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Physical Education and Wellness

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Physical education and wellness curriculum supports a strength-based focus that promotes the development of the whole individual and aims to nurture students in their pursuit of a healthy and active life. From Kindergarten to Grade 6, students are supported on their journey of achieving optimal well-being through a healthy school community that emphasizes
  • movement skills development
  • active living
  • growth and physical development
  • safety
  • personal development, mental health, and well-being
  • nutrition and healthy eating
  • healthy relationships
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Organizing Idea
Active Living: A healthy way of life includes regular practice of meaningful active living.
Guiding Question
What makes physical activity meaningful?
Guiding Question
How can a variety of physical activities be incorporated into an active lifestyle?
Guiding Question
In what ways can a variety of physical activities contribute to active living?
Learning Outcome
Students investigate physical activity and relate it to personal experience.
Learning Outcome
Students examine how choices support participation in physical activities.
Learning Outcome
Students examine how a variety of physical activities affects active living.
Knowledge
Factors influencing physical activity can include
  • peers
  • family
  • culture
  • natural environments
  • built environments
  • access
  • cost of activities and programs
Adventurous play can
  • promote independence and problem solving
  • provide direct experience of cause and effect
  • develop children’s coordination and bodily control
  • boost self-confidence and emotional resilience
  • reduce stress
  • satisfy curiosity and a need for challenge
Understanding
Physical activity can be influenced by a variety of factors.
Skills & Procedures
Present how factors influence physical activity.
Knowledge
Components of physical fitness include
  • strength
  • flexibility
  • cardiorespiratory endurance
  • other types of endurance
Increased levels of physical fitness allow people to
  • be active for longer periods of time
  • have more strength
  • be more flexible
  • have healthier hearts and lungs
Understanding
A variety of physical activities can improve all components of physical fitness.

Participation in a variety of physical activities supports physical well-being.
Skills & Procedures
Describe how a variety of physical activities can make the body stronger and better coordinated.

Participate in physical activities that support different components of physical fitness.
Knowledge
Active living options can vary for individuals over time due to various factors, including
  • time
  • preference
  • injury
  • cost of activities and programs
  • access
  • availability
  • natural and built environments
  • sense of purpose
Understanding
Choice in physical activity can enhance exposure to a variety of active living options.

New activities of increasing challenge and complexity can build confidence.
Skills & Procedures
Investigate how the choice of physical activity may change over time in relation to various factors.

Experience and reflect upon the benefits of building knowledge and skills by playing regular team sports and individual sports every year.
Knowledge
Physical activity experiences on the land can include
  • hunting
  • trapping
  • fishing
  • gathering
  • nature walks
  • hiking
Adventurous play can
  • promote independence and problem solving
  • provide direct experience of cause and effect
  • develop children’s coordination and bodily control
  • boost self-confidence and emotional resilience
  • reduce stress
  • satisfy curiosity and a need for challenge
Understanding
Physical activity can be connected to experiences on the land.
Skills & Procedures
Participate in physical activities on the land.
Knowledge
A plan involves identifying a goal and then listing the steps needed to reach that goal.

Planning for active living is an important step in leading a healthy life.
Understanding
Participation in a variety of physical activities enables individuals to pursue goals and plan activities that satisfy personal interests and preferences.

Exploration of a variety of physical activities can build transferable skills, self-knowledge, and resilience in the face of challenges.
Skills & Procedures
Participate in physical activities that lead to growth in abilities and resilience in overcoming challenges.
Knowledge
Flexibility is the ability of joints and muscles to move through a full range of motion.

Muscular strength is the maximal force produced by the muscles.

Muscular endurance is the ability of muscles to sustain a force for a period of time.

Cardiorespiratory endurance is the ability of the heart and lungs to provide muscles with oxygen and blood to produce work over a given period of time.
Understanding
A variety of physical activities can help individuals to plan and achieve physical fitness goals.

Courage plays a role in one’s participation in physical activity.

Courage increases one’s likeliness to achieve activity goals.
Skills & Procedures
Select a variety of physical activities to align with physical fitness goals.
Knowledge
Factors affecting physical activity can include
  • technology
  • time
  • cost of activities or programs
  • accessibility
  • availability of resources
  • injury
Understanding
Physical activity can decrease due to a variety of factors.

Physical activity can be modified in response to a variety of factors.
Skills & Procedures
Record the amount of personal time spent engaged in physical activity.

Develop a plan to support personal engagement in physical activity.
Knowledge
Each season offers different opportunities for active living.

Diverse environments can present opportunities and barriers for active living.
Understanding
Making healthy decisions in diverse environments builds courage and resilience in the face of challenges.
Skills & Procedures
Overcome potential barriers by modifying plans to make the best of changing circumstances.
Knowledge
Enjoyment can influence choice related to physical activity.

Physical activity can be enjoyed by an individual or as a group.

Rewarding and engaging physical activity can foster motivation.
Understanding
Healthy choices related to physical activity can lead to higher levels of interest and engagement.
Skills & Procedures
Engage in physical activities that are enjoyable or rewarding.
Knowledge
Preparation and recovery actions can support endurance, improve flexibility, and reduce the risk of injury.

