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English Language Arts and Literature

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English language arts and literature is a subject that provides students with language and literacy skills required for success in the twenty-first century. From Kindergarten to Grade 6, students gain foundational knowledge and build on their language skills and experiences through reading, writing, listening, speaking, viewing, and representing. These strands of learning are closely interrelated and complementary; literacy skills in each of these strands reinforce and strengthen skills in the others. Through practice and experience, students understand how language is used in a variety of formal and informal contexts. Studying English language arts and literature involves reading, appreciating, and becoming familiar with influential writers whose works illustrate the essence of the human condition. Through the study of great texts, English language arts and literature lays the groundwork for critical thinking as well as personal expression.
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Organizing Idea
Text Forms and Structure: Identifying and applying text forms and structures improves understanding of content, literary style, and our rich language traditions.
Guiding Question
How can text organization support expression and influence meaning?
Guiding Question
How can understandings of text organization be applied to communicate about ourselves, each other, and the world?
Learning Outcome
Students examine how text genres, forms, and structures support and enhance communication.
Learning Outcome
Students analyze how the organization of a variety of texts can influence understandings of ourselves, each other, and the world.
Knowledge
Texts can be digital or non-digital.

The purpose of a text can be to
  • inform
  • entertain
  • persuade
  • inspire
A genre is a category of text that has a specific content or style and can include fiction or non-fiction.

Literary text forms can be fiction or non-fiction, and can include
  • books
  • poetry
  • drama
  • letters
  • journal entries
  • short stories
  • photo essays
  • news articles
  • hybrid
Hybrid is a type of text that includes both fiction and non-fiction text forms.

Narrative texts can be fiction or non-fiction and generally follow the structure
  • beginning
  • problem
  • series of events
  • resolution of problem
  • ending
Narrative texts can have multiple events and many details.

Second person point of view addresses the reader using the pronoun “you.”
Understanding
Text genres, forms, and structures can support and enhance the communication of ideas and information.
Skills & Procedures
Identify the purpose of a variety of digital or non-digital texts.

Determine the genre of a variety of literary texts.

Determine the form of a variety of literary texts.

Identify if narratives are expressed in the first, second, or third person.
Knowledge
Texts can be digital or non-digital.

The purpose of a text can be to
  • inform
  • entertain
  • persuade
  • inspire
Literary texts can be categorized by genre, including fiction and non-fiction.

Literary text forms can include
  • books
  • poetry
  • drama
  • letters
  • journal entries
  • short stories
  • photo essays
  • articles
  • speeches
  • hybrid
Hybrid is a type of text that includes both fiction and non-fiction text forms.

Narrative texts can be fiction or non-fiction and generally follow the structure
  • beginning
  • conflict
  • series of events
  • resolution of conflict
  • ending
Understanding
Text genres, forms, and structures can enhance and influence the communication of ideas and information.
Skills & Procedures
Identify the purpose of a variety of digital or non-digital texts.

Determine the genre of a variety of literary texts.

Determine the form of a variety of literary texts.

Describe a variety of literary forms and structures.

Identify if narratives are expressed in the first, second, or third person.
Knowledge
Text features can be digital or non-digital and include
  • images and graphics
  • titles and headings
  • sidebars
  • tables of contents and indexes
  • fonts
  • captions
  • maps
  • charts and graphs
  • glossaries
Understanding
Text features can help organize content and identify information that is most important.
Skills & Procedures
Identify a variety of text features that help organize content and that highlight information that is most important.

Include a variety of text features to organize content and to identify information that is most important.
Knowledge
Text features can be digital or non-digital and include
  • images and graphics
  • titles and headings
  • sidebars
  • tables of contents and indexes
  • fonts
  • captions
  • maps
  • charts and graphs
  • glossaries
Understanding
Text features can help organize content, identify important information, and enhance understandings of texts.
Skills & Procedures
Identify a variety of text features that help organize content, identify important information, and enhance understandings of texts.

Include a variety of text features to help organize content, identify important information, and enhance personal expression.
Knowledge
Fiction sub-genres can include
  • traditional literature, including tall tales and myths
  • realistic fiction
  • historical fiction
  • mystery
  • fantasy
  • science fiction
A tall tale is an exaggerated folk tale that describes a central legendary character with extraordinary physical features or abilities.

Science fiction is a modern fantasy text that describes technology, futuristic situations, and real or imagined scientific occurrences.

Fictional texts can have structures, including
  • books with chapters
  • collections of stories related to a single idea
  • main plots with subplots
  • circular or parallel plots
  • a story within a story
  • flashback or flash-forward
A flash-forward interrupts the story plot to take an audience forward in time to events in the future.

Elements of fiction can include
  • characters
  • setting
  • plot
  • point of view
  • theme
Second person point of view addresses the reader using the pronoun “you.”

A theme is a message or main idea explored in a text.

Types of characters can include
  • round
  • flat
  • stock
A stock character is a stereotypical figure who is recognized from familiar literature and traditions.

Fictional texts can contain characters with multiple dimensions revealed by
  • what they say, think, or do
  • what others say and think about them
Understanding
Engaging with fictional texts can help us analyze the world through the eyes of others.
Skills & Procedures
Differentiate between a variety of fiction sub-genres by content, characters, time, or place.

Identify fictional text structures that contribute to organization, clarity, or personal engagement.

Identify elements within a variety of fictional texts.

Describe characters that are round, flat, or stock based on what they say, think, or do or what others say and think about them.
Knowledge
Fiction sub-genres can include
  • traditional literature, including tall tales and myths
  • realistic fiction
  • historical fiction
  • mystery
  • fantasy
  • science fiction
  • comedy
Comedic text is amusing in tone and often has a cheerful ending.

Fictional texts can have structures, including
  • books with chapters
  • collections of stories related to a single idea
  • main plots with subplots
  • circular or parallel plots
  • a story within a story
  • flashback or flash-forward
Elements of fiction can include
  • characters
  • setting
  • plot
  • point of view
  • theme
  • conflict
Conflict is a struggle between individuals, groups, or forces that prevents the protagonist from achieving a goal.

