Alberta Logonew LearnAlberta

English Language Arts and Literature

Collapse All

English language arts and literature is a subject that provides students with language and literacy skills required for success in the twenty-first century. From Kindergarten to Grade 6, students gain foundational knowledge and build on their language skills and experiences through reading, writing, listening, speaking, viewing, and representing. These strands of learning are closely interrelated and complementary; literacy skills in each of these strands reinforce and strengthen skills in the others. Through practice and experience, students understand how language is used in a variety of formal and informal contexts. Studying English language arts and literature involves reading, appreciating, and becoming familiar with influential writers whose works illustrate the essence of the human condition. Through the study of great texts, English language arts and literature lays the groundwork for critical thinking as well as personal expression.
More Info
Collapse All
Prev
Collapse All
 
Grade 2
Grade 3
Grade 4
Next
Organizing Idea
Text Forms and Structure: Identifying and applying text forms and structures improves understanding of content, literary style, and our rich language traditions.
Guiding Question
How can the organization of ideas and information support the expression and understanding of messages?
Guiding Question
How can text organization enhance meaning?
Guiding Question
How can text organization influence communication?
Learning Outcome
Students explain how the organization of ideas and information within texts can support the purpose or meaning of messages.
Learning Outcome
Students examine how the purpose, form, or structure of texts can support the communication of ideas and information.
Learning Outcome
Students identify how the purpose, form, and structure of texts can support the communication of ideas and information.
Knowledge
Messages can be shared for different reasons (purpose), including entertainment, learning, safety, and directions.

Messages can depict ideas and information that are imaginary (fiction) or real (non-fiction).

Messages can be shared digitally or non-digitally through
  • reading
  • writing
  • listening
  • speaking
  • viewing
  • representing
Messages can be shared in a variety of forms, including
  • print
  • books
  • stories
  • pictures
  • poetry
  • plays
  • letters
  • land
Stories, both real and imaginary, generally follow the structure
  • beginning
  • problem
  • solution
  • ending
Understanding
Ideas and information can be organized in a variety of ways to support the expression and understanding of messages.
Skills & Procedures
Identify different reasons for messages to be shared (purposes).

Distinguish between messages that are imaginary (fiction) or real (non-fiction).

Compare and contrast forms used to organize messages.

Describe the structure of a variety of imaginary or real stories.

Knowledge
A text is anything that has meaning for the person who creates it or examines it, and can be digital or non-digital.

The purpose of a text can be to
  • inform
  • entertain
  • persuade
  • inspire
Texts can be categorized according to their content and can include fiction and non-fiction.

Fiction is a type of text that uses imagination to tell a story.

Non-fiction is a type of text that expresses information and facts.

Literary forms of fiction and non-fiction texts can include
  • books
  • poetry
  • drama
  • letters
  • short stories
Stories can be fiction or non-fiction and generally follow the structure
  • beginning
  • problem
  • events
  • solution
  • ending
Understanding
The purpose, form, or structure of texts can help organize the expression and understanding of ideas and information.
Skills & Procedures
Identify the purpose of a variety of texts.

Differentiate between fiction and non-fiction texts according to content.

Identify the form of a variety of fiction and non-fiction texts.

Identify the structure of a variety of fiction and non-fiction texts.

Describe how the structure of texts can help organize the expression or understanding of ideas or information.
Knowledge
A text is anything that has meaning for the person who creates it or examines it, and can be digital or non-digital.

The purpose of a text can be to
  • inform
  • entertain
  • persuade
  • inspire
A genre is a category of text that has a specific content or style and can include
  • fiction
  • non-fiction
Literary forms of fiction and non-fiction texts can include
  • books
  • poetry
  • drama
  • letters
  • journal entries
  • short stories
Narrative texts can be fiction or non-fiction and generally follow the structure
  • beginning
  • problem
  • events
  • solution
  • ending
Understanding
Text form or structure can support the organization and communication of ideas and information for a variety of purposes.
Skills & Procedures
Identify the purpose of a variety of texts.

Differentiate between fiction and non-fiction genres according to content.

Identify a variety of literary forms.

Identify the structure of a variety of narrative texts.