Preparation for and recovery from physical activity can include
  • proper nutrition and hydration
  • equipment check
  • warm-up
  • cool-down
  • appropriate clothing and footwear
Understanding
Physical activities can be enhanced through preparation and recovery.
Skills & Procedures
Demonstrate appropriate preparation for and recovery from physical activity.
Knowledge
Participation in risk-taking and adventurous play with reasonable risk can broaden skills for active living.
Understanding
Participation in active living provides individuals with options to develop a sense of ownership and independence.
Skills & Procedures
Participate in activities that develop a sense of ownership and independence.
Knowledge
Awareness of community programs, activity spaces, and people who can support physical activity is helpful when planning for active living.
Understanding
Involvement in a variety of physical activities can be supported by local communities.
Skills & Procedures
Participate in physical activities that are available and accessible within local communities.
Knowledge
Physical activity can promote positive interactions with others through shared interests, goal setting, and experiences.

Games and activities can be
  • rhythmic
  • gymnastic
  • expressive
  • individual
  • challenging
  • adventurous
  • cultural
Understanding
Participation in physical activity provides an opportunity for individuals to interact positively with others.
Skills & Procedures
Demonstrate positive interactions with others during physical activity.
Knowledge
Physical activity can be categorized as light, moderate, and vigorous.
Understanding
Physical activity can require varying degrees of exertion and energy.
Skills & Procedures
Participate in physical activities that require various levels of exertion and energy.
Organizing Idea
Movement Skill Development: A healthy way of life includes regular movement.
Guiding Question
How are awareness and movement connected?
Guiding Question
How can elements of movement support movement competence?
Guiding Question
How can elements of movement support active living?
Learning Outcome
Students examine and apply an understanding of how spatial awareness supports physical activity across a variety of contexts.
Learning Outcome
Students investigate and describe how elements of movement support physical activity.
Learning Outcome
Students analyze and explain how elements of movement are integrated to support physical activity.
Knowledge
Spatial awareness is knowing how the body moves through space.
Understanding
Spatial awareness can be improved through ongoing scanning and assessment of surroundings.
Skills & Procedures
Scan and assess surroundings to support spatial awareness.
Knowledge
Locomotor movements can include sliding and chasing.

Non-locomotor movements can include twisting, rising up, and lowering.

Object manipulation movements can involve
  • sending objects, including punting and striking
  • retaining objects, including cradling
  • receiving objects, including catching and collecting
Elements of movement include space, direction, and effort.
Understanding
Elements of movement can be modified to make creative movements.
Skills & Procedures
Apply specific movement elements, including space, direction, and effort, when engaging in physical activity.
Knowledge
Elements of movement include space, direction, and effort.

Locomotor movements can include dodging and crossover.

Non-locomotor movements can include lifting, extending, and flexing.
Understanding
Elements of movement are integrated through various combinations to create movement.

Combinations of elements can affect various movement skills.
Skills & Procedures
Integrate elements of movement in various physical activities.

Explore sports and physical activities, such as hockey, lacrosse, and basketball, that are significant to Alberta’s history.

Knowledge
Spatial awareness is the ongoing process to make decisions in relation to people or objects.
Understanding
Effective decision making related to spatial awareness can support favourable movement outcomes.
Skills & Procedures
Refine movement skills in relation to people or objects in a variety of physical activities.
Knowledge
Space is the area around or taken up by the body.

Space can be
  • general
  • personal
  • in relation to people, objects, and the surrounding environment
Understanding
The element of space can be explored through body movement.
Skills & Procedures
Adjust movement in response to the element of space.
Knowledge
Object manipulation movements can involve
  • sending objects, including volleying
  • retaining objects, including dribbling
  • receiving objects, including catching and collecting
Understanding
Elements of movement can be manipulated to improve accuracy and control.
Skills & Procedures
Perform elements of movement when receiving, sending, and retaining an object using various parts of the body and equipment.

Manipulate movement elements to improve efficiency, accuracy, and control.
Knowledge
Awareness of spatial changes may require modifications to game play.
Understanding
Spatial awareness can influence movement within and across physical activities.
Skills & Procedures
Modify and adapt game play based on awareness of spatial changes.
Knowledge
Direction is body movement in various directions, levels, and pathways.

Directions include
  • forward
  • backward
  • up
  • down
  • left
  • right
  • lateral
  • diagonal
Levels include elevations that are
  • low
  • medium
  • high
Pathways include
  • zigzag
  • over
  • under
  • curved
  • linear
  • wavy
Understanding
The element of direction can be manipulated by the body.
Skills & Procedures
Demonstrate directional movement in physical activity.
Knowledge
Force involves a push or a pull.

Forces can be strong or light.

Speed can be
  • slow
  • fast
  • sustained
  • sudden
Time can involve tempo, beat, and rhythm.
Understanding
The element of effort determines speed, time, and force.
Skills & Procedures
Experiment with effort in a variety of movement contexts.
Guiding Question
How are awareness and movement connected?
Guiding Question
How can elements of movement and tactics support movement competence?
Guiding Question
How can elements of movement and tactics support active living?
Learning Outcome
Students demonstrate how movement can be modified to improve control and efficiency.
Learning Outcome
Students examine and integrate tactics in a variety of physical activity contexts.
Learning Outcome
Students analyze strategies and tactics that support improvement of performance.
Knowledge
The preparation phase or ready position includes all of the movements that prepare the body for a particular skill, including
  • facing the target
  • shifting the body
  • positioning arms and feet
  • establishing a stable position
  • finding a lower centre of gravity
The carrying-out phase includes the body gathering momentum and working to produce movement.

The completion phase includes movement continuing in the direction of action, slowing down of movement, and regaining stability.
Understanding
Three phases of movement include preparation, carrying out, and completion.
Skills & Procedures
Experiment with the three phases of movement in a variety of physical activities.

