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English Language Arts and Literature

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English language arts and literature is a subject that provides students with language and literacy skills required for success in the twenty-first century. From Kindergarten to Grade 6, students gain foundational knowledge and build on their language skills and experiences through reading, writing, listening, speaking, viewing, and representing. These strands of learning are closely interrelated and complementary; literacy skills in each of these strands reinforce and strengthen skills in the others. Through practice and experience, students understand how language is used in a variety of formal and informal contexts. Studying English language arts and literature involves reading, appreciating, and becoming familiar with influential writers whose works illustrate the essence of the human condition. Through the study of great texts, English language arts and literature lays the groundwork for critical thinking as well as personal expression.
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Organizing Idea
Text Forms and Structure: Identifying and applying text forms and structures improves understanding of content, literary style, and our rich language traditions.
Guiding Question
How can text organization enhance meaning?
Guiding Question
How can text organization influence communication?
Guiding Question
How can text organization support expression and influence meaning?
Learning Outcome
Students examine how the purpose, form, or structure of texts can support the communication of ideas and information.
Learning Outcome
Students identify how the purpose, form, and structure of texts can support the communication of ideas and information.
Learning Outcome
Students examine how text genres, forms, and structures support and enhance communication.
Knowledge
A text is anything that has meaning for the person who creates it or examines it, and can be digital or non-digital.

The purpose of a text can be to
  • inform
  • entertain
  • persuade
  • inspire
Texts can be categorized according to their content and can include fiction and non-fiction.

Fiction is a type of text that uses imagination to tell a story.

Non-fiction is a type of text that expresses information and facts.

Literary forms of fiction and non-fiction texts can include
  • books
  • poetry
  • drama
  • letters
  • short stories
Stories can be fiction or non-fiction and generally follow the structure
  • beginning
  • problem
  • events
  • solution
  • ending
Understanding
The purpose, form, or structure of texts can help organize the expression and understanding of ideas and information.
Skills & Procedures
Identify the purpose of a variety of texts.

Differentiate between fiction and non-fiction texts according to content.

Identify the form of a variety of fiction and non-fiction texts.

Identify the structure of a variety of fiction and non-fiction texts.

Describe how the structure of texts can help organize the expression or understanding of ideas or information.
Knowledge
A text is anything that has meaning for the person who creates it or examines it, and can be digital or non-digital.

The purpose of a text can be to
  • inform
  • entertain
  • persuade
  • inspire
A genre is a category of text that has a specific content or style and can include
  • fiction
  • non-fiction
Literary forms of fiction and non-fiction texts can include
  • books
  • poetry
  • drama
  • letters
  • journal entries
  • short stories
Narrative texts can be fiction or non-fiction and generally follow the structure
  • beginning
  • problem
  • events
  • solution
  • ending
Understanding
Text form or structure can support the organization and communication of ideas and information for a variety of purposes.
Skills & Procedures
Identify the purpose of a variety of texts.

Differentiate between fiction and non-fiction genres according to content.

Identify a variety of literary forms.

Identify the structure of a variety of narrative texts.

Describe how the structure of texts can support the organization and communication of ideas or information.
Knowledge
Texts can be digital or non-digital.

The purpose of a text can be to
  • inform
  • entertain
  • persuade
  • inspire
A genre is a category of text that has a specific content or style and can include fiction or non-fiction.

Literary text forms can be fiction or non-fiction, and can include
  • books
  • poetry
  • drama
  • letters
  • journal entries
  • short stories
  • photo essays
  • news articles
  • hybrid
Hybrid is a type of text that includes both fiction and non-fiction text forms.

Narrative texts can be fiction or non-fiction and generally follow the structure
  • beginning
  • problem
  • series of events
  • resolution of problem
  • ending
Narrative texts can have multiple events and many details.

Second person point of view addresses the reader using the pronoun “you.”
Understanding
Text genres, forms, and structures can support and enhance the communication of ideas and information.
Skills & Procedures
Identify the purpose of a variety of digital or non-digital texts.

Determine the genre of a variety of literary texts.

Determine the form of a variety of literary texts.

Identify if narratives are expressed in the first, second, or third person.
Knowledge
Text features can be digital or non-digital, including
  • images and graphics
  • titles and headings
  • tables of contents and indexes
  • fonts
  • captions
  • maps
  • charts and graphs
Understanding
Text features can provide information that is not in the main body of a text.
Skills & Procedures
Identify a variety of text features that provide additional information in a text.

Include a variety of text features to organize, clarify, or enhance personal messages.

Knowledge
Text features can be digital or non-digital, including
  • images and graphics
  • titles and headings
  • tables of contents and indexes
  • fonts
  • captions
  • maps
  • charts and graphs
Understanding
Text features can organize and enhance information in the main body of a text.
Skills & Procedures
Identify a variety of text features that provide additional information in a text.

Include a variety of text features to organize, clarify, or enhance personal messages.
Knowledge
Text features can be digital or non-digital and include
  • images and graphics
  • titles and headings
  • sidebars
  • tables of contents and indexes
  • fonts
  • captions
  • maps
  • charts and graphs
  • glossaries
Understanding
Text features can help organize content and identify information that is most important.
Skills & Procedures
Identify a variety of text features that help organize content and that highlight information that is most important.

Include a variety of text features to organize content and to identify information that is most important.
Knowledge
Fictional texts can be categorized by sub-form, including
  • traditional literature, including folk tales, fairy tales, fables, and myths
  • realistic fiction
  • historical fiction
  • mystery
Realistic fiction takes place in modern times and describes believable characters involved in plausible events.

Historical fiction takes place in a setting of the past.

A mystery describes the solution of a crime or the unravelling of secrets.

Fictional texts can have structures that include
  • books with chapters
  • collections of stories related to a single idea
  • circular plots
Elements of fiction can include
  • major and minor characters
  • setting
  • plot
A major character is central to the plot or problem in a story.

A minor character is a character in a story who is not the main focus and is less developed.

A circular plot is sequenced to end with characters returning to a similar situation to where they started.

A narrator can be a character in a story or someone telling the story from the outside looking in.
Understanding
Fictional texts are often products of a text creator’s imagination and are not factual.
Skills & Procedures
Differentiate between a variety of fiction sub-forms by content, characters, time, or place.

Identify fictional text structures that contribute to organization, clarity, or personal engagement.

Identify elements within a variety of fictional texts.

Determine if characters in fictional texts are major or minor.

Create imaginative representations or dramatizations of fictional texts that depict understandings of characters, setting, and plot.

Describe the narrator’s contribution to a text.

Knowledge
Fiction sub-genres can include
  • traditional literature, including folk tales, fairy tales, fables, and myths
  • realistic fiction
  • historical fiction
  • mystery
  • fantasy
A fantasy is a fictional text that contains elements that are highly unreal.

Fictional texts can have structures that include
  • books with chapters
  • collections of stories related to a single idea
  • main plots with subplots
  • circular plots
  • flashback
A flashback interrupts the story plot to take an audience back in time to past events in a character’s life.

Elements of fiction can include
  • characters
  • setting
  • plot
  • point of view
Fictional texts can include characters who can be known by what they say, think, or do.

Types of characters can include
round and flat.

A round character is interesting and layered and may change throughout a story.

A flat character does not change throughout a story.

Point of view is the way an author chooses to tell or narrate a story and can include first person or third person.

First person is where the author or narrator relates information from their own point of view, often using “I.”

Third person point of view is where the author is narrating a story about the characters, referring to them by name or using pronouns such as “he,” “she,” or “they.”
Understanding
Fictional texts can open our minds to new possibilities and ideas.
Skills & Procedures
Differentiate between a variety of fiction sub-genres by content, characters, time, or place.

Identify fictional text structures that contribute to organization, clarity, or personal engagement.

Identify elements within a variety of fictional texts.

Determine if characters in fictional texts are round or flat.

Create imaginative representations or dramatizations of fictional texts that depict understandings of characters, setting, and plot.

Identify the narrator’s point of view in texts told in the first or third person.

Knowledge
Fiction sub-genres can include
  • traditional literature, including tall tales and myths
  • realistic fiction
  • historical fiction
  • mystery
  • fantasy
  • science fiction
A tall tale is an exaggerated folk tale that describes a central legendary character with extraordinary physical features or abilities.

Science fiction is a modern fantasy text that describes technology, futuristic situations, and real or imagined scientific occurrences.

Fictional texts can have structures, including
  • books with chapters
  • collections of stories related to a single idea
  • main plots with subplots
  • circular or parallel plots
  • a story within a story
  • flashback or flash-forward
A flash-forward interrupts the story plot to take an audience forward in time to events in the future.

Elements of fiction can include
  • characters
  • setting
  • plot
  • point of view
  • theme
Second person point of view addresses the reader using the pronoun “you.”

A theme is a message or main idea explored in a text.