Describe how the structure of texts can support the organization and communication of ideas or information.
Knowledge
Features that organize, clarify, or enhance messages can be digital or non-digital, including
  • pictures
  • print size, colour, font, or bolding
  • titles and headings
  • captions
  • charts
Understanding
Messages can be organized, clarified, and enhanced using text features.
Skills & Procedures
Identify a variety of features that help clarify messages.

Include a variety of features to help organize, clarify, and enhance personal messages.
Knowledge
Text features can be digital or non-digital, including
  • images and graphics
  • titles and headings
  • tables of contents and indexes
  • fonts
  • captions
  • maps
  • charts and graphs
Understanding
Text features can provide information that is not in the main body of a text.
Skills & Procedures
Identify a variety of text features that provide additional information in a text.

Include a variety of text features to organize, clarify, or enhance personal messages.

Knowledge
Text features can be digital or non-digital, including
  • images and graphics
  • titles and headings
  • tables of contents and indexes
  • fonts
  • captions
  • maps
  • charts and graphs
Understanding
Text features can organize and enhance information in the main body of a text.
Skills & Procedures
Identify a variety of text features that provide additional information in a text.

Include a variety of text features to organize, clarify, or enhance personal messages.
Knowledge
Imaginary (fictional) stories can include
  • folk tales
  • fairy tales
  • fables
  • myths
  • realistic stories
A myth is a traditional or legendary story usually concerning a courageous hero, heroine, or event.

A hero is a real or imaginary character who faces dangers and challenges and shows strength or courage.

A heroine is a female hero.

Stories have structures (elements) that can include
  • characters
  • setting
  • events
  • plot
The plot is the sequence of events that make up a story.

A narrator is the person or character telling a story.
Understanding
Stories and ideas that are imaginary (fictional) can encourage thinking about and beyond what is already known.
Skills & Procedures
Retell events, information, and ideas from a variety of imaginary stories.

Identify story elements within a variety of imaginary stories.

Identify the hero or heroine in a myth.

Create imaginative representations or dramatizations of stories that include characters, setting, and plot.

Discuss the narrator’s contribution to a story or message.
Knowledge
Fictional texts can be categorized by sub-form, including
  • traditional literature, including folk tales, fairy tales, fables, and myths
  • realistic fiction
  • historical fiction
  • mystery
Realistic fiction takes place in modern times and describes believable characters involved in plausible events.

Historical fiction takes place in a setting of the past.

A mystery describes the solution of a crime or the unravelling of secrets.

Fictional texts can have structures that include
  • books with chapters
  • collections of stories related to a single idea
  • circular plots
Elements of fiction can include
  • major and minor characters
  • setting
  • plot
A major character is central to the plot or problem in a story.

A minor character is a character in a story who is not the main focus and is less developed.

A circular plot is sequenced to end with characters returning to a similar situation to where they started.

A narrator can be a character in a story or someone telling the story from the outside looking in.
Understanding
Fictional texts are often products of a text creator’s imagination and are not factual.
Skills & Procedures
Differentiate between a variety of fiction sub-forms by content, characters, time, or place.

Identify fictional text structures that contribute to organization, clarity, or personal engagement.

Identify elements within a variety of fictional texts.

Determine if characters in fictional texts are major or minor.

Create imaginative representations or dramatizations of fictional texts that depict understandings of characters, setting, and plot.

Describe the narrator’s contribution to a text.

Knowledge
Fiction sub-genres can include
  • traditional literature, including folk tales, fairy tales, fables, and myths
  • realistic fiction
  • historical fiction
  • mystery
  • fantasy
A fantasy is a fictional text that contains elements that are highly unreal.

Fictional texts can have structures that include
  • books with chapters
  • collections of stories related to a single idea
  • main plots with subplots
  • circular plots
  • flashback
A flashback interrupts the story plot to take an audience back in time to past events in a character’s life.

Elements of fiction can include
  • characters
  • setting
  • plot
  • point of view
Fictional texts can include characters who can be known by what they say, think, or do.

Types of characters can include
round and flat.

A round character is interesting and layered and may change throughout a story.

A flat character does not change throughout a story.

Point of view is the way an author chooses to tell or narrate a story and can include first person or third person.

First person is where the author or narrator relates information from their own point of view, often using “I.”

