of physical activity contexts.
Learning Outcome
Students analyze strategies and tactics that support improvement of performance.
Learning Outcome
Students identify and implement strategies and tactics in a variety of physical activities.
Knowledge
Tactics are purposeful movements applied by individuals and groups and can include
  • changing direction
  • changing speed
  • passing an object
  • changing levels
Understanding
Tactics function to support a desired outcome or goal.
Skills & Procedures
Apply tactics in a variety of physical activity contexts.

Assess the effectiveness of tactics applied in a variety of physical activities.

Knowledge
Strategies are actions and choices used to set and achieve goals and enhance outcomes.

Strategies and tactics can be
  • individual
  • group
  • offensive
  • defensive
Understanding
Strategies and tactics can vary based on number of participants and approach.
Skills & Procedures
Practise offensive and defensive strategies and tactics in a variety of physical activities.
Knowledge
Strategic and tactical strengths can include
  • specific movement skills
  • communication
  • leadership
  • collaboration
  • prior experience
  • knowledge of game play
Understanding
Strategies and tactics take into consideration personal strengths and the strengths of others.
Skills & Procedures
Adjust strategies and tactics based on the strengths of participants in various physical activities and games.
Knowledge
Tactics are responses to other participants and changing situations.
Understanding
Tactics can be spontaneous, creative, and practised.
Skills & Procedures
Implement a variety of tactics in response to other participants and changing situations.
Knowledge
Similar strategies and tactics exist across physical activities.

Understanding
Strategies and tactics can be transferred across physical activities to improve individual or group success.
Skills & Procedures
Transfer strategies and tactics across various physical activities
Knowledge
Strategies and tactics can include
  • reducing open spaces by working with others
  • understanding the need to follow or cover players
  • drawing defenders toward self to create space for teammates
  • using the depth and width of a playing area to create space
Understanding
Creative thinking is required to generate strategies and tactics.
Skills & Procedures
Choreograph creative strategies and tactics.
Knowledge
Tactics in First Nations, Métis, and Inuit physical activities and games help develop skills for everyday life.
Understanding
Tactics in First Nations, Métis, and Inuit communities honour place and are learned through traditional games and physical activities.

Tactics include skills that can be understood through the sharing of generational knowledge.
Skills & Procedures
Investigate the origin and purpose of tactics applied in First Nations, Métis, or Inuit physical activities and games.


Knowledge
Roles can include
  • leader
  • follower
  • offender
  • defender
  • chaser
  • teammate
  • opponent
Understanding
Strategies and tactics can require team members to have specific roles and responsibilities.
Skills & Procedures
Apply strategies and tactics that capitalize on the strengths of individuals and groups.

Practise strategies and tactics in a variety of roles.
Knowledge
Strategies and tactics include skill execution and anticipation.

Strategies and tactics can include
  • modifying movement skills based on the task
  • adapting and combining skills in response to purpose
  • selecting the best option based on opposition’s position
  • selecting the best option based on personal strengths and opposition’s capabilities
  • positioning to create advantage
Understanding
Strategies and tactics involve making decisions with limited time and space.
Skills & Procedures
Demonstrate decision-making through the application of strategies and tactics.

Reflect on the outcomes of strategic and tactical decisions.
Knowledge
Strategies and tactical actions and formations can include
  • changing direction
  • positioning of players
  • adjusting elements of movement
  • use of equipment
  • time of possession
Understanding
Strategy and tactics can involve actions or formations that enhance performance.
Skills & Procedures
Implement strategies and tactics to improve performance.

Reflect on strategies and tactics used in various physical activities to enhance performance.

Knowledge
Physical activity and game structures can include
  • rules
  • time
  • positions
  • boundaries
  • safety considerations
  • objective of game
Understanding
Tactics require an understanding of how games and physical activities are structured.
Skills & Procedures
Assess the effectiveness of tactics in a variety of physical activity and game structures.

Recognize how changes in rules influence the tactics being used.
Knowledge
Modification for game situations can include
  • changes in the environment
  • number of participants
  • equipment used
  • rule changes
Understanding
Strategies and tactics can be adapted or changed when the game situation is modified.
Skills & Procedures
Modify strategies and tactics based on changing game situations.
Knowledge
Tactics and skills have enabled First Nations, Métis, and Inuit to effectively adapt to diverse geographical challenges.
Understanding
Tactics and skills historically used by First Nations, Métis, and Inuit for survival on the land have been adapted and applied in contemporary settings.
Skills & Procedures
Explore how traditional First Nations, Métis, or Inuit tactics have been integrated into contemporary settings for effective use.
Guiding Question
How can teamwork support positive interactions?
Guiding Question
How can teamwork enhance participation in physical activity?
Guiding Question
What is the relationship between collaboration and physical activity?
Learning Outcome
Students investigate and describe how teamwork supports positive interactions during physical activity.
Learning Outcome
Students analyze and explain how teamwork enhances participation in physical activity.
Learning Outcome
Students examine how collaboration influences physical activity.
Knowledge
Teamwork allows opportunities for individuals to explore
  • interests
  • gifts
  • skills
  • talents
  • virtues
Understanding
Teamwork provides opportunities for individuals to contribute to team efforts and goals.
Skills & Procedures
Explore opportunities to contribute to teamwork.