Types of characters can include
  • round
  • flat
  • stock
  • protagonist
  • antagonist
A protagonist is the main character at the centre of a story who makes decisions, deals with consequences, and faces obstacles.

An antagonist is an opponent, or force, to the protagonist and often gets in their way or creates challenges.

Fictional texts can contain characters with multiple dimensions revealed by
  • what they say, think, or do
  • what others say and think about them
Understanding
Engaging with fictional texts can help students develop empathy and can inspire creativity.
Skills & Procedures
Differentiate between a variety of fiction sub-genres by content, characters, time, or place.

Identify fictional text structures that contribute to organization, clarity, or personal engagement.

Identify elements within a variety of fictional texts.

Describe characters based on what they say, think, or do or what others say and think about them.

Determine if characters in fictional texts are round, flat, or stock.

Describe the protagonist and antagonist in a variety of fictional texts.
Knowledge
Non-fiction texts can include
  • biographies
  • autobiographies
  • memoirs
  • procedural texts
  • content area texts
  • persuasive texts
  • interactions with people
  • land
Procedural texts can include recipes or instruction manuals.

Content area texts refer to texts from subjects such as science, social studies, and fine arts.

Persuasive texts can include editorials and opinion pieces.

Structures within non-fiction texts can include
  • larger topics and sub-topics
  • cause and effect
  • compare and contrast
  • problem and solution
  • sequence
Non-fiction texts can be examined to help the reader form opinions based on the structure, content, or source of information.
Understanding
Engaging with non-fiction texts can help us analyze the world through the eyes of others.
Skills & Procedures
Identify ways that non-fiction texts can be organized to help us analyze the world through the eyes of others.

Discuss a variety of opinions regarding the structure, content, or source of information expressed in non-fiction texts.
Knowledge
Non-fiction texts can include
  • biographies
  • autobiographies
  • memoirs
  • procedural texts
  • content area texts
  • persuasive texts
  • speeches
  • interactions with people
  • land
Procedural texts can include recipes or instruction manuals.

Content area texts refer to texts from subjects such as science, social studies, and fine arts.

Persuasive texts can include editorials and opinion pieces.

Structures within non-fiction texts can include
  • larger concepts and sub-concepts
  • cause and effect
  • compare and contrast
  • problem and solution
  • sequence
Non-fiction texts can be analyzed to help the reader form opinions based on the structure, content, or source of information.
Understanding
Non-fiction texts have structures that support factual information that can be evaluated for accuracy and authenticity.
Skills & Procedures
Identify ways that non-fiction texts can be organized to support factual information that can be evaluated for accuracy and authenticity.

Provide personal opinions regarding the structure, content, or source of information expressed in informational texts.
Knowledge
Poetry can be experienced when it is read, listened to, or spoken.

Poetry uses figurative language to create effects.

Poetic structures can include
  • verse
  • free verse
  • lyric
  • iambic pentameter (blank verse)
A free verse is a poem that does not have a rhyme scheme or a consistent metrical pattern.

The most common verse line in English is iambic pentameter, also known as blank verse, because it is closest to the natural rhythms of speech.

An unstressed beat followed by a stressed beat (a 2-beat “feet”) is an iamb.

Pentameter is five of the same “feet” in a row.

Shakespeare used iambic pentameter for much of his writing.

Shakespeare invented words, still used today, and changed the order of words to make his blank verse flow (e.g., fashionable, traditional, well-behaved, swagger, and zany).
Understanding
Poetry can be experienced for its spirit, beauty, and emotion.
Skills & Procedures
Listen to, recite, or sing poems to experience their spirit, beauty, or emotion.

Recite a poem from memory, showing evidence of voice modulation.

Examine figurative language that can be experienced for its spirit, beauty, or emotion.

Identify poetic structures that contribute to creative expression of ideas.

Identify instances of iambic pentameter in a variety of texts.
Knowledge
Poetry uses figurative language to create effects.

Poetic structures can include
  • verse
  • free verse
  • ballad
  • stanza
  • epic
Verse structures can facilitate recitation.

A ballad is a poem or song narrating a story in short stanzas.

A stanza is a series of lines grouped together in a poem that relate to a similar idea.

An epic is a lengthy narrative poem presenting characters who go on adventures.

Mnemosyne was the ancient Greek goddess of memory, whose nine daughters, the Muses, were the patronesses of the arts.

Calliope was one of the daughters of Mnemosyne and the patroness of epic poetry.

Ancient Greek epic poems were orally transmitted from generation to generation until written down by Homer.

Sources of Greek mythology include Homer’s epics.
Understanding
Exploring poetry of various origins, eras, and structures provides foundational knowledge.
Skills & Procedures
Listen to, recite, or sing poems, including a poem from a Shakespearean play.

Analyze figurative language that can develop empathy and inspire creativity.

Identify poetic structures that contribute to creative expression of ideas.

Identify the characters and plot of an epic poem.
Knowledge
Dramatic works can stimulate imagination and tell us about human nature, human society in varied times and places, and conceptions of the supernatural or divine.

In dramatic works, plot and characters are developed through dialogue and action.

In dramatic works, ideas and information can be expressed through verbal, non-verbal, and paraverbal language.

Dramatic works can help improve vocabulary and develop appreciation for the power of language.

Appreciation of drama can be enhanced by knowledge of oral communication.

Classical drama captured aspects of ancient Greek and Roman society.

English Renaissance playwrights wrote drama to entertain with comedy.
Understanding
Drama is a literary form that can artfully express stories and ideas.
Skills & Procedures
Listen to, read, or view dramatic works to learn about artful expression of stories and ideas.

Identify main characters and events in dramatic works from ancient Greece, ancient Rome, or the Renaissance.
Knowledge
Participating in dramatic works can develop communication and collaboration skills in a variety of authentic and dynamic situations.

In dramatic works, plot and characters are developed through dialogue and action.

Dramatic works can help improve vocabulary and develop appreciation for the power of language.

Appreciation of drama can be enhanced by knowledge of oral communication.