Types of characters can include
  • round
  • flat
  • stock
A stock character is a stereotypical figure who is recognized from familiar literature and traditions.

Fictional texts can contain characters with multiple dimensions revealed by
  • what they say, think, or do
  • what others say and think about them
Understanding
Engaging with fictional texts can help us analyze the world through the eyes of others.
Skills & Procedures
Differentiate between a variety of fiction sub-genres by content, characters, time, or place.

Identify fictional text structures that contribute to organization, clarity, or personal engagement.

Identify elements within a variety of fictional texts.

Describe characters that are round, flat, or stock based on what they say, think, or do or what others say and think about them.
Knowledge
Non-fiction texts can include
  • biographies
  • autobiographies
  • procedural texts
  • content area texts
  • interactions with people
  • land
Non-fiction texts can have structures that include
  • main idea or topic
  • supporting details
  • sequencing
  • compare and contrast
  • question and answer
Understanding
Non-fiction texts have structures that support the sharing of factual information to explain or describe real people, places, things, or events.
Skills & Procedures
Compare and contrast ways that non-fiction texts can be organized to explain or describe real people, places, things, or events.
Knowledge
Non-fiction texts can include
  • biographies
  • autobiographies
  • procedural texts
  • persuasive texts
  • content area texts
  • interactions with people
  • land
Non-fiction texts have structures that can include
  • introduction of main idea or topic
  • supporting details
  • sequencing
  • conclusion
  • question and answer
  • compare and contrast
Non-fiction texts can share opinions based on interpretations of information that is true.
Understanding
Non-fiction texts can open our minds to new possibilities and ideas.
Skills & Procedures
Identify ways that non-fiction texts can be organized to support the sharing of information that can open our minds to new possibilities and ideas.

Discuss a variety of opinions expressed in non-fiction texts.
Knowledge
Non-fiction texts can include
  • biographies
  • autobiographies
  • memoirs
  • procedural texts
  • content area texts
  • persuasive texts
  • interactions with people
  • land
Procedural texts can include recipes or instruction manuals.

Content area texts refer to texts from subjects such as science, social studies, and fine arts.

Persuasive texts can include editorials and opinion pieces.

Structures within non-fiction texts can include
  • larger topics and sub-topics
  • cause and effect
  • compare and contrast
  • problem and solution
  • sequence
Non-fiction texts can be examined to help the reader form opinions based on the structure, content, or source of information.
Understanding
Engaging with non-fiction texts can help us analyze the world through the eyes of others.
Skills & Procedures
Identify ways that non-fiction texts can be organized to help us analyze the world through the eyes of others.

Discuss a variety of opinions regarding the structure, content, or source of information expressed in non-fiction texts.
Knowledge
Poetry can include words or phrases used in a non-literal way to create a desired effect (figurative language).

Poetic structures can include
  • haiku
  • limerick
  • concrete
  • sonnet
Haiku is a Japanese poem of seventeen syllables, in three lines of five, seven, and five syllables, traditionally emphasizing images from nature.

A limerick is a poem that consists of five lines in a single stanza with a rhyme scheme of AABBA.

A concrete poem is a poem that is written so that the shape of the words on the page matches the subject of the poem.

A sonnet is a fourteen-line poem consisting of two stanzas. The first stanza consists of eight rhyming lines.The second stanza consists of six rhyming lines.
Understanding
Poetry is a form of expression that encourages creativity and new ways of thinking about ideas and feelings.
Skills & Procedures
Identify words or phrases applied creatively in poetry that encourage new ways of thinking about ideas and feelings (figurative language).

Identify poetic structures that contribute to creative expression of ideas.
Knowledge
Poetry can include figurative language used in a non-literal way to create a desired effect.

Poetic structures can include
  • verse
  • free verse
  • nonsense verse
  • concrete
  • sonnet
Poetry can be written in verse.

Verse is text structured with a rhythm and typically has a rhyme.

Free verse is a type of poetry that does not rhyme or have a regular rhythm.

Nonsense verse is poetry that uses words (either real or made up) or sounds in a way that does not have an obvious meaning. It usually imitates traditional forms and patterns of speech or verse and may have an internal logic.

Nonsense verse helps us understand how language works and how meaning is formed in a way that stimulates creativity.
Understanding
Poetry engages the imagination, and can encourage us to connect with other people, places, ideas, or emotions.
Skills & Procedures
Identify ways that non-fiction texts can be organized to support the sharing of information that can open our minds to new possibilities and ideas.

Discuss a variety of opinions expressed in non-fiction texts.

Experiment with writing nonsense verse.
Knowledge
Poetry can be experienced when it is read, listened to, or spoken.

Poetry uses figurative language to create effects.

Poetic structures can include
  • verse
  • free verse
  • lyric
  • iambic pentameter (blank verse)
A free verse is a poem that does not have a rhyme scheme or a consistent metrical pattern.

The most common verse line in English is iambic pentameter, also known as blank verse, because it is closest to the natural rhythms of speech.

An unstressed beat followed by a stressed beat (a 2-beat “feet”) is an iamb.

Pentameter is five of the same “feet” in a row.

Shakespeare used iambic pentameter for much of his writing.

Shakespeare invented words, still used today, and changed the order of words to make his blank verse flow (e.g., fashionable, traditional, well-behaved, swagger, and zany).
Understanding
Poetry can be experienced for its spirit, beauty, and emotion.
Skills & Procedures
Listen to, recite, or sing poems to experience their spirit, beauty, or emotion.

Recite a poem from memory, showing evidence of voice modulation.

Examine figurative language that can be experienced for its spirit, beauty, or emotion.

Identify poetic structures that contribute to creative expression of ideas.

Identify instances of iambic pentameter in a variety of texts.
Knowledge
Dramatic works can stimulate imagination and tell us about human nature, human society in varied times and places, and conceptions of the supernatural or divine.

In dramatic works, plot and characters are developed through dialogue and action.

In dramatic works, ideas and information can be expressed through verbal, non-verbal, and paraverbal language.

Dramatic works can help improve vocabulary and develop appreciation for the power of language.

Appreciation of drama can be enhanced by knowledge of oral communication.

Classical drama captured aspects of ancient Greek and Roman society.

English Renaissance playwrights wrote drama to entertain with comedy.
Understanding
Drama is a literary form that can artfully express stories and ideas.
Skills & Procedures
Listen to, read, or view dramatic works to learn about artful expression of stories and ideas.

Identify main characters and events in dramatic works from ancient Greece, ancient Rome, or the Renaissance.
Knowledge
Land can be understood through personal connections to its features, including
  • living things in the natural world
  • human-made structures
  • patterns and cycles
  • stories of place
Understanding
Meaning is derived through personal experiences with various features of land.
Skills & Procedures
Make connections between features of land and personal experiences.
Organizing Idea
Oral Language: Listening and speaking form the foundation for literacy development and improve communication, collaboration, and respectful mutual understanding.
Guiding Question
How can listening and speaking improve oral communication?
Guiding Question
In what ways can listening and speaking have an intentional and reciprocal relationship?
Guiding Question
How can the presentation of ideas and information be enhanced through oral communication?
Learning Outcome
Students examine and apply understandings of listening and speaking through a variety of formal and informal interactions.
Learning Outcome
Students examine and demonstrate how listening and speaking interactions build relationships and support understanding.
Learning Outcome
Students investigate aspects of oral language and how it can be designed to communicate ideas and information.
Knowledge
Throughout history, languages developed orally before being written down.

Stories can last and be retold over long periods of time.

Interactions between generations of people can include
  • ancestors
  • grandparents
  • parents
  • children
Traditional knowledge shared orally can serve as a guide for learning and living.

Shared oral language can build community.

Various forms of oral language have different traditions and conventions of delivery.
Understanding
Oral traditions share important information from generation to generation through listening and speaking.
Skills & Procedures
Investigate oral traditions that have been shared over time.

Discuss how oral traditions show respect for traditional shared knowledge.
Knowledge
Oral traditions can support connections to
  • people
  • the community
  • the natural world
  • the constructed world
Stories presented in oral traditions shared by First Nations, Métis, or Inuit reflect connections to spirit, land, cosmos, time, and people.
Understanding
Oral traditions can connect the speaker and listener in experiences that integrate the past and present.
Skills & Procedures
Share personal meaning of and connections to oral traditions.
Knowledge
Different time periods gave rise to different forms of oral communication, including
  • oral storytelling
  • oral poetry
  • drama
  • choral speaking
  • speech making
Oral traditions include the use of stories to connect prior knowledge to shared experiences.

Oral traditions include diverse types of stories, including
  • tales of everyday life
  • sacred stories
  • stories of extraordinary experiences
Oral traditions hold communities together based on some shared knowledge and values.
Understanding
Time periods and cultures have influenced the content and delivery of oral traditions and communications.
Skills & Procedures
Identify the time period and cultural contexts of oral texts.