Knowledge
Team success is optimized through the contribution of all members.

Team members show accountability by being responsible for their actions or decisions.
Understanding
Teamwork provides individuals with opportunities to be accountable for their contributions.
Skills & Procedures
Reflect on contributions made during team activities.
Knowledge
Collaboration is working with others to achieve a common goal, including exchanging ideas and sharing responsibilities.

Collaboration during physical activity can involve
  • identifying goals
  • planning strategy
  • exchanging ideas
  • making and implementing decisions
  • evaluating success
  • co-constructing experiences
Understanding
Teamwork requires collaboration to create and enhance strategies.

Skills & Procedures
Practise collaboration during physical activity
Knowledge
Teamwork creates opportunities to build relationships and create a sense of purpose and belonging.
Understanding
Encouragement of others can support positive interactions during physical activities.
Skills & Procedures
Engage in positive interactions that support teamwork.
Knowledge
Teamwork strategies can include
  • constructive feedback
  • clarifying rules
  • clarifying role expectations
  • creating a safe environment
  • praise and encouragement of others
  • consideration of individual and group strengths
Understanding
Teamwork can involve individuals creating and enhancing strategies in physical activity.
Skills & Procedures
Demonstrate effective teamwork strategies during physical activity.
Knowledge
Consideration of team perspectives can support decision making and the achievement of goals.
Understanding
Teamwork acknowledges the perspectives of all members.
Skills & Procedures
Respect the contributions and perspectives of others when working together to make decisions or achieve team goals.
Knowledge
Participants can promote teamwork, safety, and positive outcomes through contributions made in different roles.

Communication skills can help establish roles and responsibilities.
Understanding
Team performance can be enhanced through effective communication.
Skills & Procedures
Experience a variety of roles and responsibilities that support team performance.

Communicate the impact of role clarity and responsibilities during physical activity.

Organizing Idea
Character Development: Exploration of life opportunities and virtues develops resiliency and personal talents and promotes lifelong learning.
Guiding Question
How are roles connected to character development?
Guiding Question
How can a variety of life experiences influence resiliency and perseverance?
Guiding Question
How can a variety of life experiences influence resiliency and perseverance?
Learning Outcome
Students analyze the contribution of different roles to the development of personal talents, virtues, and resilience.
Learning Outcome
Students interpret and reflect how resiliency and perseverance can be influenced by a variety of life experiences.
Learning Outcome
Students reflect and analyze how personal talents, virtues, and the development of perseverance are supported through life experiences.
Knowledge
Community, social, and work roles can require certain actions, behaviours, and responsibilities.

Individuals can hold multiple roles at one time.

Roles can vary between
  • cultures
  • organizations
  • communities
  • families
Understanding
Roles and occupations have requirements, purposes, and expectations.
Skills & Procedures
Examine the requirements, purposes, and expectations of a variety of roles and occupations.
Knowledge
Individuals can seek out experiences based on their
  • interests
  • talents
  • desired outcomes
  • curiosity
  • personal enjoyment
  • ambitions
Experiences can occur in variety of contexts, including
  • physical
  • social
  • emotional
  • financial
  • career
Understanding
Experiences can be individual or shared and can occur in a variety of contexts.

Experiences can provide a sense of purpose and belonging.
Skills & Procedures
Determine a variety of contexts in which experience can be individual or shared.

Investigate experiences in a variety of contexts.
Knowledge
Life experiences can inform
  • strengths
  • preferences
  • areas of growth
  • beliefs
  • attitudes
  • decision making
  • virtues
Understanding
Life experiences can influence understanding of events or situations and responses to them.
Skills & Procedures
Examine how life experiences can shape understanding over time.
Knowledge
Family structures can vary, may include extended family, and may consist of a single parent, a mother and a father, two fathers, or two mothers.

Children may go back and forth between more than one family.

Positive role models can inspire individuals to develop personal talents and potential.
Understanding
Families can have a variety of structures in Canada.

Roles are influenced by family, role models, learning environments, and community.