Third person point of view is where the author is narrating a story about the characters, referring to them by name or using pronouns such as “he,” “she,” or “they.”
Understanding
Fictional texts can open our minds to new possibilities and ideas.
Skills & Procedures
Differentiate between a variety of fiction sub-genres by content, characters, time, or place.

Identify fictional text structures that contribute to organization, clarity, or personal engagement.

Identify elements within a variety of fictional texts.

Determine if characters in fictional texts are round or flat.

Create imaginative representations or dramatizations of fictional texts that depict understandings of characters, setting, and plot.

Identify the narrator’s point of view in texts told in the first or third person.

Knowledge
Real information or ideas (non-fiction) can be accessed and shared digitally or non-digitally through
  • personal experiences and stories
  • factual books, stories, or images
  • instructions or directions
  • observations
  • interactions with people and land
  • information in other content areas
Informational texts can have structures, including
  • main idea
  • supporting details
  • sequencing
  • question and answer
Understanding
Foundational knowledge can be expanded beyond what is already known by exploring information that is real or true (non-fiction).
Skills & Procedures
Discuss ways that information can be accessed and organized to encourage thinking about and beyond what is already known.
Knowledge
Non-fiction texts can include
  • biographies
  • autobiographies
  • procedural texts
  • content area texts
  • interactions with people
  • land
Non-fiction texts can have structures that include
  • main idea or topic
  • supporting details
  • sequencing
  • compare and contrast
  • question and answer
Understanding
Non-fiction texts have structures that support the sharing of factual information to explain or describe real people, places, things, or events.
Skills & Procedures
Compare and contrast ways that non-fiction texts can be organized to explain or describe real people, places, things, or events.
Knowledge
Non-fiction texts can include
  • biographies
  • autobiographies
  • procedural texts
  • persuasive texts
  • content area texts
  • interactions with people
  • land
Non-fiction texts have structures that can include
  • introduction of main idea or topic
  • supporting details
  • sequencing
  • conclusion
  • question and answer
  • compare and contrast
Non-fiction texts can share opinions based on interpretations of information that is true.
Understanding
Non-fiction texts can open our minds to new possibilities and ideas.
Skills & Procedures
Identify ways that non-fiction texts can be organized to support the sharing of information that can open our minds to new possibilities and ideas.

Discuss a variety of opinions expressed in non-fiction texts.
Knowledge
Poetry can include words or phrases used in imaginative ways to create meaning or special effects.

Poetic structures can include
  • acrostic
  • rhyming couplet
An acrostic poem is a poem where certain letters in each line spell out a word or phrase.

A rhyming couplet is a pair of lines in poetry that rhyme and usually have the same rhythm.
Understanding
Poetry can expand how we think and feel about what can be seen, heard, smelled, tasted, touched, or experienced in the world.
Skills & Procedures
Identify words or phrases used in imaginative ways that support messages represented through poetry and song.

Recognize how poetry and song can expand how we think and feel about what can be experienced.

Identify poetic structures, including acrostic poems and rhyming couplets.
Knowledge
Poetry can include words or phrases used in a non-literal way to create a desired effect (figurative language).

Poetic structures can include
  • haiku
  • limerick
  • concrete
  • sonnet
Haiku is a Japanese poem of seventeen syllables, in three lines of five, seven, and five syllables, traditionally emphasizing images from nature.

A limerick is a poem that consists of five lines in a single stanza with a rhyme scheme of AABBA.

A concrete poem is a poem that is written so that the shape of the words on the page matches the subject of the poem.

A sonnet is a fourteen-line poem consisting of two stanzas. The first stanza consists of eight rhyming lines.The second stanza consists of six rhyming lines.
Understanding
Poetry is a form of expression that encourages creativity and new ways of thinking about ideas and feelings.
Skills & Procedures
Identify words or phrases applied creatively in poetry that encourage new ways of thinking about ideas and feelings (figurative language).

Identify poetic structures that contribute to creative expression of ideas.
Knowledge
Poetry can include figurative language used in a non-literal way to create a desired effect.

Poetic structures can include
  • verse
  • free verse
  • nonsense verse
  • concrete
  • sonnet
Poetry can be written in verse.

Verse is text structured with a rhythm and typically has a rhyme.