Modify one or more phases of movement to improve control and efficiency.
Knowledge
Tactics are purposeful movements applied by individuals and groups and can include
  • changing direction
  • changing speed
  • passing an object
  • changing levels
Understanding
Tactics function to support a desired outcome or goal.
Skills & Procedures
Apply tactics in a variety of physical activity contexts.

Assess the effectiveness of tactics applied in a variety of physical activities.

Knowledge
Strategies are actions and choices used to set and achieve goals and enhance outcomes.

Strategies and tactics can be
  • individual
  • group
  • offensive
  • defensive
Understanding
Strategies and tactics can vary based on number of participants and approach.
Skills & Procedures
Practise offensive and defensive strategies and tactics in a variety of physical activities.
Knowledge
Movement skills can be refined and corrected with feedback and practice.
Understanding
Movement skill development requires repeated practice and effort.

Performance in physical activities can be enhanced by effort and repeated practice.

Enhanced performance can support motivation, confidence, and enjoyment.
Skills & Procedures
Participate in repeated practice for skill development.

Reflect on the performance of movement skills and apply ways to be more efficient.

Knowledge
Tactics are responses to other participants and changing situations.
Understanding
Tactics can be spontaneous, creative, and practised.
Skills & Procedures
Implement a variety of tactics in response to other participants and changing situations.
Knowledge
Similar strategies and tactics exist across physical activities.

Understanding
Strategies and tactics can be transferred across physical activities to improve individual or group success.
Skills & Procedures
Transfer strategies and tactics across various physical activities
Knowledge
Locomotor movements can include
  • galloping
  • wheeling
  • jogging
Non-locomotor movements can include
  • climbing
  • swinging
  • hanging
  • landing
Object manipulation can involve
  • sending objects, including passing and pulling
  • retaining objects, including bouncing
  • receiving objects, including collecting
Movement skills acquired through participation in First Nations, Métis, or Inuit games and activities include
  • agility
  • flexibility
  • coordination
  • endurance
  • strength
Understanding
Learned movements can be modified to support success across physical activity contexts.

Understanding historical context can provide opportunities to experiment with a variety of movement activities, including the Olympic events of
  • running
  • hurdles
  • high jump
  • discus
  • javelin
  • shot put
  • gymnastics
Skills & Procedures
Relate movement skills from one physical activity to those of another physical activity.

Explore the transferability of movement skills acquired through participation in Olympic and First Nations, Métis, or Inuit games and activities in a variety of contexts.
Knowledge
Tactics in First Nations, Métis, and Inuit physical activities and games help develop skills for everyday life.
Understanding
Tactics in First Nations, Métis, and Inuit communities honour place and are learned through traditional games and physical activities.

Tactics include skills that can be understood through the sharing of generational knowledge.
Skills & Procedures
Investigate the origin and purpose of tactics applied in First Nations, Métis, or Inuit physical activities and games.


Knowledge
Roles can include
  • leader
  • follower
  • offender
  • defender
  • chaser
  • teammate
  • opponent
Understanding
Strategies and tactics can require team members to have specific roles and responsibilities.
Skills & Procedures
Apply strategies and tactics that capitalize on the strengths of individuals and groups.

Practise strategies and tactics in a variety of roles.
Knowledge
Strategies and tactical actions and formations can include
  • changing direction
  • positioning of players
  • adjusting elements of movement
  • use of equipment
  • time of possession
Understanding
Strategy and tactics can involve actions or formations that enhance performance.
Skills & Procedures
Implement strategies and tactics to improve performance.

Reflect on strategies and tactics used in various physical activities to enhance performance.

Knowledge
Modification for game situations can include
  • changes in the environment
  • number of participants
  • equipment used
  • rule changes
Understanding
Strategies and tactics can be adapted or changed when the game situation is modified.
Skills & Procedures
Modify strategies and tactics based on changing game situations.
Knowledge
Tactics and skills have enabled First Nations, Métis, and Inuit to effectively adapt to diverse geographical challenges.
Understanding
Tactics and skills historically used by First Nations, Métis, and Inuit for survival on the land have been adapted and applied in contemporary settings.
Skills & Procedures
Explore how traditional First Nations, Métis, or Inuit tactics have been integrated into contemporary settings for effective use.
Guiding Question
How can teamwork support participation, safety, and enjoyment?
Guiding Question
How can teamwork support positive interactions?
Guiding Question
How can teamwork enhance participation in physical activity?
Learning Outcome
Students investigate how teamwork supports participation in a variety of physical activities.
Learning Outcome
Students investigate and describe how teamwork supports positive interactions during physical activity.
Learning Outcome
Students analyze and explain how teamwork enhances participation in physical activity.
Knowledge
Behaviours that support participation can include
  • using fair play practices
  • respecting coaches, teachers, and parents
  • cheering on teammates
  • using kind and appropriate language
Understanding
Physical activities have expectations that support participation, safety, and enjoyment for all.
Skills & Procedures
Display behaviours that support participation, safety, and participant enjoyment.
Knowledge
Teamwork allows opportunities for individuals to explore
  • interests
  • gifts
  • skills
  • talents
  • virtues
Understanding
Teamwork provides opportunities for individuals to contribute to team efforts and goals.
Skills & Procedures
Explore opportunities to contribute to teamwork.

Knowledge
Team success is optimized through the contribution of all members.