Roles are established and maintained through culture and relationships with people and the land.
Skills & Procedures
Investigate how personal talents and potential are influenced by role models.
Knowledge
Experiences can be represented through places, languages, and cultural artifacts.

Experiences can represent personal development.
Understanding
Experiences on the land are significant to learning and personal development in First Nations, Métis, and Inuit communities.
Skills & Procedures
Discuss how experiences in places or with artifacts hold significant meaning.
Knowledge
Life experiences are the effects or influences of an event or subject on an individual.
Understanding
Events or situations provide opportunities for gaining life experiences.
Skills & Procedures
Identify life experiences that have influenced thinking or behaviour.
Knowledge
Roles can connect to specific life stages to provide individuals with opportunities to develop
  • talents
  • assets
  • personalities
  • attributes
  • virtues
  • strengths
  • resiliency
Understanding
Individuals can assume various roles in their lifetime, depending on life circumstances or events.

Involvement in a variety of roles can facilitate resiliency and the exploration of life and career opportunities.
Skills & Procedures
Examine how life and career stages or circumstances can influence roles.

Explore the interconnection between roles and resiliency.
Knowledge
Strategies that support resilience can include
  • identifying a purpose
  • seeking positive role models
  • focusing on the solution not the challenge
  • breaking down tasks into smaller, achievable goals
Understanding
Resilience may result in the increased ability to respond to future adversity.

Resilience is supported by developingment of perseverance over time.
Skills & Procedures
Describe strategies that support resilience.
Knowledge
Life experiences can result in
  • personal growth
  • acquisition of knowledge or skills
  • development of personal talents and potential
  • application of learning to produce favourable outcomes
Understanding
Life experiences can expose individuals to challenges and learning opportunities.


Skills & Procedures
Reflect on personal learning and development in a variety of experiences.
Knowledge
The ability to adjust to various situations can enable individuals to meet commitments, expectations, and tasks.
Understanding
Self-regulation helps individuals to engage with commitments, expectations, and tasks.

Individuals can use self-regulation to adjust to various situations.
Skills & Procedures
Practise self-regulation to maintain engagement in a variety of situations.
Knowledge
Perseverance involves effort, courage, commitment, and belief in one’s abilities to be successful.

Personal success is unique to
each person.
Understanding
Perseverance is continuing with a difficult task for a short or long period of time.

Perseverance can enable individuals to succeed despite obstacles.
Skills & Procedures
Examine how challenging situations can involve perseverance.
Knowledge
Volunteering is an experience that contributes to the common good and provides individuals with opportunities to make meaningful contributions to the community.
Understanding
Each individual has the ability and potential to contribute to their community in different ways.
Skills & Procedures
Connect personal knowledge and skills to potential opportunities for volunteering and providing service to others in the community.
Knowledge
Resilience is the capacity to manage adversity or stress in effective ways.
Understanding
Managing emotions supports the development of resilience.
Skills & Procedures
Practise managing emotions in a variety of situations.
Knowledge
Perseverance is supported by
  • goal setting
  • practice
  • determination
  • stamina
  • self-regulation
  • reflection
Understanding
Reflection and feedback on success and failure provides opportunities for personal growth and learning.

Perseverance is finding ways to continue to improve skills and motivate oneself in difficult situations.
Skills & Procedures
Examine the connection between perseverance and personal growth and learning.

Explain how perseverance affects skill development and motivation.
Knowledge
Perseverance can be demonstrated by individuals, groups, or communities.

Understanding
Perseverance can lead to positive feelings when achieving personal or community goals.
Skills & Procedures
Connect perseverance to improvements in individual or community circumstances.
Knowledge
Resiliency and self-regulation resources can include
  • trustworthy adults
  • school counsellors
  • healthcare professionals
  • community agencies
  • trustworthy peers
Understanding
Resources are available when self-regulation strategies are not effective or when an individual is feeling overwhelmed.
Skills & Procedures
Create a plan to identify self-regulation resources that can be accessed when needed.
Knowledge
Volunteerism is an experience of donating time, talent, and energy for the benefit of people and community.

Volunteerism can provide opportunities to
  • develop skills
  • explore talents and interests
  • contribute to the community
  • create a sense of satisfaction
  • build confidence and resiliency
  • provide a sense of commitment
Understanding
Volunteer experiences can enable individuals to function as balanced, contributing members of a community.
Skills & Procedures
Identify ways volunteering can contribute to a sense of purpose and belonging.