Discuss meanings of stories and lessons shared orally.
Knowledge
Dialogue is an exchange of ideas, information, or opinions.

Effective dialogue can include
  • listening
  • staying on topic
  • asking questions
  • contributing
Speaking involves grouping and separating words through phrasing and pausing.

Pauses can be used to support meaning or create emphasis.

Speaking can be supported through
  • relaxation
  • breathing
  • posture
Regular hydration is essential to voice production and vocal maintenance.

Speakers have a responsibility to achieve and maintain vocal health through warm-ups and self-monitoring.

Communication models can help guide understandings of interactions.
Understanding
Listening and speaking can enhance the exchange of ideas, information, or opinions.
Skills & Procedures
Engage in dialogue to express and understand messages.

Examine the effectiveness of dialogue in learning and social interactions.

Identify where phrasing and pausing can support understanding or create effects.

Support speech through relaxation, breathing, or posture.

Consider the contributions of others when exchanging ideas or opinions.
Knowledge
Respectful interactions include behaviours that consider the contributions, feelings, and needs of participants.

Phrasing and pausing work together to create flow of thought and speech.

Rhythms and pauses can be used to support meaning or create emphasis.

Projection is a safe way to be heard.

Projection is the directing and supporting of the
voice toward an intended target.

Projection is a combination of relaxation, breath, clarity, and intentionality.
Understanding
Listening and speaking can support interactions that consider the needs of participants.
Skills & Procedures
Contribute respectfully to a variety of interactions that involve listening and speaking.

Identify opinions or points of view shared in conversations or texts that are listened to.

Select appropriate volume, intonation, phrasing, and pausing to evoke a desired effect when speaking or presenting.

Project voice appropriately for the audience and situation.

Identify stress, emphasis, or pauses when listening to others.
Knowledge
Language that influences oral communication can include
  • verbal (what is said)
  • non-verbal (body language)
  • paraverbal (how it is said)
Verbal communication includes word choice and use.

Non-verbal communication includes
  • posture
  • gestures
  • movement
  • facial expressions
  • eye contact
  • energy
Choices can be intentional regarding how body movement can support communication.

Paraverbal communication can include
  • stress
  • emphasis
  • articulation
  • rate
  • pitch
  • inflection
  • tone, including modulation
Voice modulation is the adjustment of the voice and can reflect mood and meaning.

Vocal sounds are shaped by speech articulators.

Vocal sounds are affected by breath and body.

Muscle contractions in the vocal folds affect throat tension and air flow, and result in pitch.

Inflection is the process by which the voice slides up and down through a range of pitches.

Energy in the body can affect energy in the voice.
Understanding
Oral communication can be enhanced through integration and adjustment of a variety of verbal, non-verbal, and paraverbal language.
Skills & Procedures
Speak texts aloud to experience the rhythm vocally and physically.

Select and integrate verbal, non-verbal, and paraverbal language to enhance communication.

Ensure messages are heard by articulating clearly and using breath to project voice.

Adjust the pitch or projection of the voice with respect to purpose, audience, context, and space.
Knowledge
Listening strategies can include
  • listening with a purpose
  • asking relevant questions
  • seeking clarification
  • responding appropriately
Texts that are listened to can build
  • connections
  • interest
  • vocabulary
  • background knowledge
  • curiosity
  • engagement
  • motivation
Reading aloud helps readers and listeners discover the rhythms in text.
Understanding
Listening can enhance interactions and learning.
Skills & Procedures
Use a variety of listening strategies to interact and learn effectively.
Knowledge
Listening can include restating key points or ideas and making personal connections.

Listening to texts can expand vocabulary, understandings, and personal views.
Understanding
Listening involves playing an active role in understanding the speaker.
Skills & Procedures
Demonstrate active listening when engaging in collaborative work.

Use a variety of listening strategies to support understanding.
Knowledge
Content and delivery of oral communication can change based on purpose or audience.

Language conventions or protocols can vary depending on the audience or purpose of oral communications.

The size, shape, layout, and acoustics (echoing) of a space can influence oral communications.

Oral communications can be enhanced through the selection of digital or non-digital tools or formats.
Understanding
Oral communications can be intentionally designed to convey ideas and information.
Skills & Procedures
Present knowledge of a variety of subject-area content in a logical manner.

Adjust language conventions or protocols in oral communications to enhance clarity.

Select appropriate formats for oral communication based on audience and purpose.

Present ideas and information to inform, persuade, or entertain.
Knowledge
Non-verbal communication can enhance speaking through
  • eye contact or gestures to provide focus
  • facial expressions
  • posture and stance
  • full body movement
Speech articulators are structures of the mouth and throat that shape sounds.

Speech articulators support
  • voice quality and audibility
  • articulation and clarity
The body may reflect feelings, including nervousness.

Understanding
Communication can be supported by integrating ideas with verbal and non-verbal language.
Skills & Procedures
Combine verbal and non-verbal skills to communicate effectively.

Articulate precise and clear sounds when communicating.
Knowledge
Non-verbal communication can enhance speaking through
  • eye contact or gestures to provide focus
  • facial expressions
  • posture and stance
  • full body movement
The combination of verbal and non-verbal language can be used to enhance clarity or create effects when communicating.

Verse has rhythms that can be felt and expressed by the body.
Understanding
Communication can be enhanced through adjusting verbal and non-verbal language.
Skills & Procedures
Adjust verbal and non-verbal language to enhance clarity or create effects when communicating.
Knowledge
Collaborative processes include building trust by listening to, acknowledging, and accepting the contributions of others.

Collaborative dialogue includes active listening.

Collaborative dialogue uses respectful language and can be enhanced by humour.

Considering the perspectives of others and using thoughtful or courteous language builds trust and maintains respectful relationships.

Demonstrating respect for how other people wish to be addressed maintains relationships.

Building consensus in collaborative activities involves adaptability and compromise.

Non-verbal language can enhance collaborative dialogue.
Understanding
Collaborative processes are enhanced by effective dialogue.
Skills & Procedures
Engage in collaborative dialogue to share ideas, solve problems, or make decisions.

Contribute to discussions by agreeing, disagreeing, and adding to or explaining ideas.

Use respectful language to build trust and be considerate of others.

Work to reach shared understandings when perspectives or opinions within groups differ.
Knowledge
Preparation can support effective communication through
  • relaxation
  • breathing techniques
  • focus
Presentations can be improvised or prepared.

Presentations can be delivered in different ways, including
  • oral reports
  • readers’ theatre
  • dramatizations
Thoughts and ideas in speech can be grouped together in logical sequences.

Effective communication can include consideration of an audience’s
  • situation
  • thoughts
  • feelings
  • beliefs
Audience participation and behaviour may affect the presenter or other audience members.
Understanding
Presentations share stories, ideas, or information with an audience.
Skills & Procedures
Group relevant ideas, events, or information in a logical sequence when presenting ideas and information.

Develop communication skills through individual or group presentations.

Present dramatizations of characters and events encountered in texts.

Share a poem from memory with some awareness of phrasing and pausing.

Compose and share a short speech or oral report.

Participate in presentations as a respectful audience member.
Knowledge
Presentations can be prepared by
  • developing a plan
  • using notes and speaking cards
  • using visual aids
  • selecting digital or non-digital tools
Speaking cards can be jot notes or cue cards that contain key points to support speakers.

Visual aids can be digital or non-digital and can include
  • objects
  • diagrams
  • images
  • text
Presentation delivery includes
  • clear enunciation
  • appropriate tone and rate of speech
  • appropriate stress and emphasis
  • correct grammar
  • appropriate word choice
Communication choices and styles differ from speaker to speaker.

Mistakes are opportunities for growth.
Understanding
Presentations can be prepared and delivered to engage, inform, persuade, or entertain an audience.
Skills & Procedures
Plan ideas and details in a logical manner that includes introductions and conclusions.

Present information that engages, informs, persuades, or entertains an audience.

Share a verse from memory, demonstrating emphasis, pausing, and phrasing that enhance the presentation.

Integrate visual aids to enhance communication.

Vary word choice to appeal to an audience.

Participate in presentations as a respectful audience member.
Organizing Idea
Vocabulary: Communication and comprehension are improved by understanding word meaning and structures.
Guiding Question
How can building vocabulary and understanding morphology support language use and comprehension?
Guiding Question
How can building vocabulary and understanding morphology strengthen communication?
Guiding Question
How does vocabulary support communication?
Learning Outcome
Students interact with new words and morphemes to enhance their vocabulary.
Learning Outcome
Students expand vocabulary and examine morphemes to communicate in multiple contexts.
Learning Outcome
Students analyze how increasing knowledge of vocabulary supports meaning and language use.
Knowledge
The meaning of a word can change when used in a different context.

Language involves phrases with literal and figurative meanings that can be used to enhance communication.