Team members show accountability by being responsible for their actions or decisions.
Understanding
Teamwork provides individuals with opportunities to be accountable for their contributions.
Skills & Procedures
Reflect on contributions made during team activities.
Knowledge
Teamwork can build relationships and support others in unique ways.

Teamwork can include
  • communicating
  • interacting
  • making decisions
  • problem solving
  • sharing ideas
  • supporting others
  • contributing
Understanding
Some physical activities require teamwork.

Teamwork is working with others to achieve a common goal.
Skills & Procedures
Exhibit teamwork in a variety of physical activity contexts.
Knowledge
Teamwork creates opportunities to build relationships and create a sense of purpose and belonging.
Understanding
Encouragement of others can support positive interactions during physical activities.
Skills & Procedures
Engage in positive interactions that support teamwork.
Knowledge
Teamwork strategies can include
  • constructive feedback
  • clarifying rules
  • clarifying role expectations
  • creating a safe environment
  • praise and encouragement of others
  • consideration of individual and group strengths
Understanding
Teamwork can involve individuals creating and enhancing strategies in physical activity.
Skills & Procedures
Demonstrate effective teamwork strategies during physical activity.
Knowledge
Participants can promote teamwork, safety, and positive outcomes through contributions made in different roles.

Communication skills can help establish roles and responsibilities.
Understanding
Team performance can be enhanced through effective communication.
Skills & Procedures
Experience a variety of roles and responsibilities that support team performance.

Communicate the impact of role clarity and responsibilities during physical activity.

Organizing Idea
Character Development: Exploration of life opportunities and virtues develops resiliency and personal talents and promotes lifelong learning.
Guiding Question
How are roles connected to character development?
Guiding Question
How are roles connected to character development?
Guiding Question
How can a variety of life experiences influence resiliency and perseverance?
Learning Outcome
Students examine how the development of self-regulation is supported through participation in a variety of roles.
Learning Outcome
Students analyze the contribution of different roles to the development of personal talents, virtues, and resilience.
Learning Outcome
Students interpret and reflect how resiliency and perseverance can be influenced by a variety of life experiences.
Knowledge
A role is a specific position that someone holds in work, social, or relational contexts.
Understanding
People in the home, school, and community have roles, responsibilities, and occupations.

Roles have different responsibilities.
Skills & Procedures
Describe and compare responsibilities
connected with various roles.

Participate in a variety of roles in learning contexts.
Knowledge
Community, social, and work roles can require certain actions, behaviours, and responsibilities.

Individuals can hold multiple roles at one time.

Roles can vary between
  • cultures
  • organizations
  • communities
  • families
Understanding
Roles and occupations have requirements, purposes, and expectations.
Skills & Procedures
Examine the requirements, purposes, and expectations of a variety of roles and occupations.
Knowledge
Individuals can seek out experiences based on their
  • interests
  • talents
  • desired outcomes
  • curiosity
  • personal enjoyment
  • ambitions
Experiences can occur in variety of contexts, including
  • physical
  • social
  • emotional
  • financial
  • career
Understanding
Experiences can be individual or shared and can occur in a variety of contexts.

Experiences can provide a sense of purpose and belonging.
Skills & Procedures
Determine a variety of contexts in which experience can be individual or shared.

Investigate experiences in a variety of contexts.
Knowledge
There are a variety of roles available for individuals within a community.
Understanding
Individuals contribute to community through participation in a variety of roles.

Sense of community is developed through the awareness of the roles and responsibilities of people within the community.
Skills & Procedures
Examine ways that individuals can positively contribute to communities through various roles.

Investigate opportunities to participate in community roles.
Knowledge
Family structures can vary, may include extended family, and may consist of a single parent, a mother and a father, two fathers, or two mothers.

Children may go back and forth between more than one family.

Positive role models can inspire individuals to develop personal talents and potential.
Understanding
Families can have a variety of structures in Canada.

Roles are influenced by family, role models, learning environments, and community.

Roles are established and maintained through culture and relationships with people and the land.
Skills & Procedures
Investigate how personal talents and potential are influenced by role models.
Knowledge
Experiences can be represented through places, languages, and cultural artifacts.

Experiences can represent personal development.
Understanding
Experiences on the land are significant to learning and personal development in First Nations, Métis, and Inuit communities.
Skills & Procedures
Discuss how experiences in places or with artifacts hold significant meaning.
Knowledge
People, land, and animals have specific roles and responsibilities that contribute to community well-being.
Understanding
Communities include people, land, and animals.

People, land, and animals are interconnected.
Skills & Procedures
Explore how the roles and responsibilities of people, land, and animals contribute positively to community well-being.
Knowledge
Roles can connect to specific life stages to provide individuals with opportunities to develop
  • talents
  • assets
  • personalities
  • attributes
  • virtues
  • strengths
  • resiliency
Understanding
Individuals can assume various roles in their lifetime, depending on life circumstances or events.

Involvement in a variety of roles can facilitate resiliency and the exploration of life and career opportunities.
Skills & Procedures
Examine how life and career stages or circumstances can influence roles.

Explore the interconnection between roles and resiliency.
Knowledge
Strategies that support resilience can include
  • identifying a purpose
  • seeking positive role models
  • focusing on the solution not the challenge
  • breaking down tasks into smaller, achievable goals
Understanding
Resilience may result in the increased ability to respond to future adversity.