Knowledge
Protective factors can include
  • parents
  • caregivers
  • teachers
  • Knowledge Keepers
  • safe and caring schools
  • social groups
Understanding
Perseverance can be supported by protective factors within the community.
Skills & Procedures
Identify protective factors that can support perseverance.
Knowledge
Effects of perseverance on well-being can include
  • positive mental health
  • increased confidence
  • belief in one’s abilities to achieve specific goals
  • sense of accomplishment
  • lifelong learning
Understanding
Perseverance can have positive effects on well-being.
Skills & Procedures
Describe the effects of perseverance on well-being.
Organizing Idea
Safety: A lifetime of optimal well-being is supported by prioritizing health and safety.
Guiding Question
How is safety connected to health?
Guiding Question
How can taking responsibility impact safety?
Guiding Question
How can responsibility lead to a desired outcome?
Learning Outcome
Students investigate and explain safety and its correlation to health.
Learning Outcome
Students analyze and explain responsibility and how it can impact personal and group safety.
Learning Outcome
Students analyze responsibility and consider the impact on well-being.
Knowledge
Proactive planning can include
  • wearing appropriate and protective gear
  • hand washing
  • following guidelines for online communication
  • digital citizenship (responsible conduct and safety)
Understanding
Safety involves prevention that requires proactive planning.
Skills & Procedures
Examine situations that carry an element of risk and require proactive planning.
Knowledge
Responsibility is the opportunity, ability, or right to act independently or make decisions.

Responsibility is making decisions to ensure self or others are not in unsafe and uncomfortable situations.
Understanding
Responsibility can impact personal and group safety.
Skills & Procedures
Describe responsibility and its impact on personal and group safety in a variety of contexts.
Knowledge
Responsibility is being accountable for actions and decisions and accepting the results or consequences.

Responsibility includes clearly communicating refusal or giving or obtaining consent.

Responsibility requires individuals to reflect on actions and decisions to manage and improve situations.
Understanding
Personal actions and decisions can affect physical, social-emotional, and financial well-being.
Skills & Procedures
Reflect on how the results or consequences of personal actions and decisions can affect well-being of oneself and others.
Knowledge
Consent is established by clearly communicating refusal and permission.
Understanding
Refusal skills and consent are important for personal safety.
Skills & Procedures
Practise refusal skills and consent in a variety of contexts.
Knowledge
Consent is critical to respecting others rights, feelings, and belongings.
Understanding
Responsibility is respecting the rights and feelings of others.
Skills & Procedures
Identify situations where responsibility supports the rights and feelings of others.
Knowledge
Responsibility can be developed by taking on leadership roles to promote safety of oneself and others.
Understanding
Personal roles and responsibilities include promoting the safety of oneself and others.
Skills & Procedures
Describe situations where responsible leadership supports the safety and well-being of oneself and others.
Knowledge
Rules and guidelines vary based on the context.

Specific rules or guidelines can
  • determine a course of action
  • establish guiding principles
  • prevent accidents
  • ensure compliance
  • protect safety of self and others
Understanding
Rules and guidelines can promote safety in various contexts.


Skills & Procedures
Explain the function or purpose of specific rules or guidelines within various contexts.
Knowledge
Responsibility occurs in a variety of contexts, including
  • home
  • learning environment
  • workplace
  • community
  • online
  • social events and gatherings
Understanding
Responsibility includes an awareness of surroundings to determine the safety of a situation.
Skills & Procedures
Examine how responsibility can impact safety in a variety of situations.
Knowledge
Safety of oneself and others can be enhanced through community programs and supports, including first aid training and health professionals.

Responsibility to ensure the safety of oneself and others includes following
  • laws
  • rules
  • practices
  • protocols
  • policies
  • digital citizenship (responsible conduct and safety)
Understanding
Responsibility includes ensuring the safety of oneself and others.
Skills & Procedures
Identify laws, rules, practices, protocols, and policies that support safety and well-being in a variety of contexts.

Practise digital citizenship (responsible conduct and safety) by being considerate of others.
Knowledge
Experiences that involve challenges and taking risks can develop knowledge around safety.
Understanding
Safety is impacted by the environment and behaviours.
Skills & Procedures
Generate examples of situations where behaviours would be appropriate and others where they would involve risk.
Knowledge
Supports can include
  • safety networks
  • community programs
  • trustworthy individuals
  • emergency services
  • safety manuals or guidelines
Understanding
Safety of self and others can be met through awareness of supports.
Skills & Procedures
Identify resources available in the community that support safety.
Organizing Idea
Healthy Eating: A lifetime of optimal well-being and physical wellness is supported by prioritizing nutrition and healthy eating.
Guiding Question
How does nutrition function in the body?
Guiding Question
How can nutrition influence health?
Guiding Question
To what extent does nutrition contribute to health and well-being?
Learning Outcome
Students examine nutrition and describe how it affects the body.
Learning Outcome
Students investigate nutrition and explain how it informs decisions about food.
Learning Outcome
Students evaluate aspects of nutrition and examine their benefits to well-being.
Knowledge
Nutrition is the study of the effects of food on the body.