Figurative language can include
  • alliteration
  • onomatopoeia
  • repetition
  • imagery
  • hyperbole
  • simile
Imagery is when words or phrases describe ideas or things that can be experienced visually.

Hyperbole is when words or phrases are used to exaggerate meaning.

A simile compares two unlike things using “like” or “as.”
Understanding
Vocabulary knowledge can be supported and developed through literacy interactions and experiences.
Skills & Procedures
Use tier 2 words in a variety of literacy contexts.

Develop tier 3 vocabulary during content literacy activities.

Engage with texts that include more sophisticated concepts and ideas expressed through expanded vocabulary.

Integrate knowledge of vocabulary across multiple literacy contexts.

Recognize and use figurative language in oral and written communication.

Analyze and use synonyms, antonyms, homophones, homographs, and words with multiple meanings in a variety of texts.
Knowledge
Language involves phrases with literal and figurative meanings that can be used to enhance communication.

Figurative language can include
  • imagery
  • hyperbole
  • simile
  • personification
  • analogy
  • idiom
Personification is when animals or objects are given qualities or abilities that a human can have.

An analogy compares two things that are mostly different but have some things in common.

An idiom is a phrase that means something different than the literal meaning of the words within it.
Understanding
An extensive and varied vocabulary enhances effective communication in a variety of contexts.
Skills & Procedures
Communicate clearly and accurately using precise alternatives for commonly used words.

Explore meanings of words or phrases expressed figuratively.

Record information about words in a variety of ways.

Apply tier 2 words in a variety of literacy contexts.

Use tier 3 words to describe subject content.

Confirm word meanings, spellings, or word choices using a variety of digital or non-digital resources.

Integrate knowledge of word study across multiple literacy contexts.

Use analogies to compare words or clarify word meanings.

Analyze the meanings of words or phrases expressed figuratively.
Knowledge
Words in the English language come from a variety of origins.

Vocabulary changes over time and reflects how words are used at a given time in our society.

Affixes change the meaning of a word when applied to a base and can include <ous>, <ious>, <al>, <ial>, <ian>, <ic>, <ical>, <ment>, <ity>, <ant>, <ent>, <ance>, <ence>, <circu>, <per>, <trans>, <ad>, <sub>, <ob>, <com>, and <ex>.
Understanding
Word origins and morphemes influence the meaning and use of vocabulary in the English language.
Skills & Procedures
Examine words to determine their origins.

Identify words with meanings that have changed over time.

Identify words that are new to the English language.

Determine the meaning of bases and affixes in words.
Knowledge
Morphemes include
  • bases
  • affixes
A base is a word or word part that has meaning and to which an affix can be added.

An affix is a letter or group of letters that comes at the beginning (prefix) or ending (suffix) of a word and has a meaning of its own.

Prefixes, including <re>, <un>, <in>, <dis>, <non>, <mis>, <mal>, <sub>, and <super>, are morphemes that change the meaning of words when added to the beginning of a base.

Suffixes, including <ly>, are morphemes that form adverbs and change the meaning of words when added to the end of a base.

Suffixes, including <er>, <or>, <ar>, and <ist>, are morphemes that change the meaning of words when added to the end of a base.

A compound word is made up of at least two morphemes.
Understanding
Morphology can support development of vocabulary and enhance comprehension.
Skills & Procedures
Analyze bases and affixes for meaning.

Recognize and use suffixes to form adverbs that describe a specific manner, period of time, or order.

Recognize and use suffixes to name a person, place, or thing that does something.

Analyze frequently used compound words and their meanings.

Identify morphemes in compound words.

Recognize syllables in words.
Knowledge
Morphemes include
  • bases
  • affixes
Suffixes, including the following, change the meaning of words when added to the end of a base
  • <y>
  • <ish>
  • <able/ible>
  • <ful>
  • <ant/ent>
The English language is made up of words derived from many origins, including
  • other languages
  • technology
  • place names
  • trademarked products
  • social practices
Understanding
Morphology involves examining words and parts of words and how they are related to each other to enhance communication.
Skills & Procedures
Examine morphemes in words to determine meaning.

Recognize the meaning of affixes and how they influence the meaning of bases.

Predict meanings of unfamiliar words using morphological cues.

Identify and determine word origins that may impact meaning and spelling.
Knowledge
Increased knowledge of vocabulary supports comprehension of text.

Tools for vocabulary development include thesauruses and dictionaries.

Strategies for vocabulary development include
  • extensive reading
  • listening to and noting how others use words
Understanding
Vocabulary learning involves the use of strategies and tools.
Skills & Procedures
Discuss multiple ways to learn and remember vocabulary.

Read, notice, and record interesting words.

Use a variety of tools to build vocabulary knowledge.

Engage with a wide variety of texts to expand vocabulary.
Knowledge
Figurative language is language that has literal and figurative meanings and can include
  • imagery
  • hyperbole
  • simile
  • personification
  • analogy
  • idiom
  • metaphor
A metaphor is a comparison between two things that are not alike but do have something in common.

A palindrome is a word or phrase that reads the same backwards and forwards (e.g., radar).

Phrases with meanings that are influenced by context can include
  • figurative language
  • sayings
  • proverbs
Understanding
Knowledge of an extended vocabulary is a lifelong pursuit that enhances the ability to communicate.
Skills & Procedures
Apply a wide variety of words to communicate in new ways.

Apply tier 2 words to enhance meaning within subject content.

Apply tier 3 words within subject content.

Discuss how context can influence the meaning of words and phrases.

Compare words or clarify word meanings by examining similes, metaphors, and analogies.

Analyze the meanings of words or phrases expressed figuratively.

Integrate figurative language into personal writing and oral communications.
Organizing Idea
Phonics: Foundational literacy is supported by understanding relationships between sounds in oral language and the letters that represent them.
Guiding Question
How does phonics support foundational literacy development?
Learning Outcome
Students investigate how phonics connects to word formation and supports the process of reading and writing.
Knowledge
Consonant clusters blend two or three consonant sounds.

Consonant clusters
appear at the beginning and ending of words.

Consonant digraphs are two consonant letters that appear together and represent a single sound that is different from the sound of either letter (e.g., sh).

Some consonant letters represent no sound (e.g., know, write).

Chunking is a phonetic strategy used to decode that breaks large words into small parts.

Connections can be made between phonemes and graphemes, including consonant clusters and digraphs.
Understanding
Phonics supports the reading and writing of texts.
Skills & Procedures
Recognize consonant clusters at the beginning and ending of a word.

Recognize and apply less frequent consonant digraphs.

Recognize and apply consonant letters that represent no sounds or that are silent in words.

Recognize and apply a wide variety of long and short vowel sounds when decoding unknown multisyllabic words.

Use phonetic strategies to decode complex words in continuous text.
Organizing Idea
Fluency: Comprehension and literary appreciation are improved by the ability to read a range of texts accurately, automatically, and with expression.
Guiding Question
In what ways does fluency improve comprehension?
Guiding Question
How does reading fluency support comprehension and develop proficiency?
Learning Outcome
Students apply fluency strategies and develop reading comprehension.
Learning Outcome
Students integrate fluency awareness to refine reading comprehension proficiency.
Knowledge
Fluency develops over time with practice.

Fluent reading includes
  • accuracy
  • automaticity in word recognition
  • prosody (stress, expression, intonation, and pausing) in oral text reading
Understanding
Reading fluency involves accuracy, automaticity, and prosody to engage an audience or improve comprehension.
Skills & Procedures
Demonstrate automaticity in reading complex words, phrases, and continuous text.

Read increasingly complex text with appropriate rate, word stress, phrasing, and pausing.

Read a range of types of texts with fluency and expression.
Knowledge
Proficient reading involves the ability to read with accuracy, automaticity, and prosody with a focus on meaning.
Understanding
Reading with fluency allows readers to focus more attention on understanding text and supports proficient reading.
Skills & Procedures
Demonstrate appropriate stress on words, pausing, phrasing, intonation, and use of punctuation that reflects comprehension of text.

Read dialogue with phrasing and expression that reflects an understanding of characters and events.
Knowledge
High frequency word recognition includes 300 new words.
Understanding
Fluent recognition of a large number of high frequency words supports effective and efficient reading comprehension.
Skills & Procedures
Read high frequency words with accuracy and automaticity.