Free verse is a type of poetry that does not rhyme or have a regular rhythm.

Nonsense verse is poetry that uses words (either real or made up) or sounds in a way that does not have an obvious meaning. It usually imitates traditional forms and patterns of speech or verse and may have an internal logic.

Nonsense verse helps us understand how language works and how meaning is formed in a way that stimulates creativity.
Understanding
Poetry engages the imagination, and can encourage us to connect with other people, places, ideas, or emotions.
Skills & Procedures
Identify ways that non-fiction texts can be organized to support the sharing of information that can open our minds to new possibilities and ideas.

Discuss a variety of opinions expressed in non-fiction texts.

Experiment with writing nonsense verse.
Organizing Idea
Oral Language: Listening and speaking form the foundation for literacy development and improve communication, collaboration, and respectful mutual understanding.
Guiding Question
How can listening and speaking be developed to improve oral communication?
Guiding Question
How can listening and speaking improve oral communication?
Guiding Question
In what ways can listening and speaking have an intentional and reciprocal relationship?
Learning Outcome
Students examine and adjust listening and speaking to communicate effectively.
Learning Outcome
Students examine and apply understandings of listening and speaking through a variety of formal and informal interactions.
Learning Outcome
Students examine and demonstrate how listening and speaking interactions build relationships and support understanding.
Knowledge
Sharing circles are traditional Indigenous practices that involve listening and speaking.

In sharing circles, the speaker holds an object while everyone listens.

In sharing circles, an object is passed around clockwise in a circle so that everyone has an opportunity to speak.
Understanding
Oral traditions connect people to language and ways of knowing.
Skills & Procedures
Explore how oral traditions are shared.

Participate in a sharing circle.
Knowledge
Throughout history, languages developed orally before being written down.

Stories can last and be retold over long periods of time.

Interactions between generations of people can include
  • ancestors
  • grandparents
  • parents
  • children
Traditional knowledge shared orally can serve as a guide for learning and living.

Shared oral language can build community.

Various forms of oral language have different traditions and conventions of delivery.
Understanding
Oral traditions share important information from generation to generation through listening and speaking.
Skills & Procedures
Investigate oral traditions that have been shared over time.

Discuss how oral traditions show respect for traditional shared knowledge.
Knowledge
Oral traditions can support connections to
  • people
  • the community
  • the natural world
  • the constructed world
Stories presented in oral traditions shared by First Nations, Métis, or Inuit reflect connections to spirit, land, cosmos, time, and people.
Understanding
Oral traditions can connect the speaker and listener in experiences that integrate the past and present.
Skills & Procedures
Share personal meaning of and connections to oral traditions.
Knowledge
Listening and speaking skills can be developed through
  • discussions
  • formal and informal presentations
  • collaborative activities
Voice can be produced in healthy ways, including by being mindful of
  • relaxation
  • posture
  • breathing
Volume can be adjusted for purpose and audience.

Clarity of speech (enunciation) enhances the ability to be understood.

Nervousness can be associated with oral communication, such as
  • sweating
  • tummy “butterflies”
  • stumbling over sounds
  • forgetting
  • feeling shaky
Voices can be varied in many ways, including
  • direction of pitch (inflection)
  • vocal force to highlight importance of a word (stress)
  • overall pitch and inflection patterns (tone colour)
Communication models can be used to share messages.

Communication models can involve consideration of the
  • speaker
  • listener
  • message
  • situation
Understanding
Listening and speaking skills can be developed to improve communication.
Skills & Procedures
Contribute to a variety of listening and speaking activities to build confidence in oral language skills.

Enhance clarity of oral communication through word choice and enunciation.

Present ideas, events, or information in a logical sequence.

Participate in breathing and relaxation activities that support oral communication.

Listen for changes in inflection, stress, and tone colour in oral communications.

Share a short poem with some awareness of inflection, stress, and tone colour.
Knowledge
Dialogue is an exchange of ideas, information, or opinions.

Effective dialogue can include
  • listening
  • staying on topic
  • asking questions
  • contributing
Speaking involves grouping and separating words through phrasing and pausing.

Pauses can be used to support meaning or create emphasis.

Speaking can be supported through
  • relaxation
  • breathing
  • posture
Regular hydration is essential to voice production and vocal maintenance.