Nutrients are delivered through the body by
  • ingestion
  • absorption
  • waste elimination
Understanding
Nutrients contained in foods are delivered throughout the body.
Skills & Procedures
Examine how the body obtains nutrients and eliminates waste.
Knowledge
Macronutrients include
  • fats
  • proteins
  • carbohydrates
  • water
Micronutrients include vitamins and minerals.
Understanding
Nutrients are grouped into the two categories of macronutrients and micronutrients.
Skills & Procedures
Research the ways nutrients contribute to brain and body functions.

Explain the effect of nutrition on well-being.
Knowledge
Nutrition and hydration can affect
  • learning
  • concentration
  • activity
  • behaviour
In First Nations, Métis, and Inuit communities, nutrition can contribute to holistic, medicinal, or healing practices that enhance physical and emotional well-being.
Understanding
Nutrition is essential to good health, disease prevention, and longevity of life.
Skills & Procedures
Describe how nutrition can affect physical and mental health and well-being.
Knowledge
Nutrition provides energy and nourishment to the body.

High-quality foods nourish the brain.

Hydration delivers nutrients to cells and keep organs functioning properly.
Understanding
Optimal brain and body functions are influenced by nutritious foods and hydration.
Skills & Procedures
Explore the effects of nutrition and hydration on body functions.
Knowledge
Sources of nutritional information can include
  • health professionals
  • Knowledge Keepers
  • Elders
  • the natural world
  • nutrition guidelines
  • food labels
Understanding
Credible nutritional information for making healthy decisions can come from a variety of sources.
Skills & Procedures
Identify credible sources of nutritional information to determine the requirements for healthy and balanced food choices.

Consider nutritional information that supports decisions related to healthy and balanced food choices.
Knowledge
Nutrition and hydration can affect body systems, including
  • cardiovascular
  • digestive
  • musculoskeletal
  • reproductive
Understanding
Nutrition provides energy and nourishment to the body and supports body systems.
Skills & Procedures
Research the effects of nutrition and hydration on body systems.
Knowledge
The nutritional value of food can be affected by
  • cooking
  • preserving
  • storing
  • preparing
Understanding
The nutritional value of food varies and can be affected by food-preparation techniques.
Skills & Procedures
Examine how food-preparation techniques can affect the nutritional value of common foods.
Knowledge
Food labels provide nutritional information on nutrient contents and ingredients.

Food portion sizes and number of servings inform healthy nutrition choices.

Food choices, including being vegetarian or vegan, can influence nutrition.
Understanding
Food choices can affect the ability to acquire essential nutrients.
Skills & Procedures
Explore benefits associated with various foods.

Investigate food choices that require alternative sources of nutrition.
Knowledge
Social and cultural experiences influence decisions related to healthy food choices.

First Nations, Métis, and Inuit cultural knowledge about healthy food choices are tied to the land.
Understanding
Nutrition sources and traditional and cultural practices are connected.

First Nations, Métis, and Inuit gatherings, ceremonies, practices, and protocols can influence heathy nutrition choices.
Skills & Procedures
Compare sources of nutrition from various cultures and traditions.
Knowledge
Nutrition requirements change at various developmental ages.

Nutrition choices can be affected by individual eating cues, including hunger, appetite, and satiety.
Understanding
Specific activities have different nutritional requirements.

Nutrition and hydration may need to be adjusted in response to different nutritional requirements.
Skills & Procedures
Investigate how various personal factors can influence nutrition and hydration requirements.
Knowledge
Eating a variety of foods provides a balanced range of nutrients, including
  • fats
  • proteins
  • carbohydrates
  • vitamins
  • minerals
Food portion sizes and number of servings inform healthy nutrition choices.
Understanding
Nutrition can be improved through planning and preparation of healthy, balanced meals and snacks.
Skills & Procedures
Assess the nutritional value of snacks, meals, and daily meal plans.
Organizing Idea
Healthy Relationships: Personal well-being is supported through positive relationships built on communication, collaboration, empathy, and respect.
Guiding Question
How can problem solving support healthy relationships?
Guiding Question
How can resolving conflict and healthy relationships be mutually supportive?
Guiding Question
How might healthy relationships support understanding in various social contexts?
Learning Outcome
Students investigate and describe how problem solving can affect healthy relationships.
Learning Outcome
Students reflect on resolution and draw conclusions about its value in healthy relationships in a variety of contexts.
Learning Outcome
Students acknowledge perspectives of self and others to develop collaboration in various social contexts.
Knowledge
Individuals in healthy relationships resolve conflict by sharing the responsibility in coming to fair solutions to problems.