Classical drama captures timeless truths about human nature and society that are embedded in the context of ancient Greek and Roman society.

The themes of classical drama are of universal interest and are continually referred to in art and ideas over the last two millennia.

Ancient Greek theatre introduced the ideas of comedy and tragedy.
Understanding
Drama is language-rich and artfully presents ideas that transcend time and place.
Skills & Procedures
Listen to, read, or view dramatic works to identify ideas that transcend time and place.

Identify narrative structures in dramatic works.
Knowledge
Land can be understood through personal connections to its features, including
  • living things in the natural world
  • human-made structures
  • patterns and cycles
  • stories of place
Understanding
Meaning is derived through personal experiences with various features of land.
Skills & Procedures
Make connections between features of land and personal experiences.
Knowledge
Human-made structures of land that convey meaning can include
  • First Nations pictographs
  • First Nations petroglyphs
  • Inuit inuksuit
  • Métis lobsticks
  • Coastal First Nations totem poles
  • Pyramids (Egyptian and Mesoamerican)
  • Stonehenge
  • Neolithic burial mounds
  • Cave paintings at Lascaux and Chauvet
  • Mesopotamian dams and dykes
Land is a text that can be read for multiple meanings and understandings.
Understanding
Understanding land literacy can be enhanced through examining features of land.
Skills & Procedures
Describe how meaning is conveyed through human-made structures by First Nations, Métis, or Inuit and peoples from other parts of the world.
Organizing Idea
Oral Language: Listening and speaking form the foundation for literacy development and improve communication, collaboration, and respectful mutual understanding.
Guiding Question
How can the presentation of ideas and information be enhanced through oral communication?
Guiding Question
How can understanding aspects of the history of oration enhance the quality and efficacy of oral communication?
Learning Outcome
Students investigate aspects of oral language and how it can be designed to communicate ideas and information.
Learning Outcome
Students connect historical aspects of oral communication to how ideas and information can be shared today.
Knowledge
Different time periods gave rise to different forms of oral communication, including
  • oral storytelling
  • oral poetry
  • drama
  • choral speaking
  • speech making
Oral traditions include the use of stories to connect prior knowledge to shared experiences.

Oral traditions include diverse types of stories, including
  • tales of everyday life
  • sacred stories
  • stories of extraordinary experiences
Oral traditions hold communities together based on some shared knowledge and values.
Understanding
Time periods and cultures have influenced the content and delivery of oral traditions and communications.
Skills & Procedures
Identify the time period and cultural contexts of oral texts.

Discuss meanings of stories and lessons shared orally.
Knowledge
Traditional First Nations’ agreements can involve processes and protocols that achieve group consensus, including
  • ongoing conversations
  • talking circles
  • respectfully acknowledging all voices
  • waiting to take your turn
  • active listening
  • focusing on the idea rather than on who gave the idea
  • ending with consensus
Understanding
Oral traditions can be the basis for decision making and negotiation for First Nations, Métis, and Inuit.

Oral communication content and delivery can be influenced by the time period, life experiences, and culture of the speakers.
Skills & Procedures
Examine oral traditions to determine methods used in decision making and negotiation.

Discuss First Nations, Métis, or Inuit cultures, images, lives, and stories to restore understanding and build relationships.
Knowledge
Language that influences oral communication can include
  • verbal (what is said)
  • non-verbal (body language)
  • paraverbal (how it is said)
Verbal communication includes word choice and use.

Non-verbal communication includes
  • posture
  • gestures
  • movement
  • facial expressions
  • eye contact
  • energy
Choices can be intentional regarding how body movement can support communication.

Paraverbal communication can include
  • stress
  • emphasis
  • articulation
  • rate
  • pitch
  • inflection
  • tone, including modulation
Voice modulation is the adjustment of the voice and can reflect mood and meaning.

Vocal sounds are shaped by speech articulators.

Vocal sounds are affected by breath and body.

Muscle contractions in the vocal folds affect throat tension and air flow, and result in pitch.

Inflection is the process by which the voice slides up and down through a range of pitches.

Energy in the body can affect energy in the voice.
Understanding
Oral communication can be enhanced through integration and adjustment of a variety of verbal, non-verbal, and paraverbal language.
Skills & Procedures
Speak texts aloud to experience the rhythm vocally and physically.

Select and integrate verbal, non-verbal, and paraverbal language to enhance communication.

Ensure messages are heard by articulating clearly and using breath to project voice.

Adjust the pitch or projection of the voice with respect to purpose, audience, context, and space.
Knowledge
Intentionally combining verbal, non-verbal, and paraverbal language can enhance oral communications.

Different styles of speaking for different situations can include
  • formal
  • informal
  • colloquial
  • slang
  • heightened
Heightened delivery is an elevated style of speech that uses verbal, non-verbal, and paraverbal language.

Sounds can be stylized to create effects.
Understanding
Oral communication style and delivery can be influenced by the connections between verbal, non-verbal, and paraverbal language.
Skills & Procedures
Evaluate the effectiveness of verbal, non-verbal, and paraverbal language used in oral communications.

Select a speaking style to fit a text or situation.
Knowledge
Content and delivery of oral communication can change based on purpose or audience.

Language conventions or protocols can vary depending on the audience or purpose of oral communications.

The size, shape, layout, and acoustics (echoing) of a space can influence oral communications.

Oral communications can be enhanced through the selection of digital or non-digital tools or formats.
Understanding
Oral communications can be intentionally designed to convey ideas and information.
Skills & Procedures
Present knowledge of a variety of subject-area content in a logical manner.

Adjust language conventions or protocols in oral communications to enhance clarity.

Select appropriate formats for oral communication based on audience and purpose.

Present ideas and information to inform, persuade, or entertain.
Knowledge
Oral communication content, style, and delivery can vary depending on the purpose and audience.

Organization and preparation for presentations support confidence.

Selection of digital or non-digital tools or formats can enhance presentation delivery and capture the interest and attention of the audience.

Effective speaking can be supported through pausing or adjusting volume.