Speakers have a responsibility to achieve and maintain vocal health through warm-ups and self-monitoring.

Communication models can help guide understandings of interactions.
Understanding
Listening and speaking can enhance the exchange of ideas, information, or opinions.
Skills & Procedures
Engage in dialogue to express and understand messages.

Examine the effectiveness of dialogue in learning and social interactions.

Identify where phrasing and pausing can support understanding or create effects.

Support speech through relaxation, breathing, or posture.

Consider the contributions of others when exchanging ideas or opinions.
Knowledge
Respectful interactions include behaviours that consider the contributions, feelings, and needs of participants.

Phrasing and pausing work together to create flow of thought and speech.

Rhythms and pauses can be used to support meaning or create emphasis.

Projection is a safe way to be heard.

Projection is the directing and supporting of the
voice toward an intended target.

Projection is a combination of relaxation, breath, clarity, and intentionality.
Understanding
Listening and speaking can support interactions that consider the needs of participants.
Skills & Procedures
Contribute respectfully to a variety of interactions that involve listening and speaking.

Identify opinions or points of view shared in conversations or texts that are listened to.

Select appropriate volume, intonation, phrasing, and pausing to evoke a desired effect when speaking or presenting.

Project voice appropriately for the audience and situation.

Identify stress, emphasis, or pauses when listening to others.
Knowledge
Listening can involve
  • maintaining focus
  • asking and responding to questions
  • using appropriate body postures and gestures
  • paying attention to the words, feelings, and behaviours of others
Understanding
Listening helps to develop and maintain positive relationships in a variety of situations.
Skills & Procedures
Contribute to discussions as a listener and speaker.

Listen to and follow three-step instructions.
Knowledge
Listening strategies can include
  • listening with a purpose
  • asking relevant questions
  • seeking clarification
  • responding appropriately
Texts that are listened to can build
  • connections
  • interest
  • vocabulary
  • background knowledge
  • curiosity
  • engagement
  • motivation
Reading aloud helps readers and listeners discover the rhythms in text.
Understanding
Listening can enhance interactions and learning.
Skills & Procedures
Use a variety of listening strategies to interact and learn effectively.
Knowledge
Listening can include restating key points or ideas and making personal connections.

Listening to texts can expand vocabulary, understandings, and personal views.
Understanding
Listening involves playing an active role in understanding the speaker.
Skills & Procedures
Demonstrate active listening when engaging in collaborative work.

Use a variety of listening strategies to support understanding.
Knowledge
Different situations may have different expectations for language use.

Gestures and facial expressions can be used to enhance ideas and emotions.

Body movement can be used to emphasize ideas, feelings, and messages.
Understanding
Verbal and non-verbal language can be combined to enhance messages.
Skills & Procedures
Examine messages that combine both verbal and non-verbal communication.

Enhance messages through combining verbal and non-verbal communication.

Adjust verbal or non-verbal language according to purpose and audience.

Improvise a scene, situation, or story using verbal and non-verbal language.
Knowledge
Non-verbal communication can enhance speaking through
  • eye contact or gestures to provide focus
  • facial expressions
  • posture and stance
  • full body movement
Speech articulators are structures of the mouth and throat that shape sounds.

Speech articulators support
  • voice quality and audibility
  • articulation and clarity
The body may reflect feelings, including nervousness.

Understanding
Communication can be supported by integrating ideas with verbal and non-verbal language.
Skills & Procedures
Combine verbal and non-verbal skills to communicate effectively.

Articulate precise and clear sounds when communicating.
Knowledge
Non-verbal communication can enhance speaking through
  • eye contact or gestures to provide focus
  • facial expressions
  • posture and stance
  • full body movement
The combination of verbal and non-verbal language can be used to enhance clarity or create effects when communicating.

Verse has rhythms that can be felt and expressed by the body.
Understanding
Communication can be enhanced through adjusting verbal and non-verbal language.
Skills & Procedures
Adjust verbal and non-verbal language to enhance clarity or create effects when communicating.
Knowledge
Preparation can support effective communication through
  • relaxation
  • breathing techniques
  • focus
Presentations can be improvised or prepared.