Resilience is supported by developingment of perseverance over time.
Skills & Procedures
Describe strategies that support resilience.
Knowledge
Self-regulation is effectively maintaining control over attention, thoughts, emotions, and behaviour in a variety of situations.

Self-regulation is the ability to attain or maintain a level of focus and function.
Understanding
Self-regulation can help decrease stress and manage anxiety.
Skills & Procedures
Explain the benefits of self-regulation.
Knowledge
The ability to adjust to various situations can enable individuals to meet commitments, expectations, and tasks.
Understanding
Self-regulation helps individuals to engage with commitments, expectations, and tasks.

Individuals can use self-regulation to adjust to various situations.
Skills & Procedures
Practise self-regulation to maintain engagement in a variety of situations.
Knowledge
Perseverance involves effort, courage, commitment, and belief in one’s abilities to be successful.

Personal success is unique to
each person.
Understanding
Perseverance is continuing with a difficult task for a short or long period of time.

Perseverance can enable individuals to succeed despite obstacles.
Skills & Procedures
Examine how challenging situations can involve perseverance.
Knowledge
Self-regulation strategies can include
  • breathing techniques
  • physical activity breaks
  • quiet space
  • nutrition and hydration breaks
  • thinking before responding
  • adequate rest
  • recognizing challenges and obstacles
Understanding
Self-regulation involves identifying emotions using various tools, strategies, and actions.

Self-regulation strategies that maintain or enhance positive emotions are important for establishing effective outcomes.
Skills & Procedures
Describe tools or strategies that support regulation.

Demonstrate a variety of self-regulation strategies.
Knowledge
Resilience is the capacity to manage adversity or stress in effective ways.
Understanding
Managing emotions supports the development of resilience.
Skills & Procedures
Practise managing emotions in a variety of situations.
Knowledge
Perseverance is supported by
  • goal setting
  • practice
  • determination
  • stamina
  • self-regulation
  • reflection
Understanding
Reflection and feedback on success and failure provides opportunities for personal growth and learning.

Perseverance is finding ways to continue to improve skills and motivate oneself in difficult situations.
Skills & Procedures
Examine the connection between perseverance and personal growth and learning.

Explain how perseverance affects skill development and motivation.
Knowledge
Self-regulation supports can include Knowledge Keepers, Elders, and the community.
Understanding
Self-regulation for First Nations, Métis, and Inuit can be supported through community.

Self-regulation is connected to signals from the body, mind, and spirit.
Skills & Procedures
Identify ways in which the community can support self-regulation.

Explore ways First Nations, Métis, or Inuit communities work together to support self-regulation.

Discuss situations where the body, mind, and spirit have an effect on self-regulation.
Knowledge
Resiliency and self-regulation resources can include
  • trustworthy adults
  • school counsellors
  • healthcare professionals
  • community agencies
  • trustworthy peers
Understanding
Resources are available when self-regulation strategies are not effective or when an individual is feeling overwhelmed.
Skills & Procedures
Create a plan to identify self-regulation resources that can be accessed when needed.
Knowledge
Volunteerism is an experience of donating time, talent, and energy for the benefit of people and community.

Volunteerism can provide opportunities to
  • develop skills
  • explore talents and interests
  • contribute to the community
  • create a sense of satisfaction
  • build confidence and resiliency
  • provide a sense of commitment
Understanding
Volunteer experiences can enable individuals to function as balanced, contributing members of a community.
Skills & Procedures
Identify ways volunteering can contribute to a sense of purpose and belonging.

Organizing Idea
Safety: A lifetime of optimal well-being is supported by prioritizing health and safety.
Guiding Question
How can safety be promoted in various contexts?
Guiding Question
How is safety connected to health?
Guiding Question
How can taking responsibility impact safety?
Learning Outcome
Students examine and apply an understanding of personal safety in a variety of situations.
Learning Outcome
Students investigate and explain safety and its correlation to health.
Learning Outcome
Students analyze and explain responsibility and how it can impact personal and group safety.
Knowledge
Safety strategies are developed for
  • home safety
  • school safety
  • digital safety
  • accessing emergency services
  • giving or refusing consent
Understanding
Safety strategies and procedures can be practised in a variety of ways.
Skills & Procedures
Practise safety strategies and procedures in a variety of situations.
Knowledge
Proactive planning can include
  • wearing appropriate and protective gear
  • hand washing
  • following guidelines for online communication
  • digital citizenship (responsible conduct and safety)
Understanding
Safety involves prevention that requires proactive planning.
Skills & Procedures
Examine situations that carry an element of risk and require proactive planning.
Knowledge
Responsibility is the opportunity, ability, or right to act independently or make decisions.

Responsibility is making decisions to ensure self or others are not in unsafe and uncomfortable situations.
Understanding
Responsibility can impact personal and group safety.
Skills & Procedures
Describe responsibility and its impact on personal and group safety in a variety of contexts.
Knowledge
Safety is when individuals are free from injury, illness, and physical and emotional harm.
Understanding
Safety is needed for survival.

Consent is important in making safe decisions.
Skills & Procedures
Discuss ways to respond in unsafe situations.
Knowledge
Consent is established by clearly communicating refusal and permission.
Understanding
Refusal skills and consent are important for personal safety.
Skills & Procedures
Practise refusal skills and consent in a variety of contexts.
Knowledge
Consent is critical to respecting others rights, feelings, and belongings.
Understanding
Responsibility is respecting the rights and feelings of others.
Skills & Procedures
Identify situations where responsibility supports the rights and feelings of others.
Knowledge
Substances can be classified in different ways, including legal and illegal.