Feelings of excitement or nervousness can be calmed through strategies, including relaxation and breathing.
Understanding
Oral communications can be adjusted to share ideas and information for specific purposes and audiences.
Skills & Procedures
Develop and deliver presentations for specific purposes and audiences.

Adjust presentations to demonstrate knowledge of audience background, motivation, or interests.

Reflect on the preparation, content, delivery, and audience reaction of oral communications and consider opportunities for improvement.

Employ calming strategies to prepare for speaking.
Knowledge
Collaborative processes include building trust by listening to, acknowledging, and accepting the contributions of others.

Collaborative dialogue includes active listening.

Collaborative dialogue uses respectful language and can be enhanced by humour.

Considering the perspectives of others and using thoughtful or courteous language builds trust and maintains respectful relationships.

Demonstrating respect for how other people wish to be addressed maintains relationships.

Building consensus in collaborative activities involves adaptability and compromise.

Non-verbal language can enhance collaborative dialogue.
Understanding
Collaborative processes are enhanced by effective dialogue.
Skills & Procedures
Engage in collaborative dialogue to share ideas, solve problems, or make decisions.

Contribute to discussions by agreeing, disagreeing, and adding to or explaining ideas.

Use respectful language to build trust and be considerate of others.

Work to reach shared understandings when perspectives or opinions within groups differ.
Knowledge
Collaborative dialogue can empower individuals or groups to
  • voice ideas
  • express understandings
  • consider a variety of perspectives
  • improve thinking
Collaborative dialogue can include generating innovative ideas during conversational exchanges.

Collaborative dialogue can be used as a process to solve problems.

Collaborative dialogue can increase individual or group confidence through the development of trust and the building of relationships.

Respectful language can advance collaborative dialogue.
Understanding
Collaborative dialogue can be used to expand ideas and deepen understandings of self, others, and the world.
Skills & Procedures
Offer relevant information and logical reasoning to enhance collaborative dialogue.

Examine alternatives to make decisions, solve problems, or select courses of action.

Consider varied perspectives or opinions to make dialogue more collaborative.

Share new, expanded, or adjusted learnings derived from collaborative dialogue.
Knowledge
Oration is a formal speech given on a special occasion.

Throughout history, great orators were trained in rhetoric.

Rhetoric is the art of effective speaking and can be used to
  • share information or understandings
  • influence change
  • persuade
Great orators are able to combine the musicality and rhythmicity of the spoken word with the power of their messages.

The three pillars of persuasive speech are
  • ethos (showing good character to win audience)
  • pathos (appealing to emotion and empathy)
  • logos (use of logic, reason, and convincing evidence)
(These three pillars were first taught by Aristotle about 2400 years ago and are still taught to public speakers today.)

Students of public speaking today learn some of the same lessons studied in ancient Rome, including
  • use of gestures
  • control of the voice
  • choice of vocabulary
  • speaking notes
  • humour
  • eye contact
The five elements of giving a speech are
  • invention
  • arrangement
  • style
  • memory
  • delivery
(Cicero developed these elements over 2000 years ago. Great speeches, as well as wisdom about speaking, can endure beyond the life of the speaker.)
Understanding
Examining how great orations are delivered can provide models and inspiration for oratory today.
Skills & Procedures
Discuss the message and impact of rhetoric in daily life.

Identify the impact of language use and context in a variety of speeches.

Read aloud excerpts from great speeches.

Identify the message shared in 3–5 great speeches to persuade or engage an audience.

Plan and deliver a speech with confidence.
Organizing Idea
Vocabulary: Communication and comprehension are improved by understanding word meaning and structures.
Guiding Question
How does vocabulary support communication?
Guiding Question
How does vocabulary and context vary depending on the intentionality of communication?
Learning Outcome
Students analyze how increasing knowledge of vocabulary supports meaning and language use.
Learning Outcome
Students evaluate how vocabulary enhances understanding and provides clarity.
Knowledge
Words in the English language come from a variety of origins.

Vocabulary changes over time and reflects how words are used at a given time in our society.

Affixes change the meaning of a word when applied to a base and can include <ous>, <ious>, <al>, <ial>, <ian>, <ic>, <ical>, <ment>, <ity>, <ant>, <ent>, <ance>, <ence>, <circu>, <per>, <trans>, <ad>, <sub>, <ob>, <com>, and <ex>.
Understanding
Word origins and morphemes influence the meaning and use of vocabulary in the English language.
Skills & Procedures
Examine words to determine their origins.

Identify words with meanings that have changed over time.

Identify words that are new to the English language.

Determine the meaning of bases and affixes in words.
Knowledge
The English language has been influenced by people, places, and events in history.

Vocabulary is contextual and influenced by emerging or changing conditions, including technology.

Many words with Greek or Latin roots are still in use today.

Words that are specific to Indigenous culture can be found in the people, places, and things that surround us.

Many words in the English language have French origins.

Suffixes, including
<en> and <ize>, change the meaning of a word when applied to a base.

Prefixes change the meaning of a word when applied to a base and can include <pro>, <com>, <con>, <en>, and <oc>.
Understanding
Word origins and morphemes can reflect the past and influence how we understand the present.
Skills & Procedures
Examine the historical origins of words in the English language.

Identify words with meanings that have changed over time.

Research the meaning of words with Greek or Latin roots that are still in use today.

Study the origin of Indigenous words in local environments.

Identify words in the English language that have French origins.

Identify words or sayings that are new to the English language and are based on recent innovations or changes in society.

Analyze how adding affixes changes the meaning of words.

Add affixes to bases to build new words.
Knowledge
Increased knowledge of vocabulary supports comprehension of text.

Tools for vocabulary development include thesauruses and dictionaries.

Strategies for vocabulary development include
  • extensive reading
  • listening to and noting how others use words
Understanding
Vocabulary learning involves the use of strategies and tools.
Skills & Procedures
Discuss multiple ways to learn and remember vocabulary.

Read, notice, and record interesting words.

Use a variety of tools to build vocabulary knowledge.