Characteristics of healthy relationships and friendships include
  • care, trust, and mutual respect
  • open, honest, and safe communication
  • equality
  • support for one another
Problem solving is a process of finding a resolution to a problem.

Problem solving can include
  • rephrasing to clarify understanding
  • determining relevant information
  • facing challenges
  • considering possible outcomes
  • resolving conflicts in friendships
Friends can resolve conflicts by
  • listening to one another
  • trying to understand each other’s point of view
  • apologizing
  • taking time to consider solutions
  • getting help from a peer or an adult
Resolution involves individuals taking responsibility for actions and words.
Understanding
Healthy and unhealthy relationships have different characteristics.

Problem solving through resolution supports social-emotional well-being by enabling individuals or groups to move forward in positive ways.

Conflict is sometimes part of friendship.

Resolution can facilitate understanding and connections among people.
Skills & Procedures
Generate solutions to problems in a variety of relationship contexts.

Identify respectful and positive interactions with others.

Practise conflict-resolution strategies that support friendships.

Knowledge
Conflict resolution can occur using a variety of strategies, including
  • creating a safe environment
  • positive body language
  • respectful communication
  • negotiating skills
  • reflecting on actions taken
  • implementing solutions that seem most appropriate
  • diversifying approaches and making repeated efforts to solve a problem
Resolution requires personal responsibility and acknowledgement of conflict.
Understanding
Resolution supports healthy relationships.
Skills & Procedures
Describe strategies that can be used to support resolution to a problem, conflict, or challenge.
Knowledge
Perspectives can support collaboration through shared interpretations, understandings, and findings.

Perspectives can be influenced by
  • culture
  • virtues
  • peers
  • media
  • environment
  • experience
Understanding
Perspectives include how we perceive, understand, and feel in various social or physical activity contexts.

Perspectives can be individual or shared.

Perspectives are influenced by a variety of personal and environmental factors.
Skills & Procedures
Describe how experiences can affect individual or group perspectives.

Identify personal and environmental factors that influence perspectives.
Knowledge
Individuals in the community share in the responsibility for offering fair solutions to problems.
Understanding
Resolution within communities seeks to restore balance with self, others, and the land.
Skills & Procedures
Investigate how communities use resolution to restore balance within relationships.
Knowledge
Bullying is repeated, deliberate, and targeted behaviour with intent to harm.

Bullying behaviour can be
  • verbal
  • social
  • relational
  • physical
  • digital
Roles individuals play in bullying include the bully, the bullied, and the bystander.

Actions to address bullying can include
  • speaking up
  • walking away
  • getting help
  • not responding
  • safely intervening
Individuals should be able to live in a healthy and safe environment, free from bullying of any kind; there is no good reason to bully anyone.
Understanding
Unhealthy relationships can be detrimental to social-emotional well-being.

It is important to not tolerate bullies, to resist peer pressure, and to stand up or speak out on behalf of self and others.
Skills & Procedures
Recognize relationships that may be unhealthy or harmful, including bullying.

Identify actions that can be taken when bullying occurs.
Knowledge
Individuals or groups may have shared perspectives.

Effective listening and communication skills include
  • listening for understanding
  • asking clarifying questions
  • checking for understanding
  • paraphrasing or restating statements
  • decoding
  • considering the audience
  • considering point of view
  • having respectful interactions
Understanding
Perspectives can be shaped or shared through effective listening and communication skills.

Establishing trust enables positive relationships between group members.
Skills & Procedures
Describe how listening and communication skills can support understanding of individual and group perspectives.

Identify ways to reach shared understandings when perspectives or opinions within a group are different.

Demonstrate respectful communication skills when working in small groups on movement tasks or challenges.
Knowledge
Relationship building includes
  • empathy
  • forgiveness
  • compromise
  • respect
Understanding
Resolution can contribute to people interacting with others in a respectful and positive manner.
Skills & Procedures
Explain the connection between resolution and developing healthy relationships.
Knowledge
First Nations, Métis, and Inuit communities have traditional events, processes, and ceremonies to renew relationships, restore balance, and reconcile conflict.
Understanding
In First Nations, Métis, and Inuit communities, resolution involves restoring harmony and balance to maintain individual and community well-being.
Skills & Procedures
Discuss the importance of traditional First Nations, Métis, or Inuit events and ceremonies and how they are effective for reconciling relationships.
Knowledge
Resolution involves recognizing that actions have consequences for oneself, others, and the community.
Understanding
Resolution requires the sharing of multiple points of view.
Skills & Procedures
Explain the significance of acknowledging conflict and taking responsibility when working toward resolution.