Incorporate knowledge of high frequency words to read fluently.
Organizing Idea
Comprehension: Text comprehension is supported through applying varied strategies and processes, and considering both particular contexts and universal themes.
Guiding Question
How can the development of skills and strategies support comprehension of text?
Guiding Question
How do comprehension processes and strategies influence deeper understandings of texts?
Guiding Question
How does the interpretation of evidence support comprehension of texts?
Learning Outcome
Students relate personal experiences to interactions with texts to support meaning.
Learning Outcome
Students examine and apply strategies that support text comprehension.
Learning Outcome
Students evaluate ideas and information to comprehend text.
Knowledge
Comprehension of longer, more complex texts, at or above grade level, is supported by increased reading practice.
Understanding
Comprehension can be developed through ongoing interaction with and frequent exposure to a variety of texts.
Skills & Procedures
Independently read and demonstrate comprehension of texts that vary in length or complexity.
Knowledge
A variety of reading processes and strategies support comprehension of longer and more complex texts through independent practice.
Understanding
Comprehension processes and strategies can be purposefully applied to broaden understandings of texts.
Skills & Procedures
Independently read and demonstrate comprehension of a variety of texts that increase in length or complexity.

Apply learned comprehension processes and strategies during interactions with texts.
Knowledge
Comprehension strategies that can be used to understand and interpret complex texts include
  • predicting
  • inferring
  • making connections
  • summarizing
  • synthesizing
  • evaluating
Evaluating is a comprehension strategy where readers make judgements based on textual evidence.

Comprehension is enhanced when reading is fluent and self-monitored.

Self-monitoring is noticing when comprehension falters and applying appropriate skills to make sense of texts, including
  • rereading
  • adjusting reading rate
  • asking questions
  • using context clues
  • using supporting resources
  • metacognition
Metacognition is an awareness that involves thinking about one’s thinking to improve comprehension.

Comprehension is enhanced when the purpose for reading is clear.

Managing information involves researching, organizing, and using information for specific purposes.
Understanding
Comprehension is enhanced through thoughtful considerations of strategies and skills that support interpretations of texts and management of information.
Skills & Procedures
Employ a variety of comprehension strategies before, during, and after reading texts.

Self-evaluate the effectiveness of comprehension strategies used before, during, and after reading.

Monitor comprehension and apply skills to support understandings of texts.
Knowledge
Connections can be made prior to, during, or after reading a text.

Connections can be made within and between various aspects of text, including
  • people
  • characters
  • places
  • things
  • settings
  • events
  • actions
  • information
  • land
Understanding
Comprehension involves connecting relevant background knowledge and experiences with new information in text.
Skills & Procedures
Make connections between a text and personal feelings, experiences, or background knowledge.

Make connections between various aspects within a text.

Compare or contrast aspects within a text.
Knowledge
Connections that support comprehension of text can include
  • text to self
  • text to text
  • text to world
Understanding
Comprehension is enhanced when relevant connections are made to information within and between texts.
Skills & Procedures
Share connections between texts and self, between a text and other texts, and between texts and the world.

Make connections by comparing and contrasting aspects of a variety of texts.

Reflect on personal connections to a text that best support understandings.
Knowledge
Connections with texts that can provide evidence include
  • text to self
  • text to text
  • text to world
Summarizing includes identifying main ideas and using supporting evidence.
Understanding
Comprehension can be enhanced when connections with texts are supported by summarized evidence.
Skills & Procedures
Respond to texts by summarizing main ideas and providing supporting evidence from self, other texts, or the world.
Knowledge
Information that is synthesized to make predictions can include
  • background knowledge
  • personal experience
  • clues from a text
  • anticipation of logical outcomes or events
Understanding
Comprehension can involve predicting outcomes or events that reflect clues from texts.
Skills & Procedures
Connect background knowledge to information within a text to make predictions.

Identify information from texts that supports predictions.

Modify predictions based on new or additional information.

Reflect on predictions to confirm or change understandings.
Knowledge
Significant information that is synthesized to make predictions can include
  • background knowledge
  • personal experience
  • specific clues from a text
  • anticipation of logical outcomes or events
Understanding
Comprehension and making predictions have a reciprocal relationship when understanding texts.
Skills & Procedures
Make, modify, and confirm predictions based on new or additional information in texts.

Identify how predictions made, modified, or confirmed support text comprehension.
Knowledge
Ideas and information in texts can be explicit or implicit.

Inferences and predictions can be made about plot, characters, setting, and main ideas of texts.
Understanding
Comprehension and interpretation of texts requires attention to ideas or information that may be explicit or implicit.
Skills & Procedures
Identify ideas and information within texts that are explicit and implicit.

Make inferences based on content that is implicit in texts.

Address predictions based on new or additional information from texts or additional sources.

Evaluate ideas and information in texts to respond to and interpret texts.

Support responses and interpretations using evidence from texts or additional sources.
Knowledge
Inferencing involves drawing conclusions based on known facts or evidence.

Inferencing can include
  • making connections
  • questioning
  • predicting
  • visualizing
Understanding
Comprehension can be enhanced by inferring meanings that are not stated explicitly in text.
Skills & Procedures
Make inferences by combining background knowledge with information that is not explicitly stated within a text.

Identify the connection between the actions, feelings, or motives of a character based on evidence in text.
Knowledge
Inferencing involves multiple thinking skills, including
  • considering cause and effect relationships
  • answering personal wonderings
  • combining information from various sources to draw conclusions
  • reading between the lines to discover the author’s meaning
Understanding
Comprehension, a complex process, involves inferencing and relying on multiple thinking skills when engaging with texts.
Skills & Procedures
Make inferences based on cause and effect relationships.

Make inferences in texts that reach beyond personal experiences.

Combine information from various sources to draw conclusions.

Connect ideas that are not explicitly stated in texts.
Knowledge
Perspectives can include attitudes, beliefs, or ways of thinking about events or information.

Perspectives are influenced by culture, experiences, and interests.

Characters in texts present various perspectives.
Understanding
Perspectives revealed in texts enhance comprehension and enrich understandings of the world.
Skills & Procedures
Explain how varied perspectives presented in texts can influence personal perspectives.

Identify how the interests, experiences, or perspectives of a character might influence how that character thinks, feels, or acts.

Compare and contrast the varied perspectives of main and supporting characters.

Identify various perspectives in texts and propose alternative perspectives.
Knowledge
Summarizing information involves
  • determining key ideas and specific details
  • logically ordering ideas
  • writing ideas in own words
Understanding
Comprehension is enhanced when information is summarized.
Skills & Procedures
Determine the most important information in a text.

Order significant information in a logical sequence.

Share the most important information from a text in a logical order using own words.
Knowledge
Summarizing information involves determining key ideas and specific details, logically ordering ideas, and paraphrasing.

Synthesizing can create new understandings through a combination of background knowledge and new information.
Understanding
Comprehension is enhanced when information is synthesized to summarize or respond to texts.
Skills & Procedures
Create personal responses to a variety of literature, informational texts, or other texts by synthesizing information.

Synthesize information from texts as a summary.
Knowledge
Context refers to the circumstances that form the background of a person, an event, an idea, or a text.

Personal contexts can contribute to how a text is created or interpreted.

The author’s context can contribute to how a text is created or interpreted.

Context can impact what characters think and do.
Understanding
An awareness of context strengthens comprehension of texts.
Skills & Procedures
Identify information from texts that describes circumstances around people, ideas, or events.

Analyze the actions or feelings of characters in stories, considering the context.

Consider how personal interests, experiences, or perspectives might influence how texts are understood or created.

Investigate background information of the author to provide context for informational texts.

Examine contextual information about characters or events in fictional texts.
Knowledge
A variety of self-monitoring skills used when facing challenges in comprehension can include
  • noticing where meaning breaks down
  • rereading
  • reading ahead
  • creating mental or visual images
  • asking and posing plausible answers to how, why, and what if questions
Understanding
The reading comprehension process involves the strategies of monitoring understandings and assessing options if meaning lacks clarity.
Skills & Procedures
Identify the location in texts where reading comprehension becomes challenging.

Determine if a text’s readability is too easy, too difficult, or at an appropriate level.

Identify self-monitoring skills that are personally effective in supporting reading comprehension.
Knowledge
Strategic reading and questioning occurs before, during, and after reading.

Problem solving can occur at the word, sentence, and whole-passage level.

Reading comprehension skills that address challenges can include
  • appropriate text selection
  • rereading parts of the text
  • reading ahead
  • visualizing
  • questioning
  • word solving
Metacognition is an awareness of thoughts and how one thinks and involves
  • connecting thinking and learning
  • identifying problems
  • considering options
  • reflecting on strategies and skills
  • adjusting thinking based on information or experience
Understanding
The reading comprehension process involves checking for understanding, problem solving, and metacognition.
Skills & Procedures
Apply self-monitoring skills to self-correct when meaning breaks down.

Evaluate possible skills that can be implemented to repair and strengthen reading comprehension.