Legal substances can be harmful if used incorrectly.

Situations and contexts may present different safety concerns.
Understanding
Safety involves assessing for potential risk or injury by identifying safe and unsafe situations and substances.
Skills & Procedures
Classify situations and substances that are safe and unsafe.

Examine how safety can be improved in a variety of situations.
Knowledge
Rules and guidelines vary based on the context.

Specific rules or guidelines can
  • determine a course of action
  • establish guiding principles
  • prevent accidents
  • ensure compliance
  • protect safety of self and others
Understanding
Rules and guidelines can promote safety in various contexts.


Skills & Procedures
Explain the function or purpose of specific rules or guidelines within various contexts.
Knowledge
Responsibility occurs in a variety of contexts, including
  • home
  • learning environment
  • workplace
  • community
  • online
  • social events and gatherings
Understanding
Responsibility includes an awareness of surroundings to determine the safety of a situation.
Skills & Procedures
Examine how responsibility can impact safety in a variety of situations.
Knowledge
Experiences that involve challenges and taking risks can develop knowledge around safety.
Understanding
Safety is impacted by the environment and behaviours.
Skills & Procedures
Generate examples of situations where behaviours would be appropriate and others where they would involve risk.
Knowledge
Supports can include
  • safety networks
  • community programs
  • trustworthy individuals
  • emergency services
  • safety manuals or guidelines
Understanding
Safety of self and others can be met through awareness of supports.
Skills & Procedures
Identify resources available in the community that support safety.
Organizing Idea
Healthy Eating: A lifetime of optimal well-being and physical wellness is supported by prioritizing nutrition and healthy eating.
Guiding Question
How can food impact well-being?
Guiding Question
How does nutrition function in the body?
Guiding Question
How can nutrition influence health?
Learning Outcome
Students analyze how food can impact well-being.
Learning Outcome
Students examine nutrition and describe how it affects the body.
Learning Outcome
Students investigate nutrition and explain how it informs decisions about food.
Knowledge
Cues associated with hunger include stomach growling, low energy, and irritability.

Cues associated with thirst include
  • dry mouth
  • low energy
  • dry skin or eyes
  • headache
Understanding
The human body provides cues that tell people when they are hungry or thirsty.
Skills & Procedures
Discuss cues associated with hunger and thirst.
Knowledge
Nutrition is the study of the effects of food on the body.

Nutrients are delivered through the body by
  • ingestion
  • absorption
  • waste elimination
Understanding
Nutrients contained in foods are delivered throughout the body.
Skills & Procedures
Examine how the body obtains nutrients and eliminates waste.
Knowledge
Macronutrients include
  • fats
  • proteins
  • carbohydrates
  • water
Micronutrients include vitamins and minerals.
Understanding
Nutrients are grouped into the two categories of macronutrients and micronutrients.
Skills & Procedures
Research the ways nutrients contribute to brain and body functions.

Explain the effect of nutrition on well-being.
Knowledge
Nutritional guidelines are a reference for making healthy food decisions.
Understanding
Nutritional guidelines help to inform healthy food decisions and eating habits.
Skills & Procedures
Apply recommendations from nutritional guidelines and health professionals to individual food decisions.
Knowledge
Nutrition provides energy and nourishment to the body.

High-quality foods nourish the brain.

Hydration delivers nutrients to cells and keep organs functioning properly.
Understanding
Optimal brain and body functions are influenced by nutritious foods and hydration.
Skills & Procedures
Explore the effects of nutrition and hydration on body functions.
Knowledge
Sources of nutritional information can include
  • health professionals
  • Knowledge Keepers
  • Elders
  • the natural world
  • nutrition guidelines
  • food labels
Understanding
Credible nutritional information for making healthy decisions can come from a variety of sources.
Skills & Procedures
Identify credible sources of nutritional information to determine the requirements for healthy and balanced food choices.

Consider nutritional information that supports decisions related to healthy and balanced food choices.
Knowledge
Food allergies are when one’s body reacts unusually to food.

Allergic reactions to food can range from mild to severe, including anaphylactic shock.

Food preferences are ways an individual chooses what to eat or drink.
Understanding
Foods can contain risks and benefits to an individual’s health.
Skills & Procedures
Examine personal food preferences.

Identify personal food allergens.
Knowledge
The nutritional value of food can be affected by
  • cooking
  • preserving
  • storing
  • preparing
Understanding
The nutritional value of food varies and can be affected by food-preparation techniques.
Skills & Procedures
Examine how food-preparation techniques can affect the nutritional value of common foods.
Knowledge
Food labels provide nutritional information on nutrient contents and ingredients.

Food portion sizes and number of servings inform healthy nutrition choices.

Food choices, including being vegetarian or vegan, can influence nutrition.
Understanding
Food choices can affect the ability to acquire essential nutrients.
Skills & Procedures
Explore benefits associated with various foods.