Discuss multiple points of view involved in a resolution.
Organizing Idea
Growth and Development: Decision making that optimizes personal health and well-being is informed by understanding growth and development.
Guiding Question
How is change reflected through development?
Guiding Question
In what ways can puberty and the capacity for human reproduction reflect change?
Learning Outcome
Students examine how development and puberty are connected.
Learning Outcome
Students examine the connection between puberty and the capacity for human reproduction.
Knowledge
Puberty is a period of rapid growth and progression from childhood through adolescence to adulthood.

Puberty marks the beginning of the life stage of adolescence.

A growth spurt can be an indicator of the beginning of puberty.

A growth spurt can include change in an adolescent’s height and weight.

Puberty prepares the human body to be able to produce children.
Understanding
Puberty can allow individuals to take on new roles and responsibilities and experience new learning opportunities.
Skills & Procedures
Recognize that puberty marks the beginning of a new life stage as individuals move toward becoming mature adults.
Knowledge
Each part of the human reproductive system serves a specific function.

The human reproductive system and other body systems are interconnected.
Understanding
Reproductive health includes human reproductive processes, functions, and systems at all stages of life.
Skills & Procedures
Identify the basic components of the human reproductive system.

Describe the functions of the various components of the human reproductive system using correct terminology.
Knowledge
Puberty is a process of maturation that includes major changes.

The age at which puberty begins, its duration, and the rate of progression differs from adolescent to adolescent.

Physical changes in puberty can include
  • changes in body size
  • growth of body hair
  • skin changes
  • voice changes
Social-emotional changes in puberty can include
  • increased intensity of feelings
  • friendships becoming more important
  • mood swings
  • emphasis on body image
  • wanting to fit in and be liked
  • feeling lonely and confused
  • thinking about the future
Understanding
Differences in the physical characteristics of males and females can occur after puberty.

Puberty progresses differently for each individual.

Awareness of changes that happen in puberty support mental health and emotional well-being.
Skills & Procedures
Describe changes that happen during puberty.
Knowledge
Changes in puberty can include
  • increases in size and functioning of the sex glands
  • maturation of the reproductive organs
  • appearance of secondary sex characteristics
  • production of hormones, including estrogen, progesterone, and testosterone
Understanding
Puberty signals changes in a person’s reproductive capability.
Skills & Procedures
Describe the how physical changes in puberty affect reproductive capability.
Knowledge
Some cultures have different celebrations that recognize the transition into puberty.

First Nations, Métis, and Inuit rites of passage recognize significant transitions in an individual’s life.
Understanding
Cultural traditions can mark the transition from childhood to adulthood.
Skills & Procedures
Recognize that First Nations, Métis, or Inuit entry into puberty can be accompanied by opportunities that support the ongoing transition into adulthood.
Knowledge
Menstruation is the monthly shedding of the lining of the uterus.

Hormonal changes regulate ovulation.

Fertilization is more likely to occur at a specific point in the menstrual cycle.

Fertilization occurs when a human egg and a sperm cell combine.

Sperm are reproductive cells that are produced in the testicles.

Some males may experience release of fluids at night.
Understanding
Both female and male bodies have important roles in human reproduction.

Human reproduction includes a sequence of biological processes.

Puberty in females is often associated with the process of menstruation.

Puberty in males can be associated with the onset of nocturnal emissions.
Skills & Procedures
Describe the processes of menstruation and sperm production.
Knowledge
Adolescents may have questions about puberty and its associated changes.

Credible sources of support during puberty can include
  • health professionals
  • counsellors
  • parents or caregivers
  • Knowledge Keepers
  • Elders
Understanding
Sources of support are available for adolescents during the exciting and anxious time of puberty.
Skills & Procedures
Identify credible sources in the community to support individuals through the changes that occur during puberty.
Knowledge
Genetics is the study of heredity, or how certain features pass from parents to their offspring.