Presentations can be delivered in different ways, including
  • oral reports
  • readers’ theatre
  • dramatizations
Thoughts and ideas in speech can be grouped together in logical sequences.

Effective communication can include consideration of an audience’s
  • situation
  • thoughts
  • feelings
  • beliefs
Audience participation and behaviour may affect the presenter or other audience members.
Understanding
Presentations share stories, ideas, or information with an audience.
Skills & Procedures
Group relevant ideas, events, or information in a logical sequence when presenting ideas and information.

Develop communication skills through individual or group presentations.

Present dramatizations of characters and events encountered in texts.

Share a poem from memory with some awareness of phrasing and pausing.

Compose and share a short speech or oral report.

Participate in presentations as a respectful audience member.
Knowledge
Presentations can be prepared by
  • developing a plan
  • using notes and speaking cards
  • using visual aids
  • selecting digital or non-digital tools
Speaking cards can be jot notes or cue cards that contain key points to support speakers.

Visual aids can be digital or non-digital and can include
  • objects
  • diagrams
  • images
  • text
Presentation delivery includes
  • clear enunciation
  • appropriate tone and rate of speech
  • appropriate stress and emphasis
  • correct grammar
  • appropriate word choice
Communication choices and styles differ from speaker to speaker.

Mistakes are opportunities for growth.
Understanding
Presentations can be prepared and delivered to engage, inform, persuade, or entertain an audience.
Skills & Procedures
Plan ideas and details in a logical manner that includes introductions and conclusions.

Present information that engages, informs, persuades, or entertains an audience.

Share a verse from memory, demonstrating emphasis, pausing, and phrasing that enhance the presentation.

Integrate visual aids to enhance communication.

Vary word choice to appeal to an audience.

Participate in presentations as a respectful audience member.
Organizing Idea
Vocabulary: Communication and comprehension are improved by understanding word meaning and structures.
Guiding Question
In what ways can understanding words and word structures support communication?
Guiding Question
How can building vocabulary and understanding morphology support language use and comprehension?
Guiding Question
How can building vocabulary and understanding morphology strengthen communication?
Learning Outcome
Students build vocabulary by connecting morphemes and words to their meanings.
Learning Outcome
Students interact with new words and morphemes to enhance their vocabulary.
Learning Outcome
Students expand vocabulary and examine morphemes to communicate in multiple contexts.
Knowledge
Vocabulary development includes learning tier 2 words that are
  • unknown to most learners
  • critical for comprehending new texts
  • useful and may be encountered in the future
Vocabulary development includes academic words from a variety of texts (tier 3 words).

Words can create effects in language, including
  • alliteration
  • onomatopoeia
  • repetition

Words can describe a sound that mimics the sound of an object or action (onomatopoeia)
(e.g., sizzle).

Words or phrases can appear over and over again (repetition) (e.g., extra, extra, extra).

Homophones are words that have the same sound but different spellings and meanings.

Homographs are words that have the same spelling but different meanings, and sometimes different pronunciations.
Understanding
Vocabulary development contributes to the ability to communicate effectively.
Skills & Procedures
Identify meanings of words in a variety of situations.

Identify and discuss words of interest in texts.

Use tier 2 words in a variety of literacy situations.

Identify meanings of words from subject content areas (tier 3 words).

Apply a variety of synonyms to enhance expression.

Apply a variety of antonyms to contrast ideas.

Identify homophones and homographs.

Transfer understandings of words to different situations.

Record new words and their meanings in a variety of ways.

Identify alliteration, onomatopoeia, and repetition in spoken language.
Knowledge
The meaning of a word can change when used in a different context.

Language involves phrases with literal and figurative meanings that can be used to enhance communication.

Figurative language can include
  • alliteration
  • onomatopoeia
  • repetition
  • imagery
  • hyperbole
  • simile
Imagery is when words or phrases describe ideas or things that can be experienced visually.

Hyperbole is when words or phrases are used to exaggerate meaning.

A simile compares two unlike things using “like” or “as.”
Understanding
Vocabulary knowledge can be supported and developed through literacy interactions and experiences.
Skills & Procedures
Use tier 2 words in a variety of literacy contexts.

Develop tier 3 vocabulary during content literacy activities.

Engage with texts that include more sophisticated concepts and ideas expressed through expanded vocabulary.