Engage with a wide variety of texts to expand vocabulary.
Knowledge
Words can be categorized by
  • forms of writing
  • parts of speech
  • content
  • context
  • definition
Understanding
Vocabulary learning involves an intentional desire to deepen knowledge of words.
Skills & Procedures
Observe and record interesting words from presentations and dialogues.

Categorize and record interesting words and phrases gleaned from a wide variety of texts.

Apply multiple word-solving actions in flexible ways to determine multiple meanings.

Analyze word parts and cross-check with context clues to determine the meaning of unknown words.

Read for enjoyment outside of familiar forms of writing to enhance vocabulary.
Knowledge
Figurative language is language that has literal and figurative meanings and can include
  • imagery
  • hyperbole
  • simile
  • personification
  • analogy
  • idiom
  • metaphor
A metaphor is a comparison between two things that are not alike but do have something in common.

A palindrome is a word or phrase that reads the same backwards and forwards (e.g., radar).

Phrases with meanings that are influenced by context can include
  • figurative language
  • sayings
  • proverbs
Understanding
Knowledge of an extended vocabulary is a lifelong pursuit that enhances the ability to communicate.
Skills & Procedures
Apply a wide variety of words to communicate in new ways.

Apply tier 2 words to enhance meaning within subject content.

Apply tier 3 words within subject content.

Discuss how context can influence the meaning of words and phrases.

Compare words or clarify word meanings by examining similes, metaphors, and analogies.

Analyze the meanings of words or phrases expressed figuratively.

Integrate figurative language into personal writing and oral communications.
Knowledge
Figurative language can include
  • imagery
  • hyperbole
  • simile
  • personification
  • analogy
  • idiom
  • metaphor
  • irony
Irony is when something happens that is opposite from what is expected.

Phrases with meanings that are influenced by context can include
  • figurative language
  • sayings
  • proverbs
Understanding
Precise vocabulary leads to engaging, clear, concise, and intentional communication.
Skills & Procedures
Use similes, metaphors, and analogies to compare words or clarify word meanings.

Analyze the meanings of words or phrases expressed figuratively.

Apply tier 2 words across subjects to enhance precise communication.

Apply tier 3 words in subject-specific contexts.
Organizing Idea
Comprehension: Text comprehension is supported through applying varied strategies and processes, and considering both particular contexts and universal themes.
Guiding Question
How does the interpretation of evidence support comprehension of texts?
Guiding Question
How does strategic reading enhance interpretations of texts?
Learning Outcome
Students evaluate ideas and information to comprehend text.
Learning Outcome
Students analyze texts and interpret contexts to build comprehension.
Knowledge
Comprehension strategies that can be used to understand and interpret complex texts include
  • predicting
  • inferring
  • making connections
  • summarizing
  • synthesizing
  • evaluating
Evaluating is a comprehension strategy where readers make judgements based on textual evidence.

Comprehension is enhanced when reading is fluent and self-monitored.

Self-monitoring is noticing when comprehension falters and applying appropriate skills to make sense of texts, including
  • rereading
  • adjusting reading rate
  • asking questions
  • using context clues
  • using supporting resources
  • metacognition
Metacognition is an awareness that involves thinking about one’s thinking to improve comprehension.

Comprehension is enhanced when the purpose for reading is clear.

Managing information involves researching, organizing, and using information for specific purposes.
Understanding
Comprehension is enhanced through thoughtful considerations of strategies and skills that support interpretations of texts and management of information.
Skills & Procedures
Employ a variety of comprehension strategies before, during, and after reading texts.

Self-evaluate the effectiveness of comprehension strategies used before, during, and after reading.

Monitor comprehension and apply skills to support understandings of texts.
Knowledge
Comprehension strategies that can be used to understand and interpret increasingly complex texts include
  • predicting
  • inferring
  • making connections
  • summarizing
  • synthesizing
  • evaluating
Evaluating is a comprehension strategy where readers make judgements based on an analysis of textual evidence.

Self-monitoring skills that can support comprehension and interpretation of texts read independently can include
  • rereading
  • adjusting reading rate
  • asking questions
  • using context clues
  • using supporting resources
  • metacognition
Understanding
Comprehension, interpretation, and management of information from increasingly complex texts is enhanced through application of a variety of strategies and skills.
Skills & Procedures
Incorporate a variety of strategies to comprehend, interpret, and manage information from texts.

Evaluate the effectiveness of comprehension strategies used to interpret texts read independently.

Apply a variety of self-monitoring skills to comprehend and interpret texts.
Knowledge
Connections with texts that can provide evidence include
  • text to self
  • text to text
  • text to world
Summarizing includes identifying main ideas and using supporting evidence.
Understanding
Comprehension can be enhanced when connections with texts are supported by summarized evidence.
Skills & Procedures
Respond to texts by summarizing main ideas and providing supporting evidence from self, other texts, or the world.
Knowledge
Making connections, including text to self, text to text, and text to world, can support analyzing, summarizing, and synthesizing texts.

Analyzing texts includes reading closely to examine ideas and information in texts separately and in relationship to each other.

Text analysis of specific details can include
  • character development
  • plot
  • point of view
  • mood
  • main idea
  • information
Understanding
Comprehension of texts can include analyzing, summarizing, and synthesizing information and ideas.
Skills & Procedures
Respond to texts by summarizing main ideas and providing supporting evidence from the texts.

Make connections between new ideas and information in texts and known ideas and information.

Analyze details used to enhance texts.

Synthesize texts to determine specific details.

Identify multiple dimensions of a character.
Knowledge
Ideas and information in texts can be explicit or implicit.

Inferences and predictions can be made about plot, characters, setting, and main ideas of texts.
Understanding
Comprehension and interpretation of texts requires attention to ideas or information that may be explicit or implicit.
Skills & Procedures
Identify ideas and information within texts that are explicit and implicit.

Make inferences based on content that is implicit in texts.

Address predictions based on new or additional information from texts or additional sources.

Evaluate ideas and information in texts to respond to and interpret texts.

Support responses and interpretations using evidence from texts or additional sources.
Knowledge
Conclusions can be judgements reached based on information that is stated in or inferred from texts.