Apply metacognitive strategies that are personally effective when reading.
Organizing Idea
Writing: Ideas and information can be articulated accurately and imaginatively through the use of writing processes and an understanding of the author’s craft
Guiding Question
How can writing craft combined with skills and processes contribute to written expression?
Guiding Question
How can development of writing processes and expression support effective communication?
Guiding Question
How does proficient writing enhance communication skills?
Learning Outcome
Students demonstrate how attention to skills and strategies can support the clarity of written expression.
Learning Outcome
Students create a variety of written texts to share information and develop personal expression.
Learning Outcome
Students analyze and reflect on ways to effectively craft writing for a variety of purposes and audiences.
Knowledge
Writing processes used to organize and share messages can involve
  • planning
  • drafting
  • revising
  • editing
  • sharing
Planning can include
  • consideration of audience, purpose, and form
  • idea generation
Methods and tools that can support planning include
  • graphic organizers
  • lists
  • visualizing
  • sketching
Interest can be created by varying sentence beginnings.

Run-on sentences make reading difficult, as the reader often cannot tell where to pause or stop.

Writers generally avoid repetitions and run-on sentences.

Three to five sentences that add detail or description to ideas or information can be combined to construct a paragraph.

Revising can include adding or removing words or sentences to enhance writing clarity, accuracy, or appeal.

Fluent writing sounds like speaking when read aloud.

Sharing can involve selecting a variety of text features to enhance written messages.
Understanding
Writing can capture ideas, memories, investigations, and stories.
Skills & Procedures
Create written texts for a variety of audiences and purposes.

Create written texts using a variety of forms and structures.

Use organizational processes, methods, or tools to support the creation of written texts.

Create drafts of writing that maintain audience interest by focusing the number of ideas in sentences and limiting repetitions.

Include a range of sentence beginnings and types to vary and add interest to writing.

Sequence sections of writing in a logical order.

Revise written texts for accuracy, clarity, or appeal by adding, removing, or changing words or sentences.

Edit writing for spelling, punctuation, and grammar.

Read written texts aloud to check for writing fluency.
Knowledge
Writing processes used to organize and enhance messages can involve
  • planning
  • drafting
  • revising
  • editing
  • publishing
Planning can include
  • consideration of audience, purpose, and form
  • idea generation
Methods and tools that can support planning include
  • graphic organizers
  • lists
  • visualizing
  • sketching
Interest can be created by varying sentence beginnings and length.

Writers generally avoid repetitions and run-on sentences.

Paragraphs include a topic sentence, supporting details, and a concluding sentence.

Topic sentences describe what the paragraph is going to be about.

Concluding sentences bring closure to a paragraph by identifying main ideas without adding new information.

Fluent writing is smooth, natural, and easy to read aloud with inflection, which helps bring out meaning.

Revising can include adding or removing words or sentences to enhance writing clarity or fluency.

Publishing can involve consideration and selection of a variety of text features to enhance writing.
Understanding
Writing is a vehicle for communication, creativity, and connection.
Skills & Procedures
Create written texts for a variety of audiences and purposes.

Create written texts using a variety of text forms and structures.

Use organizational processes, methods, or tools to support the creation of written texts.

Organize ideas related to a topic in a clear and focused manner.

Create drafts of writing that maintain audience interest by focusing the number of ideas in sentences and limiting repetitions.

Include a range of sentence beginnings, lengths, and types to vary and add interest to writing.

Group ideas into paragraphs that follow a logical order.

Write paragraphs with topic and concluding sentences.

Reread written texts to identify what could be added or deleted to achieve better clarity and flow.

Revise texts to enhance clarity or fluency.

Edit writing for spelling, punctuation, and grammar.

Publish selected pieces, incorporating images, charts, graphs, or other text features as appropriate.
Knowledge
Writing processes used to organize and enhance messages can involve
  • planning
  • drafting
  • revising
  • editing
  • publishing
Planning can include
  • consideration of audience, purpose, and form
  • idea generation
  • narrowing a topic
Written expressions of ideas or information can follow organizational structures, such as
  • introduction, opening, or lead
  • details in order of sequence or importance
  • transitions
  • conclusions
Topic and concluding sentences provide structure and link ideas and information within paragraphs.

Interest can be created by varying sentence structure and length.

Writing fluency is the rhythm and flow of language in written text.

Revision can include adding or removing words, phrases, or sentences to ensure writing is clear and focused from beginning to end.

Publishing can involve consideration and selection of a variety of text features to enhance writing.

Understanding
Writing skills can be developed to understand self and influence others.
Skills & Procedures
Create written texts for a variety of audiences and purposes.

Create written texts in a variety of forms and structures.

Use organizational processes, methods, or tools to support the creation of written texts.

Compose multiple-paragraph works that include the introduction of a topic, supporting evidence, and a conclusion.

Arrange ideas in logical ways, with interesting details, and with transitions between sentences or paragraphs.

Write to influence, persuade, argue, or request, stating a clear position supported by relevant evidence.

Write responses that demonstrate understanding of texts, with interpretations supported by text references and prior knowledge.

Revise drafts to improve the fluency, coherence, sequence, and logical support of ideas.

Edit writing for spelling, punctuation, and grammar.

Publish selected pieces, incorporating graphics, captions, charts, or other text features as appropriate.
Knowledge
Writing is a craft that involves personal expression of ideas through
  • organization
  • word choice
  • presentation
Creative ideas for written expression can be inspired by a variety of sources, including
  • personal experiences
  • background knowledge
  • imagination
  • experiences with text
The author’s voice or style helps a reader or an audience picture or feel what a writer is describing.

In creative writing, word choice can include interesting details that keep audiences engaged.

Words selected to enhance written texts can include
  • sensory details
  • synonyms
  • antonyms
  • specific words or phrases
  • figurative language
Dialogue can be used to add variety to written texts, advance the plot, or reveal a character’s thoughts and feelings.
Understanding
Creative expression can channel imaginative thought and emotion into a variety of written texts.
Skills & Procedures
Identify how the relationship between audience, purpose, and text form can influence creative expression.

Identify how other writers use words, sensory detail, and figurative language for creative expression of thoughts and emotions.

Create written texts that draw upon a variety of sources of inspiration.

Select from a variety of text forms or structures to express personal thoughts or feelings.

Create beginnings that catch the audience’s attention by experimenting with ideas and word choice.

Include a variety of carefully selected words, sensory detail, or figurative language to add interest and keep audiences engaged.

Include dialogue to add variety, advance the plot, or reveal a character’s thoughts or feelings.

Use punctuation to generate effects in creative expression.

Create thoughtful conclusions to tie up events or leave readers wondering.

Select from a variety of presentation forms or text features to enhance and share selections of creative writing.
Knowledge
Writing is a craft that involves personal expression of ideas through
  • organization
  • word choice
  • presentation
Creative ideas for written expression can be inspired by a variety of sources, including
  • personal experiences
  • background knowledge
  • imagination
  • experiences with text
Word choice can reflect the author’s voice or style through careful selection and presentation of important details.

Words selected to enhance written texts can include
  • sensory language
  • synonyms
  • antonyms
  • specific words or phrases
  • figurative language
Dialogue can be used to add variety to written texts, advance the plot, or reveal a character’s thoughts and feelings.
Understanding
Creative writing can provide opportunities to express personal feelings and understand how others feel.
Skills & Procedures
Identify how the relationship between audience, purpose, and text form can influence creative expression.

Examine the craft of effective writing and writers to gain insight into creative expression of ideas and emotions.

Create beginnings that catch the audience’s attention by experimenting with ideas and word choice.

Include a variety of carefully selected words, sensory detail, or figurative language to add interest and keep audiences engaged.

Include dialogue to communicate personal voice or the voice of characters in narratives.

Use punctuation to generate effects in creative expression.

Create thoughtful conclusions to tie up events or leave readers wondering.

Select from a variety of presentation forms or text features to enhance and share selections of creative writing.
Knowledge
Words selected to include in texts may change depending on the audience, purpose, or context.

Word choice can reflect the author’s voice or style through
  • detail
  • clarity
  • variety
  • humour
  • dialogue
Word choice can reflect the author’s voice or style through careful selection of details that are beyond the obvious.

Words selected to enhance written texts can include
  • sensory language
  • synonyms
  • antonyms
  • specific words or phrases
  • figurative language
A mentor text is a written piece that serves as an example of effective writing for student writers.

Mood is the atmosphere created by setting, attitude of the narrator, and descriptions.
Understanding
Creative writing can enhance personal expression and artistry.
Skills & Procedures
Analyze mentor texts to determine how word choice can influence the purpose or audience of a text (e.g., article, poem, narrative).

Write to entertain, using a variety of expressive forms (e.g., fiction, autobiography, poetry) that employ figurative language, dialogue, characterization, or plot.

Add vocabulary that creates interesting descriptions and conveys mood or sensory images.

Create texts that establish a plot, point of view, setting, and problem.

Create texts that show, rather than tell, the events of a story.

Evaluate writing for development of voice, point of view, and the vivid expression of ideas through language and dialogue.

Use a thesaurus to identify alternative words and meanings.
Knowledge
Questioning can help focus research topics and processes.