Investigate food choices that require alternative sources of nutrition.
Knowledge
Food can provide an opportunity for individuals to experience various cultures and traditions.
Understanding
Food can foster
  • community
  • connection
  • fellowship
  • family
  • knowledge
  • tradition
Skills & Procedures
Discuss ways that food provides insights into various cultures, practices, and traditions.
Organizing Idea
Healthy Relationships: Personal well-being is supported through positive relationships built on communication, collaboration, empathy, and respect.
Guiding Question
How can healthy relationships be portrayed in various contexts?
Guiding Question
How can problem solving support healthy relationships?
Guiding Question
How can resolving conflict and healthy relationships be mutually supportive?
Learning Outcome
Students connect healthy relationships to a variety of learning and playing contexts.
Learning Outcome
Students investigate and describe how problem solving can affect healthy relationships.
Learning Outcome
Students reflect on resolution and draw conclusions about its value in healthy relationships in a variety of contexts.
Knowledge
Healthy relationships can be strengthened through frequent or ongoing interactions.
Understanding
Healthy relationships can include bonds formed with one another or with nature.
Skills & Procedures
Reflect on how personal relationships are maintained or strengthened.
Knowledge
Individuals in healthy relationships resolve conflict by sharing the responsibility in coming to fair solutions to problems.

Characteristics of healthy relationships and friendships include
  • care, trust, and mutual respect
  • open, honest, and safe communication
  • equality
  • support for one another
Problem solving is a process of finding a resolution to a problem.

Problem solving can include
  • rephrasing to clarify understanding
  • determining relevant information
  • facing challenges
  • considering possible outcomes
  • resolving conflicts in friendships
Friends can resolve conflicts by
  • listening to one another
  • trying to understand each other’s point of view
  • apologizing
  • taking time to consider solutions
  • getting help from a peer or an adult
Resolution involves individuals taking responsibility for actions and words.
Understanding
Healthy and unhealthy relationships have different characteristics.

Problem solving through resolution supports social-emotional well-being by enabling individuals or groups to move forward in positive ways.

Conflict is sometimes part of friendship.

Resolution can facilitate understanding and connections among people.
Skills & Procedures
Generate solutions to problems in a variety of relationship contexts.

Identify respectful and positive interactions with others.

Practise conflict-resolution strategies that support friendships.

Knowledge
Conflict resolution can occur using a variety of strategies, including
  • creating a safe environment
  • positive body language
  • respectful communication
  • negotiating skills
  • reflecting on actions taken
  • implementing solutions that seem most appropriate
  • diversifying approaches and making repeated efforts to solve a problem
Resolution requires personal responsibility and acknowledgement of conflict.
Understanding
Resolution supports healthy relationships.
Skills & Procedures
Describe strategies that can be used to support resolution to a problem, conflict, or challenge.
Knowledge
Community supports can include
  • resources
  • programs
  • information
  • services
Friendships can be developed based on sharing, listening to ideas, and experiences with others.
Understanding
Relationships within the community can be strengthened when adequate supports are in place and can be weakened when supports are limited.

Connections within a community help to develop social-emotional well-being.

Friendships can develop within a community setting.

Skills & Procedures
Identify sources of support within the community to enhance well-being and relationships.

Practise sharing and listening to ideas of others.
Knowledge
Individuals in the community share in the responsibility for offering fair solutions to problems.
Understanding
Resolution within communities seeks to restore balance with self, others, and the land.
Skills & Procedures
Investigate how communities use resolution to restore balance within relationships.
Knowledge
Bullying is repeated, deliberate, and targeted behaviour with intent to harm.

Bullying behaviour can be
  • verbal
  • social
  • relational
  • physical
  • digital
Roles individuals play in bullying include the bully, the bullied, and the bystander.

Actions to address bullying can include
  • speaking up
  • walking away
  • getting help
  • not responding
  • safely intervening
Individuals should be able to live in a healthy and safe environment, free from bullying of any kind; there is no good reason to bully anyone.
Understanding
Unhealthy relationships can be detrimental to social-emotional well-being.

It is important to not tolerate bullies, to resist peer pressure, and to stand up or speak out on behalf of self and others.
Skills & Procedures
Recognize relationships that may be unhealthy or harmful, including bullying.

Identify actions that can be taken when bullying occurs.
Knowledge
Relationship building includes
  • empathy
  • forgiveness
  • compromise
  • respect
Understanding
Resolution can contribute to people interacting with others in a respectful and positive manner.
Skills & Procedures
Explain the connection between resolution and developing healthy relationships.
Knowledge
First Nations, Métis, and Inuit communities have traditional events, processes, and ceremonies to renew relationships, restore balance, and reconcile conflict.
Understanding
In First Nations, Métis, and Inuit communities, resolution involves restoring harmony and balance to maintain individual and community well-being.
Skills & Procedures
Discuss the importance of traditional First Nations, Métis, or Inuit events and ceremonies and how they are effective for reconciling relationships.
Knowledge
Resolution involves recognizing that actions have consequences for oneself, others, and the community.
Understanding
Resolution requires the sharing of multiple points of view.
Skills & Procedures
Explain the significance of acknowledging conflict and taking responsibility when working toward resolution.

Discuss multiple points of view involved in a resolution.
Organizing Idea
Growth and Development: Decision making that optimizes personal health and well-being is informed by understanding growth and development.
Guiding Question
How can growth change over time?
Guiding Question
How is change reflected through development?
Learning Outcome
Students investigate how growth is affected by variables.
Learning Outcome
Students examine how development and puberty are connected.
Knowledge
Factors influencing growth can include
  • food
  • mental health
  • physical activity
  • rest
  • environment
  • family traits
Understanding
Growth can be affected by various factors.
Skills & Procedures
Recognize how a variety of factors can affect healthy growth.
Knowledge
Puberty is a period of rapid growth and progression from childhood through adolescence to adulthood.

Puberty marks the beginning of the life stage of adolescence.