Context clues in texts include
  • words
  • phrases
  • punctuation
  • dialogue
  • information in pictures, diagrams, charts, or graphs
Understanding
Comprehension and interpretation of texts requires attention to explicit or implicit contextual information and ideas.
Skills & Procedures
Address predictions based on new or additional information and sources.

Infer meanings from texts based on contextual clues.

Draw conclusions and develop interpretations about texts using stated and implied ideas or information.

Distinguish among facts, inferences, and opinions.

Analyze ideas and information using text evidence.
Knowledge
Perspectives can include attitudes, beliefs, or ways of thinking about events or information.

Perspectives are influenced by culture, experiences, and interests.

Characters in texts present various perspectives.
Understanding
Perspectives revealed in texts enhance comprehension and enrich understandings of the world.
Skills & Procedures
Explain how varied perspectives presented in texts can influence personal perspectives.

Identify how the interests, experiences, or perspectives of a character might influence how that character thinks, feels, or acts.

Compare and contrast the varied perspectives of main and supporting characters.

Identify various perspectives in texts and propose alternative perspectives.
Knowledge
Perspectives can evolve for a variety of reasons, including
  • passage of time
  • experience
  • context
  • new information
Authors can explicitly and implicitly share perspectives through text creation.

Bias is the favouring of one thing, person, or group over another, usually in a way that is considered to be unfair.
Understanding
Interaction with texts can deepen comprehension, expand perspectives, and help readers learn more about themselves and the world.
Skills & Procedures
Analyze varied perspectives in texts.

Connect perspectives reflected in texts to personal experiences.

Analyze factors that cause characters in texts to change their perspectives.

Compare personal perspectives to varied perspectives found in texts.

Select the information needed to support a perspective.

Share how differences in perspectives can influence meanings of texts.

Analyze how authors can reveal their personal perspectives in texts.

Consider whether an author or a creator presents information with or without bias.
Knowledge
Context refers to the circumstances that form the background of a person, an event, an idea, or a text.

Personal contexts can contribute to how a text is created or interpreted.

The author’s context can contribute to how a text is created or interpreted.

Context can impact what characters think and do.
Understanding
An awareness of context strengthens comprehension of texts.
Skills & Procedures
Identify information from texts that describes circumstances around people, ideas, or events.

Analyze the actions or feelings of characters in stories, considering the context.

Consider how personal interests, experiences, or perspectives might influence how texts are understood or created.

Investigate background information of the author to provide context for informational texts.

Examine contextual information about characters or events in fictional texts.
Knowledge
Texts are situated in and can be influenced by specific historical, social, and cultural contexts.

Specific historical and social contexts influence understandings of text.

Historical contexts include time and place.

Social contexts include beliefs.

Contexts can change and affect how texts are understood.

Artifacts as texts can provide insights into contexts of people, time, or place.
Understanding
Historical, social, and cultural contexts can support readers in examining influences on texts.
Skills & Procedures
Analyze texts to determine contextual information that supports how a text can be understood.

Identify information in a text that implies or confirms that the context has changed.

Identify changes in context that affect actions, behaviours, or feelings.

Explore events or artifacts from a particular time and place to deepen understandings of context.
Organizing Idea
Writing: Ideas and information can be articulated accurately and imaginatively through the use of writing processes and an understanding of the author’s craft
Guiding Question
How does proficient writing enhance communication skills?
Guiding Question
How is precise writing influenced by ongoing craft and process development?
Learning Outcome
Students analyze and reflect on ways to effectively craft writing for a variety of purposes and audiences.
Learning Outcome
Students refine and adjust ways to craft writing that reflects individuality and proficiency as developing writers.
Knowledge
Writing processes used to organize and enhance messages can involve
  • planning
  • drafting
  • revising
  • editing
  • publishing
Planning can include
  • consideration of audience, purpose, and form
  • idea generation
  • narrowing a topic
Written expressions of ideas or information can follow organizational structures, such as
  • introduction, opening, or lead
  • details in order of sequence or importance
  • transitions
  • conclusions
Topic and concluding sentences provide structure and link ideas and information within paragraphs.

Interest can be created by varying sentence structure and length.

Writing fluency is the rhythm and flow of language in written text.

Revision can include adding or removing words, phrases, or sentences to ensure writing is clear and focused from beginning to end.

Publishing can involve consideration and selection of a variety of text features to enhance writing.

Understanding
Writing skills can be developed to understand self and influence others.
Skills & Procedures
Create written texts for a variety of audiences and purposes.

Create written texts in a variety of forms and structures.

Use organizational processes, methods, or tools to support the creation of written texts.

Compose multiple-paragraph works that include the introduction of a topic, supporting evidence, and a conclusion.

Arrange ideas in logical ways, with interesting details, and with transitions between sentences or paragraphs.

Write to influence, persuade, argue, or request, stating a clear position supported by relevant evidence.

Write responses that demonstrate understanding of texts, with interpretations supported by text references and prior knowledge.

Revise drafts to improve the fluency, coherence, sequence, and logical support of ideas.

Edit writing for spelling, punctuation, and grammar.

Publish selected pieces, incorporating graphics, captions, charts, or other text features as appropriate.
Knowledge
Writing processes used to organize and enhance messages can involve
  • planning
  • drafting
  • revising
  • editing
  • publishing
Planning can include
  • consideration of audience, purpose, and form
  • idea generation
  • narrowing a topic
Written expressions of ideas or information can follow organizational structures, such as
  • introduction, opening, or lead
  • details in order of sequence or importance
  • transitions
  • conclusions
Sentence fluency is the rhythm and flow of language in written text.

Variety in sentence length and structure can enhance writing fluency and reader engagement.

Fluent writing invites expressive oral reading that brings out the writer’s voice or style.

Revision may involve adding or deleting portions of text, moving pieces of text around, or restructuring sentences.

Revision can ensure writing is
  • clear
  • focused
  • informative
  • engaging
Publishing can involve consideration and selection of a variety of text features to enhance writing.
Understanding
Writing can cultivate expression, problem solving, and critical thinking.
Skills & Procedures
Create written texts for a variety of audiences and purposes.