Information can be gathered from digital or non-digital sources and can include
  • people
  • places
  • print text
  • images
  • observations
Information can be categorized or sequenced to enhance organization.

Organizational tools, such as graphic organizers, can help plan and write about factual information.

Research findings can be shared in a variety of digital or non-digital formats, including
  • reports
  • presentations
  • visual representations
The information and ideas of others need to be listed (cited) as a source in research writing.
Understanding
Research processes can support accessing and logically organizing information.
Skills & Procedures
Access information from a variety of sources to answer questions or expand knowledge.

Organize, categorize, or sequence information using a variety of methods or tools.

Use research and formats to create written texts that are appropriate for the audience.

List sources of information used to inform research.
Knowledge
Questioning can help focus research topics and processes.

Sources of information can be digital or non-digital and can include
  • people
  • places
  • print text
  • images
  • observations
Information can be categorized or sequenced to enhance organization.

Methods and tools can be used to organize information, including
  • note taking
  • graphic organizers
  • lists
Research findings can be shared in a variety of digital or non-digital forms, including
  • reports
  • presentations
  • visual representations
Ethical use of information includes
  • asking permission to use, share, or store information
  • acknowledging the ownership of information used to inform writing (citing)
Understanding
Research processes can involve investigating materials or information to uncover facts and support problem solving.
Skills & Procedures
Access information from a variety of sources to answer questions or expand knowledge.

Use a variety of methods or tools to record, organize, categorize, or sequence information.

Use research and formats to create written texts that are appropriate for the audience.

List sources of information used to inform research.
Knowledge
Research processes can involve management of information, including
  • questioning
  • gathering
  • organizing
  • recording
Topics that are broad may need to be narrowed into a manageable size for focused writing.

Sources of information can be digital or non-digital and can include
  • people
  • Knowledge Keepers or Elders
  • books
  • other print text
  • places
  • images
  • observations
A Knowledge Keeper is a respected community member who is recognized to have expertise in specific issues or skills.

Elders are individuals recognized by their communities as having historical, cultural, and spiritual knowledge and wisdom.

Protocols for accessing information may vary by source or context.

Methods and tools can be used to gather and organize information, including
  • note taking
  • graphic organizers
  • lists
Research findings can be shared in a variety of digital or non-digital forms, including
  • reports
  • presentations
  • visual images
  • graphs, tables, or charts
Ethical use of information includes
  • asking permission to use, share, or store information
  • citing basic information used to inform writing
Understanding
Research processes can involve examining materials or information and reaching new conclusions.
Skills & Procedures
Write to inform, explain, describe, or report.

Narrow research questions to determine a clear, well-defined topic.

Develop a main idea or topic supported by facts, details, examples, and explanations.

Evaluate the validity and reliability of information and sources.

Select a variety of relevant sources to inform writing.

Summarize and organize ideas gained from multiple sources using a variety of methods or tools.

Access and use information ethically.
Knowledge
Written messages can be created using a variety of digital or non-digital methods or tools, including
  • printing
  • keyboarding
  • cursive handwriting
Cursive handwriting involves
  • letter formation
  • size
  • proportion
  • slant
Basic keyboarding involves
  • finger reaches
  • keystroking
  • key recognition
Understanding
Methods or tools can support writing fluency through practice.
Skills & Procedures
Demonstrate writing fluency using at least one method or tool.

Use cursive handwriting to write some texts with appropriate letter formation, size, proportion, and slant.

Demonstrate basic keyboarding skills.
Knowledge
Written messages can be created using a variety of digital or non-digital methods or tools, including
  • printing
  • keyboarding
  • cursive handwriting
Cursive handwriting involves
  • letter formation
  • size
  • proportion
  • slant

Basic keyboarding involves
  • finger reaches
  • keystroking
  • key recognition
Understanding
Methods or tools can enhance written works and the artistry of a message.
Skills & Procedures
Select a method or tool to enhance the artistry of written works.

Use cursive handwriting to write texts with appropriate letter formation, size, proportion, and slant.

Apply keyboarding skills to enhance written works.
Knowledge
Written communication can be created using a variety of digital or non-digital methods or tools, including
  • printing
  • keyboarding
  • cursive handwriting
The selection of digital or non-digital tools for written works can support clarity and voice.
Understanding
The method or tool used to present written works can influence how content is perceived.
Skills & Procedures
Identify how an author’s selection of method or tool can impact the audience’s understanding or response to a text.

Experiment with methods or tools to enhance communication or create effects.

Use printing, cursive handwriting, or keyboarding to support legibility and writing fluency.
Organizing Idea
Conventions: Understanding grammar, spelling, and punctuation makes it easier to communicate clearly, to organize thinking, and to use language for desired effects.
Guiding Question
How does the appropriate use of conventions support clear written communication?
Guiding Question
How does the knowledge and application of conventions enhance written communication?
Guiding Question
How does the understanding and application of conventions support effective written communication?
Learning Outcome
Students investigate and demonstrate how conventions support written communication.
Learning Outcome
Students examine and apply conventions to develop concise written communication.
Learning Outcome
Students experiment with and apply conventions to develop precise written communication.
Knowledge
Capitalization is used for
  • first word of a sentence
  • proper nouns
  • days of the week and months
  • titles
  • headings
Punctuation can include
  • a period
  • a question mark
  • an exclamation mark
  • a comma
  • quotation marks
  • an apostrophe in contractions and possessives
A comma indicates a pause between parts of a sentence or separates items in a list.

Quotation marks identify the words of a speaker or bring attention to a word that is used in a special way.

A contraction is a combined form of two words, where an apostrophe takes the place of certain letters.
Understanding
Capitalization and punctuation can enhance written expression.
Skills & Procedures
Capitalize the first word of sentences.

Capitalize proper nouns.

Capitalize days of the week and months.

Capitalize titles and headings.

Include a variety of punctuation at the end of sentences.

Insert commas to indicate a pause between parts of sentences, or to separate items in a list.

Insert quotation marks to identify the words of a speaker.

Insert quotation marks to bring attention to a word that is used in a special way.

Insert apostrophes in place of letters in contractions.

Insert apostrophes to show possession.
Knowledge
Capitalization is used for
  • first word of a sentence
  • proper nouns
  • days of the week and months
  • titles
  • headings
  • abbreviations
An abbreviation is the shortened form of a word or words (e.g., Rd., St., AB).

Punctuation can include
  • a period
  • a question mark
  • an exclamation mark
  • a comma
  • quotation marks
  • an apostrophe in contractions and possessives
A comma can have a variety of uses, including
  • to indicate a pause between parts of a sentence
  • to separate words in a list or series
  • to separate a transition word from the words that follow in a sentence
Understanding
Capitalization and punctuation can be used to support writing fluency.
Skills & Procedures
Capitalize the first word of sentences.

Capitalize proper nouns.

Capitalize days of the week and months.

Capitalize titles and headings.

Capitalize abbreviations.

Include a variety of punctuation at the end of sentences.

Insert commas to indicate a pause between parts of sentences, to separate items in a list, or to follow a transition word.

Insert quotation marks to identify the words of a speaker or to bring attention to a word that is used in a special way.

Insert apostrophes in place of letters in contractions and to show possession.
Knowledge
Capitalization is used for
  • first word of a sentence
  • proper nouns
  • days of the week and months
  • titles
  • headings
  • abbreviations
Abbreviations can include
  • titles
  • days of the week
  • time
  • measurements
  • addresses
Punctuation can include
  • a period, a question mark, or an exclamation mark
  • a comma
  • quotation marks
  • an apostrophe in contractions and possessives
  • parentheses
Parentheses indicate additional, separate, or less important words or numbers.
Understanding
Capitalization and punctuation can support effective written communication.
Skills & Procedures
Apply capitalization to support effective written communication.

Apply punctuation to support effective written communication.
Knowledge
Sentence types include
  • telling (declarative)
  • asking (interrogative)
  • excitement (exclamatory)
  • command (imperative)
A sentence can command someone to do or not to do something (imperative).

A sentence has a two main parts, a subject and a predicate.

The subject of a sentence is who or what the sentence is about.

The predicate of a sentence is what the subject does.

Words can be used to connect phrases and sentences (conjunctions) (e.g., and, but, or, so, then).

An adjective is a word that describes a noun.

An adverb is a word that describes a verb.

Subject-verb agreement means that the subject and the verb must agree, with both being either singular or plural.

Words can tell who or what owns a noun (possessive), and include
  • possessive nouns (‘s)
  • possessive adjectives (e.g., my, your, his, her, its, our, their)
  • possessive pronouns (e.g., mine, yours, his, hers, ours, theirs)
Some words can be used with other words to show time or place (prepositions) (e.g., under, with, before, after).
Understanding
Grammar can provide a consistent structure for the building of sentences.
Skills & Procedures
Distinguish between a variety of sentence types.

Identify the subject of a variety of sentences.

Identify the predicate of a variety of sentences.