Integrate knowledge of vocabulary across multiple literacy contexts.

Recognize and use figurative language in oral and written communication.

Analyze and use synonyms, antonyms, homophones, homographs, and words with multiple meanings in a variety of texts.
Knowledge
Language involves phrases with literal and figurative meanings that can be used to enhance communication.

Figurative language can include
  • imagery
  • hyperbole
  • simile
  • personification
  • analogy
  • idiom
Personification is when animals or objects are given qualities or abilities that a human can have.

An analogy compares two things that are mostly different but have some things in common.

An idiom is a phrase that means something different than the literal meaning of the words within it.
Understanding
An extensive and varied vocabulary enhances effective communication in a variety of contexts.
Skills & Procedures
Communicate clearly and accurately using precise alternatives for commonly used words.

Explore meanings of words or phrases expressed figuratively.

Record information about words in a variety of ways.

Apply tier 2 words in a variety of literacy contexts.

Use tier 3 words to describe subject content.

Confirm word meanings, spellings, or word choices using a variety of digital or non-digital resources.

Integrate knowledge of word study across multiple literacy contexts.

Use analogies to compare words or clarify word meanings.

Analyze the meanings of words or phrases expressed figuratively.
Knowledge
Adding the suffix <ing> or <ed> to the end of a base changes the tense.

Adding <er> or <est> to a base indicates a comparison.

A base is the main morpheme in a word.

Words that share a base share connections in meaning and spelling.
Understanding
Morphemes can change the meaning or function of a word.
Skills & Procedures
Manipulate suffixes to change the tense of words.

Manipulate suffixes to make words singular or plural.

Manipulate suffixes when making comparisons between ideas.

Identify changes in meaning when suffixes are added to or removed from bases.

Use compound words to extend vocabulary.
Knowledge
Morphemes include
  • bases
  • affixes
A base is a word or word part that has meaning and to which an affix can be added.

An affix is a letter or group of letters that comes at the beginning (prefix) or ending (suffix) of a word and has a meaning of its own.

Prefixes, including <re>, <un>, <in>, <dis>, <non>, <mis>, <mal>, <sub>, and <super>, are morphemes that change the meaning of words when added to the beginning of a base.

Suffixes, including <ly>, are morphemes that form adverbs and change the meaning of words when added to the end of a base.

Suffixes, including <er>, <or>, <ar>, and <ist>, are morphemes that change the meaning of words when added to the end of a base.

A compound word is made up of at least two morphemes.
Understanding
Morphology can support development of vocabulary and enhance comprehension.
Skills & Procedures
Analyze bases and affixes for meaning.

Recognize and use suffixes to form adverbs that describe a specific manner, period of time, or order.

Recognize and use suffixes to name a person, place, or thing that does something.

Analyze frequently used compound words and their meanings.

Identify morphemes in compound words.

Recognize syllables in words.
Knowledge
Morphemes include
  • bases
  • affixes
Suffixes, including the following, change the meaning of words when added to the end of a base
  • <y>
  • <ish>
  • <able/ible>
  • <ful>
  • <ant/ent>
The English language is made up of words derived from many origins, including
  • other languages
  • technology
  • place names
  • trademarked products
  • social practices
Understanding
Morphology involves examining words and parts of words and how they are related to each other to enhance communication.
Skills & Procedures
Examine morphemes in words to determine meaning.

Recognize the meaning of affixes and how they influence the meaning of bases.

Predict meanings of unfamiliar words using morphological cues.

Identify and determine word origins that may impact meaning and spelling.
Organizing Idea
Phonological Awareness: Foundational literacy is supported by the ability to identify and manipulate sounds in oral language.
Guiding Question
How does sound contribute to understanding oral language?
Learning Outcome
Students apply understandings of how sounds create meaning in oral language.
Knowledge
Consonant blends can be separated into their individual sounds.

Consonant blends can be located anywhere in words.
Understanding
Words can be separated (segmented) into syllables or sounds (phonemes).
Skills & Procedures
Segment and identify the sounds in words that have five or more phonemes.

Identify phonemes in words that have three or more syllables.

Segment and identify sounds in words that have consonant blends.

Segment individual words within compound words.
Knowledge
Blending is combining sounds or word parts located anywhere in words.