Create written texts in a variety of forms and structures.

Use organizational processes, methods, or tools to support the creation of written texts.

Organize ideas to fit the purpose, audience, and form of writing.

Write multiple paragraphs that engage the interest of the reader.

Write responses that demonstrate understanding of texts, with interpretations supported by text references and prior knowledge.

Organize writing around clear ideas or positions that are supported by examples or relevant evidence.

Use a topic sentence to begin an introductory paragraph, ideas and supporting details for the body, and a convincing final statement within the concluding paragraph.

Use a variety of transitions to link ideas and connect paragraphs.

Revise to refine or enhance writing.

Edit writing for spelling, punctuation, and grammar.

Publish selected writing, incorporating graphics, captions, charts, or other text features as appropriate.
Knowledge
Words selected to include in texts may change depending on the audience, purpose, or context.

Word choice can reflect the author’s voice or style through
  • detail
  • clarity
  • variety
  • humour
  • dialogue
Word choice can reflect the author’s voice or style through careful selection of details that are beyond the obvious.

Words selected to enhance written texts can include
  • sensory language
  • synonyms
  • antonyms
  • specific words or phrases
  • figurative language
A mentor text is a written piece that serves as an example of effective writing for student writers.

Mood is the atmosphere created by setting, attitude of the narrator, and descriptions.
Understanding
Creative writing can enhance personal expression and artistry.
Skills & Procedures
Analyze mentor texts to determine how word choice can influence the purpose or audience of a text (e.g., article, poem, narrative).

Write to entertain, using a variety of expressive forms (e.g., fiction, autobiography, poetry) that employ figurative language, dialogue, characterization, or plot.

Add vocabulary that creates interesting descriptions and conveys mood or sensory images.

Create texts that establish a plot, point of view, setting, and problem.

Create texts that show, rather than tell, the events of a story.

Evaluate writing for development of voice, point of view, and the vivid expression of ideas through language and dialogue.

Use a thesaurus to identify alternative words and meanings.
Knowledge
Words selected to include in texts may change depending on the audience, purpose, or context.

Words can create effects or emphasis, including
  • simplicity
  • clarity
  • colourfulness
  • strength
  • precision
  • appeal
Word choice can reflect the author’s voice or style, including in texts that
  • are brief, clear, and to the point (e.g., recipes, business letters)
  • use specialized vocabulary (e.g., research reports, informative posters)
  • provide the author the freedom to use unique or unexpected words or phrases (e.g., poetry, stories, advertisements)
  • express opinions (e.g., speeches, personal responses, opinion statements)
Tone expresses the writer's attitude toward or feelings about the subject matter and audience.
Understanding
Creative writing can develop empathy as writers broaden their perspectives and develop personal voice.
Skills & Procedures
Analyze the descriptive language and word choice of professional authors as models for writing.

Write to entertain, using a variety of expressive forms (e.g., a short play, song lyrics, limericks) that employ figurative language, rhythm, dialogue, emphasis, or effect.

Write narratives that develop setting, plot, and character using suspense, figurative language, and dialogue.

Enhance style and voice through careful selection of words to create emphasis or effects.

Analyze writing for development of tone and point of view through language use.

Use a thesaurus to identify alternative words and meanings.
Knowledge
Research processes can involve management of information, including
  • questioning
  • gathering
  • organizing
  • recording
Topics that are broad may need to be narrowed into a manageable size for focused writing.

Sources of information can be digital or non-digital and can include
  • people
  • Knowledge Keepers or Elders
  • books
  • other print text
  • places
  • images
  • observations
A Knowledge Keeper is a respected community member who is recognized to have expertise in specific issues or skills.

Elders are individuals recognized by their communities as having historical, cultural, and spiritual knowledge and wisdom.

Protocols for accessing information may vary by source or context.

Methods and tools can be used to gather and organize information, including
  • note taking
  • graphic organizers
  • lists
Research findings can be shared in a variety of digital or non-digital forms, including
  • reports
  • presentations
  • visual images
  • graphs, tables, or charts
Ethical use of information includes
  • asking permission to use, share, or store information
  • citing basic information used to inform writing
Understanding
Research processes can involve examining materials or information and reaching new conclusions.
Skills & Procedures
Write to inform, explain, describe, or report.

Narrow research questions to determine a clear, well-defined topic.

Develop a main idea or topic supported by facts, details, examples, and explanations.

Evaluate the validity and reliability of information and sources.

Select a variety of relevant sources to inform writing.

Summarize and organize ideas gained from multiple sources using a variety of methods or tools.

Access and use information ethically.
Knowledge
Research
processes can involve management of information, including
  • questioning
  • gathering
  • organizing
  • recording
Topics that are broad may need to be narrowed into a manageable size for focused writing.

Sources of information can be digital or non-digital and can include
  • people
  • Knowledge Keepers or Elders
  • places
  • print text
  • images
  • observations
Protocols for accessing information may vary by source or context.

Methods and tools can be used to gather and organize information, including
  • note taking
  • graphic organizers
  • lists
Written expressions of ideas or information can follow organizational structures, such as
  • openings or leads
  • details in order of sequence or importance
  • transitions
  • conclusions
Research findings can be shared in a variety of digital or non-digital forms, including
  • reports
  • presentations
  • visual images
  • graphs, tables, or charts
Ethical use of information includes
  • asking permission to use, share, or store information
  • citing basic information used to inform writing
Understanding
Research processes can support systematic and objective management and sharing of information.
Skills & Procedures
Write to inform, explain, describe, or report.

Narrow research questions to determine a clear, well-defined topic.

Support the main idea or topic with relevant facts, details, examples, and explanations from multiple sources.

Summarize and organize ideas gained from multiple sources using a variety of methods or tools.

Analyze the validity and reliability of information and sources.