A growth spurt can be an indicator of the beginning of puberty.

A growth spurt can include change in an adolescent’s height and weight.

Puberty prepares the human body to be able to produce children.
Understanding
Puberty can allow individuals to take on new roles and responsibilities and experience new learning opportunities.
Skills & Procedures
Recognize that puberty marks the beginning of a new life stage as individuals move toward becoming mature adults.
Knowledge
Parts of the body that exhibit different rates of growth can include
  • hair
  • hand size
  • foot size
  • height
Understanding
Growth of the body varies and happens at different rates.
Skills & Procedures
Distinguish between parts of the body where growth is more visible than in others.
Knowledge
Puberty is a process of maturation that includes major changes.

The age at which puberty begins, its duration, and the rate of progression differs from adolescent to adolescent.

Physical changes in puberty can include
  • changes in body size
  • growth of body hair
  • skin changes
  • voice changes
Social-emotional changes in puberty can include
  • increased intensity of feelings
  • friendships becoming more important
  • mood swings
  • emphasis on body image
  • wanting to fit in and be liked
  • feeling lonely and confused
  • thinking about the future
Understanding
Differences in the physical characteristics of males and females can occur after puberty.

Puberty progresses differently for each individual.

Awareness of changes that happen in puberty support mental health and emotional well-being.
Skills & Procedures
Describe changes that happen during puberty.
Knowledge
Some cultures have different celebrations that recognize the transition into puberty.

First Nations, Métis, and Inuit rites of passage recognize significant transitions in an individual’s life.
Understanding
Cultural traditions can mark the transition from childhood to adulthood.
Skills & Procedures
Recognize that First Nations, Métis, or Inuit entry into puberty can be accompanied by opportunities that support the ongoing transition into adulthood.
Knowledge
Adolescents may have questions about puberty and its associated changes.

Credible sources of support during puberty can include
  • health professionals
  • counsellors
  • parents or caregivers
  • Knowledge Keepers
  • Elders
Understanding
Sources of support are available for adolescents during the exciting and anxious time of puberty.
Skills & Procedures
Identify credible sources in the community to support individuals through the changes that occur during puberty.
Knowledge
Changes to hygiene habits can include
  • using deodorant or antiperspirant
  • showering or bathing more frequently
  • changing and washing clothes regularly
  • reduced sharing of personal belongings
Understanding
Puberty can require changes in personal hygiene habits.
Skills & Procedures
Identify how personal hygiene habits may need to be modified as the body changes.
Guiding Question
How can development evolve throughout growth?
Guiding Question
How is change reflected through development?
Learning Outcome
Students examine and describe development related to personal growth.
Learning Outcome
Students examine development related to stages of life.
Knowledge
Development is the process of becoming a unique person.

Areas of development can include
  • mind
  • body
  • spirit
  • emotion
  • self-image
Understanding
Development is a natural, multi-faceted, and continuous progression.

Development is a lifelong process that is never complete.
Skills & Procedures
Describe the developmental changes that occur during childhood.
Knowledge
Social-emotional changes can include
  • self-image
  • self-confidence
  • humility
  • emotions
  • behaviour
  • motivation
  • relationships
  • social skills
Understanding
Social-emotional factors influence positive mental health and well-being.
Skills & Procedures
Describe changes related to social-emotional development.

Connect how an individual’s development can have an effect on behaviours, motivations, emotions, and choice.
Knowledge
Development can be
  • measured
  • observed
  • experienced
  • described
Understanding
During development, progress may be made in some areas and limited in other areas.
Skills & Procedures
Examine instances where different areas of development can simultaneously progress, be limited, or remain unchanged.
Knowledge
Social development is developing an awareness of a variety of social and cultural contexts.

Social development can include
  • expanding social networks
  • taking on new responsibilities
  • embracing new challenges
  • solving conflicts and compromising
Understanding
Social development helps build and maintain positive relationships.
Skills & Procedures
Consider how to interact and respond to others in a variety of contexts and situations.
Knowledge
One stage of development establishes the necessary body conditions for the next stage.

Each developmental stage comes with new
  • expectations
  • abilities
  • responsibilities
Life stages include
  • childhood
  • adolescence
  • adulthood
Financial considerations
associated with various life
stages can include
  • earning money
  • spending money
  • saving money
  • investing money
Understanding
Development can happen in predictable life patterns or stages.

The stages of development that occur early in life are more evident than those that occur later in life.
Skills & Procedures
Examine life stages and how they correlate to personal development.
Knowledge
Intellectual development is the critical and creative use of the mind to its fullest potential.

Intellectual development can include
  • concentration
  • perception
  • problem solving
  • memory
  • increasingly complex ways of thinking
Understanding
Intellectual development can enable individuals to think, reason, and organize ideas and thoughts to make informed decisions.
Skills & Procedures
Describe changes related to intellectual development.
Knowledge
Internal developmental factors can include
  • genetics
  • personality traits
  • life experiences
  • previous learning
External developmental factors can include
  • family
  • culture
  • environmental factors
  • social factors
Understanding
Internal and external factors influence development at different rates.
Skills & Procedures
Communicate how internal and external factors can affect development.
Knowledge
Social-emotional, intellectual, and spiritual development can include
  • listening
  • observing
  • speaking
  • speaking first language
  • understanding
  • learning
Understanding
Social-emotional, intellectual, and spiritual development are supported in many ways.
Skills & Procedures
Recognize that observing, interacting, learning, and understanding are important ways of supporting development.