Environmental factors can include physical activity, nutrition, and stress.
Understanding
Puberty can be dependent on genetics and environmental factors.
Skills & Procedures
Identify genetic and environmental factors that can impact the onset, duration, and rate of progression of puberty.
Knowledge
Changes to hygiene habits can include
  • using deodorant or antiperspirant
  • showering or bathing more frequently
  • changing and washing clothes regularly
  • reduced sharing of personal belongings
Understanding
Puberty can require changes in personal hygiene habits.
Skills & Procedures
Identify how personal hygiene habits may need to be modified as the body changes.
Guiding Question
How can development evolve throughout growth?
Guiding Question
How is change reflected through development?
Guiding Question
How are maturation, growth, and development interconnected?
Learning Outcome
Students examine and describe development related to personal growth.
Learning Outcome
Students examine development related to stages of life.
Learning Outcome
Students investigate maturation and identify changes during adolescence.
Knowledge
Development is the process of becoming a unique person.

Areas of development can include
  • mind
  • body
  • spirit
  • emotion
  • self-image
Understanding
Development is a natural, multi-faceted, and continuous progression.

Development is a lifelong process that is never complete.
Skills & Procedures
Describe the developmental changes that occur during childhood.
Knowledge
Social-emotional changes can include
  • self-image
  • self-confidence
  • humility
  • emotions
  • behaviour
  • motivation
  • relationships
  • social skills
Understanding
Social-emotional factors influence positive mental health and well-being.
Skills & Procedures
Describe changes related to social-emotional development.

Connect how an individual’s development can have an effect on behaviours, motivations, emotions, and choice.
Knowledge
Changes in the brain associated with maturation can include
  • greater efficiency and effectiveness
  • increased connectivity among brain regions
  • increased neurons
  • growth of myelin
  • changes in the frontal lobe, pre-frontal cortex, and executive function
Understanding
Maturation occurs from birth and is significant during adolescence.

Maturation can result in changes in the brain.
Skills & Procedures
Describe the impact maturation has on the brain.
Knowledge
Development can be
  • measured
  • observed
  • experienced
  • described
Understanding
During development, progress may be made in some areas and limited in other areas.
Skills & Procedures
Examine instances where different areas of development can simultaneously progress, be limited, or remain unchanged.
Knowledge
Social development is developing an awareness of a variety of social and cultural contexts.

Social development can include
  • expanding social networks
  • taking on new responsibilities
  • embracing new challenges
  • solving conflicts and compromising
Understanding
Social development helps build and maintain positive relationships.
Skills & Procedures
Consider how to interact and respond to others in a variety of contexts and situations.
Knowledge
Maturation is a process that is different for every individual.

Physical changes can include significant changes in height and weight.

Bones grow faster than muscle during maturation in adolescence.

Behavioural changes can include
  • setting personal goals
  • risk taking
  • increased awareness of financial decision making
  • seeking independence
  • consideration of others
Cognitive changes can include
  • ability to retain, process, and organize larger amounts of information
  • enhanced critical-thinking, reasoning, and decision-making skills
  • strong willingness to learn based on interest and personal relevance
  • analyzing situations with a cause-and-effect relationship
  • conceptualizing hypothetical scenarios
Understanding
Maturation involves an awareness of the interconnectedness of physical, cognitive, and behavioural changes.

The way individuals think of themselves, and describe themselves to others, is unique and should be respected.

Maturation can result in uneven bone and muscle development.

Maturation results in changes in the body that can occur at different rates.
Skills & Procedures
Connect physical, cognitive, and behavioural changes that occur during adolescence.
Knowledge
One stage of development establishes the necessary body conditions for the next stage.

Each developmental stage comes with new
  • expectations
  • abilities
  • responsibilities
Life stages include
  • childhood
  • adolescence
  • adulthood
Financial considerations
associated with various life
stages can include
  • earning money
  • spending money
  • saving money
  • investing money
Understanding
Development can happen in predictable life patterns or stages.

The stages of development that occur early in life are more evident than those that occur later in life.
Skills & Procedures
Examine life stages and how they correlate to personal development.
Knowledge
Intellectual development is the critical and creative use of the mind to its fullest potential.

Intellectual development can include
  • concentration
  • perception
  • problem solving
  • memory
  • increasingly complex ways of thinking
Understanding
Intellectual development can enable individuals to think, reason, and organize ideas and thoughts to make informed decisions.
Skills & Procedures
Describe changes related to intellectual development.
Knowledge
Internal developmental factors can include
  • genetics
  • personality traits
  • life experiences
  • previous learning
External developmental factors can include
  • family
  • culture
  • environmental factors
  • social factors
Understanding
Internal and external factors influence development at different rates.
Skills & Procedures
Communicate how internal and external factors can affect development.
Knowledge
Social-emotional, intellectual, and spiritual development can include
  • listening
  • observing
  • speaking
  • speaking first language
  • understanding
  • learning
Understanding
Social-emotional, intellectual, and spiritual development are supported in many ways.
Skills & Procedures
Recognize that observing, interacting, learning, and understanding are important ways of supporting development.