Identify conjunctions in a variety of sentences.

Use adjectives to describe nouns.

Use adverbs to describe verbs.

Identify subject-verb agreement in a variety of sentences.

Differentiate between possessive nouns, possessive adjectives, and possessive pronouns.

Recognize and use prepositions in sentences to show time and place.
Knowledge
Sentence types include
  • telling (declarative)
  • asking (interrogative)
  • excitement (exclamatory)
  • command (imperative)
Sentences may describe facts or actions happening in the present (present tense).

Sentences can describe what happened in the past (past tense).

Sentences can describe what may happen in the future (future tense).

The subject of a verb is the person or thing that performs the action.

The object of a verb is the person or thing that receives the action.

Both subjects and objects can be nouns or pronouns.

Pronouns can replace a noun as the subject in a sentence (subjective) (e.g., I, you, he, she, it, we, they).

Possessive adjectives come before a noun or a pronoun to show who or what owns it (e.g., my, your, his, her, its, our, their).

Adjectives can compare two things (comparative—<er> or “more”).

Adjectives can compare three or more things (superlative—<est> or “most”).

Words can be used to connect phrases in sentences (conjunctions) (e.g., and, but, or, so, then).
Understanding
Grammatical structures can support consistency in communication.
Skills & Procedures
Distinguish between a variety of sentence types.

Determine if text is in the present, past, or future tense.

Identify nouns or pronouns that are the subject of a variety of sentences.

Identify nouns or pronouns that are the object of a variety of sentences.

Identify possessive adjectives in a variety of sentences.

Use adjectives to indicate comparison of two or more things (<er> or <est>).

Use conjunctions to connect phrases in sentences.

Apply consistent subject-verb agreement in a variety of sentences.
Knowledge
Tense should be maintained throughout written or oral expression and can include
  • present tense
  • past tense
  • future tense
A sentence has two main parts, a subject and a predicate.

Both subjects and objects can be nouns or pronouns.

Adjectives can compare two things (comparative—<er> or “more”).

Adjectives can compare three or more things (superlative—<est> or “most”).

An adverb
  • describes a verb
  • often ends in “ly”
  • is sometimes placed in front of the verb and is sometimes placed after
Conjunctions are used to join ideas together in sentences and are also called connecting words.

A pronoun used in place of a noun must agree in number—singular or plural—and can include
  • possessive pronouns
  • subject pronouns
  • object pronouns
Object pronouns replace the noun to receive the action in a sentence (e.g., me, you, him, her, us, them, whom).
Understanding
Communication can be supported by conventions of grammar.
Skills & Procedures
Maintain appropriate tense throughout communications.

Maintain subject-verb agreement in communications.

Identify nouns or pronouns that are the subject in a variety of sentences.

Identify nouns or pronouns that are the object in a variety of sentences.

Use noun-pronoun agreement in communications.

Apply adjectives to indicate comparison of two or more things.

Vary the position of adverbs in sentences.

Use conjunctions to connect phrases in sentences.

Distinguish between different types of pronouns used in a sentence.
Knowledge
Spelling patterns can include
  • vowel-consonant (VC) (e.g., straw)
  • consonant-vowel-consonant (CVC) (e.g., plan)
  • vowel-consonant-silent “e” (VCe) (e.g., cone)
  • consonant-vowel-consonant-silent “e” (CVCe) (e.g., spoke)
  • vowel-consonant-consonant (VCC) (e.g., mask)
  • vowel-vowel-consonant (VVC) (e.g., soil)
  • nouns ending in <y>: change <y> to <i> and add <es> (e.g., pony–ponies)
  • nouns ending in <f> or <fe>: change <f> or <fe> to <v> and add <es> (e.g., leaf–leaves)
Some plural nouns may be spelled the same as or differently from their singular form (e.g., moose–moose, person–people).

Adding an apostrophe and an <s> to a noun shows ownership.

Add only an apostrophe and not an <s> if a noun is plural and already ends in an <s>.

Prefixes and suffixes are spelled consistently in words.

Some words are not spelled in predictable ways (e.g., twelfth).
Understanding
Correct spelling can be supported by applying knowledge of word patterns and parts.
Skills & Procedures
Identify spelling patterns within and across words.

Apply knowledge of known words, word parts, and word patterns to spell unfamiliar words.

Identify plural nouns that are spelled the same as or differently from their singular form.

Add an apostrophe and an <s> to nouns to show ownership.

Add only an apostrophe to show ownership if a noun is plural and already ends in an <s>.

Spell a variety of prefixes and suffixes accurately in words.

Identify words that are not spelled in predictable ways.
Knowledge
Spelling patterns can include
  • vowel-vowel-consonant-consonant (VVCC) (e.g., each)
  • vowel-vowel-consonant-silent “e” (VVCe) (e.g., weave)
  • vowel-consonant-consonant-silent “e” (VCCe) (e.g., wedge)
  • vowel-consonant-consonant-consonant (VCCC) (e.g., trench)
  • vowel-vowel-consonant-consonant-silent “e” (VVCCe) (e.g., bounce)
  • vowel-vowel-consonant-consonant-consonant (VVCCC) (e.g., health)
Prefixes and suffixes are spelled consistently in words.

Some words are not spelled in predictable ways (e.g., occasionally).
Understanding
Spelling accuracy can be supported by transferring understandings of word patterns and structures.
Skills & Procedures
Identify spelling patterns within and across words.

Apply knowledge of known words, word parts, and word patterns to spell unfamiliar words.

Spell a variety of prefixes and suffixes accurately in words.

Identify words that are not spelled in predictable ways.
Knowledge
Spelling patterns can include
  • vowel-vowel-consonant-consonant (VVCC) (e.g., speech)
  • vowel-consonant-silent “e” (VCe) (e.g., office)
  • vowel-consonant-consonant-silent “e” (VCCe) (e.g., paste)
  • vowel-consonant-consonant-consonant (VCCC) (e.g., bench)
  • vowel-vowel-consonant-consonant-silent “e” (VVCCe) (e.g., flounce)
  • vowel-vowel-consonant- consonant-consonant (VVCCC) (e.g., stealth)
Prefixes and suffixes are spelled consistently in words.
Understanding
Spelling accuracy can be supported by recognizing relationships between word patterns and structures.
Skills & Procedures
Apply spelling patterns within and across words.

Apply knowledge of spelling patterns to spell unfamiliar words.

Apply prefix and suffix knowledge to spell words.
Knowledge
Spelling strategies can be used to spell words accurately and can include
  • articulating
  • visualizing
  • transferring prior knowledge
  • trial and error
Digital or non-digital tools can be used to help spell words correctly and can include
  • personal word lists
  • dictionaries
  • environmental print
  • peers, teachers, or parents/guardians
Understanding
A variety of spelling strategies and tools can be used to enhance written expression.
Skills & Procedures
Apply a variety of spelling strategies to enhance written expression.

Use a variety of tools to spell or confirm the spelling of words.
Knowledge
Homophones are words that have the same pronunciation but different spellings and meanings (e.g., hear–here).

Spelling strategies can be used to spell words accurately and can include
  • articulating
  • visualizing
  • transferring prior knowledge
  • trial and error
Digital or non-digital reference tools can be used to help spell words correctly and can include
  • dictionaries
  • environmental print
  • spell check
  • peers, teachers, or parents/guardians
Understanding
Automatic transference of spelling knowledge can increase writing fluency.
Skills & Procedures
Differentiate between the spelling and associated meaning of a variety of homophones.

Apply a variety of spelling strategies to increase writing fluency.

Use a variety of tools to spell or confirm the spelling of words.
Knowledge
Abbreviations can include
  • titles
  • days of the week
  • time
  • measurements
  • addresses
Plural possessives end with an <s’> to show ownership.

An inflectional ending is a suffix added to a base that indicates
  • tense
  • plurality
  • possession
  • comparison
The basic guidelines of adding inflectional endings consist of
  • dropping the <e> and adding <ing>
  • doubling the letter before adding <ing> or <ed>
Understanding
Basic guidelines for spelling transferred to writing new text can increase accuracy.
Skills & Procedures
Spell common abbreviations in writing.

Recognize and spell most contractions in writing.

Apply inflectional endings in writing.

Spell compound words accurately.

Spell singular and plural possessives.

Spell some complex plural words.

Apply endings that show comparisons.

Spell one-syllable words with a vowel and <r>.

Recognize basic guidelines for adding inflectional endings.
Knowledge
Suffixes can include <er>, <es>, <r>, <ly>, <ing>, <ily>, <able>, <ible>, <ar>, <less>.
Understanding
Guidelines for spelling transferred to writing new text can increase written clarity.
Skills & Procedures
Spell a range of compound words, contractions, possessives, and complex plurals.

Spell two- and three-syllable words that have a vowel and <r>.

Recognize and spell common suffixes.