Access and use information ethically.
Knowledge
Written communication can be created using a variety of digital or non-digital methods or tools, including
  • printing
  • keyboarding
  • cursive handwriting
The selection of digital or non-digital tools for written works can support clarity and voice.
Understanding
The method or tool used to present written works can influence how content is perceived.
Skills & Procedures
Identify how an author’s selection of method or tool can impact the audience’s understanding or response to a text.

Experiment with methods or tools to enhance communication or create effects.

Use printing, cursive handwriting, or keyboarding to support legibility and writing fluency.
Knowledge
Written communication can be created using a variety of digital or non-digital methods or tools, including
  • printing
  • keyboarding
  • cursive handwriting
The selection of digital or non-digital tools for written works can be adapted according to audience, purpose, form, or context.
Understanding
Written communication involves making choices to effectively convey messages.
Skills & Procedures
Experiment with methods or tools to enhance communication or create effects.

Select a method or tool to present written works that supports clarity or voice.

Use printing, cursive handwriting, or keyboarding to support legibility and writing fluency.
Organizing Idea
Conventions: Understanding grammar, spelling, and punctuation makes it easier to communicate clearly, to organize thinking, and to use language for desired effects.
Guiding Question
How does the understanding and application of conventions support effective written communication?
Guiding Question
How does the understanding and application of conventions enhance proficient written communication?
Learning Outcome
Students experiment with and apply conventions to develop precise written communication.
Learning Outcome
Students demonstrate and apply conventions accurately and skillfully in written communication.
Knowledge
Capitalization is used for
  • first word of a sentence
  • proper nouns
  • days of the week and months
  • titles
  • headings
  • abbreviations
Abbreviations can include
  • titles
  • days of the week
  • time
  • measurements
  • addresses
Punctuation can include
  • a period, a question mark, or an exclamation mark
  • a comma
  • quotation marks
  • an apostrophe in contractions and possessives
  • parentheses
Parentheses indicate additional, separate, or less important words or numbers.
Understanding
Capitalization and punctuation can support effective written communication.
Skills & Procedures
Apply capitalization to support effective written communication.

Apply punctuation to support effective written communication.
Knowledge
Capitalization is used for
  • first word of a sentence
  • proper nouns
  • days of the week and months
  • titles
  • headings
  • abbreviations
Abbreviations can include
  • titles
  • days of the week
  • time
  • measurements
  • addresses
Punctuation can include
  • a comma
  • quotation marks
  • an apostrophe in contractions and possessives
  • parentheses
  • a colon
A colon can be used to
  • introduce a list
  • give an explanation
  • give an example
Understanding
Varied use of capitalization and punctuation can strengthen and enhance written communication.
Skills & Procedures
Apply capitalization appropriately in written communication.

Apply punctuation appropriately in written communication.

Experiment with capitalization and punctuation to create a variety of effects.
Knowledge
Tense should be maintained throughout written or oral expression and can include
  • present tense
  • past tense
  • future tense
A sentence has two main parts, a subject and a predicate.

Both subjects and objects can be nouns or pronouns.

Adjectives can compare two things (comparative—<er> or “more”).

Adjectives can compare three or more things (superlative—<est> or “most”).

An adverb
  • describes a verb
  • often ends in “ly”
  • is sometimes placed in front of the verb and is sometimes placed after
Conjunctions are used to join ideas together in sentences and are also called connecting words.

A pronoun used in place of a noun must agree in number—singular or plural—and can include
  • possessive pronouns
  • subject pronouns
  • object pronouns
Object pronouns replace the noun to receive the action in a sentence (e.g., me, you, him, her, us, them, whom).
Understanding
Communication can be supported by conventions of grammar.
Skills & Procedures
Maintain appropriate tense throughout communications.

Maintain subject-verb agreement in communications.

Identify nouns or pronouns that are the subject in a variety of sentences.

Identify nouns or pronouns that are the object in a variety of sentences.

Use noun-pronoun agreement in communications.

Apply adjectives to indicate comparison of two or more things.

Vary the position of adverbs in sentences.

Use conjunctions to connect phrases in sentences.

Distinguish between different types of pronouns used in a sentence.
Knowledge
Tense should be maintained throughout written or oral expression and can include
  • present tense
  • past tense
  • future tense
A simple sentence contains one independent clause.

A clause is a group of words with a subject and a verb, and is not always a complete sentence.

An independent clause expresses a complete thought and can stand on its own as a sentence.

A dependent clause does not express a complete thought and cannot stand on its own as a sentence.

A compound sentence contains two or more independent clauses that are usually joined by a conjunction.

A complex sentence contains one or more dependent clauses and one independent clause.
Understanding
Communication is enhanced when correct conventions of grammar are maintained.
Skills & Procedures
Maintain consistent use of tense throughout communications.

Use correct subject-verb agreement in communications.

Identify independent and dependent clauses in sentences.

Differentiate between simple, compound, and complex sentences.
Knowledge
Spelling patterns can include
  • vowel-vowel-consonant-consonant (VVCC) (e.g., speech)
  • vowel-consonant-silent “e” (VCe) (e.g., office)
  • vowel-consonant-consonant-silent “e” (VCCe) (e.g., paste)
  • vowel-consonant-consonant-consonant (VCCC) (e.g., bench)
  • vowel-vowel-consonant-consonant-silent “e” (VVCCe) (e.g., flounce)
  • vowel-vowel-consonant- consonant-consonant (VVCCC) (e.g., stealth)
Prefixes and suffixes are spelled consistently in words.
Understanding
Spelling accuracy can be supported by recognizing relationships between word patterns and structures.
Skills & Procedures
Apply spelling patterns within and across words.

Apply knowledge of spelling patterns to spell unfamiliar words.

Apply prefix and suffix knowledge to spell words.
Knowledge
Spelling accuracy can be supported by the application of complex patterns.

Spelling accuracy can involve understanding how words are created by manipulating prefixes and suffixes to a base (derivation).
Understanding
Spelling accuracy can be enhanced by recognizing patterns and spelling-meaning connections through the study of words.
Skills & Procedures
Apply spelling patterns within and across words.

Apply knowledge of spelling patterns to spell unfamiliar words.

Apply knowledge of bases and affixes to spell words.