Consonant blends are two or more consonant letters that often appear together in words and represent sounds that are smoothly joined.

Individual sounds and consonant blends can be blended into a sequence to form words.
Understanding
Syllables and individual sounds can be blended into a sequence to form words.
Skills & Procedures
Identify and blend the sounds in words that have up to six sounds.

Identify and blend sounds in words that have consonant blends.
Knowledge
Sounds can be manipulated by adding, deleting, or substituting different sounds.

Sounds can be manipulated at the beginning, middle, or ending of words.
Understanding
Words can be changed by manipulating sounds (phonemes).
Skills & Procedures
Manipulate phonemes in a variety of one-syllable or multisyllabic words.

Delete the second phoneme in a consonant blend to form a new word.

Substitute for the second phoneme in a consonant blend to form a new word.

Substitute a sound anywhere in a word to form a new word.
Organizing Idea
Phonics: Foundational literacy is supported by understanding relationships between sounds in oral language and the letters that represent them.
Guiding Question
How can understanding the relationships between sounds and letters (phonics) enhance decoding and encoding?
Guiding Question
How does phonics support foundational literacy development?
Learning Outcome
Students apply understandings of letter combinations and sounds in words.
Learning Outcome
Students investigate how phonics connects to word formation and supports the process of reading and writing.
Knowledge
Letter combinations and sounds for reading include
  • vowels
  • blends
  • digraphs
  • diphthongs
Blends combine sounds or word parts.

A combination of two letters can make a single sound (digraph).

Long vowel sounds can be made by gliding from one position of the mouth to another within the same syllable (diphthong).

Letters in words can be silent.

Some letters have variable pronunciations.

An open syllable ends with a vowel or diphthong (e.g., mu-sic).

A closed syllable is a vowel followed by a consonant, and the vowel usually says its short sound (e.g., ten-nis).

A vowel that is followed by <r> can make a new sound (e.g., ti-ger).
Understanding
Relationships between letter combinations and sounds support understanding of words.
Skills & Procedures
Make connections between a full range of letter combinations and sounds.

Apply knowledge of silent letters when learning new words.

Recognize and use the full range of consonant letters and letter clusters in the beginning, middle, and ending of words.

Recognize and use letter combinations that represent long vowel sounds.

Recognize how the letter <r> can influence the vowel sound.

Distinguish between vowel sounds in open syllables (consonant-vowel CV) and closed syllables (vowel-consonant VC).

Read words that include the 120 most frequent letter-sound correspondences.
Knowledge
Consonant clusters blend two or three consonant sounds.

Consonant clusters
appear at the beginning and ending of words.

Consonant digraphs are two consonant letters that appear together and represent a single sound that is different from the sound of either letter (e.g., sh).

Some consonant letters represent no sound (e.g., know, write).

Chunking is a phonetic strategy used to decode that breaks large words into small parts.

Connections can be made between phonemes and graphemes, including consonant clusters and digraphs.
Understanding
Phonics supports the reading and writing of texts.
Skills & Procedures
Recognize consonant clusters at the beginning and ending of a word.

Recognize and apply less frequent consonant digraphs.

Recognize and apply consonant letters that represent no sounds or that are silent in words.

Recognize and apply a wide variety of long and short vowel sounds when decoding unknown multisyllabic words.

Use phonetic strategies to decode complex words in continuous text.
Organizing Idea
Fluency: Comprehension and literary appreciation are improved by the ability to read a range of texts accurately, automatically, and with expression.
Guiding Question
In what ways does fluency support the development of reading?
Guiding Question
In what ways does fluency improve comprehension?
Guiding Question
How does reading fluency support comprehension and develop proficiency?
Learning Outcome
Students demonstrate and apply fluency strategies while reading.
Learning Outcome
Students apply fluency strategies and develop reading comprehension.
Learning Outcome
Students integrate fluency awareness to refine reading comprehension proficiency.
Knowledge
Morphemes are the smallest units of sound that hold meaning.

Letter combinations, sounds, and morphemes that can be blended quickly and accurately for reading include
  • vowels
  • blends
  • digraphs
  • diphthongs
  • syllables
Understanding
Fluency development contributes to one’s ability to understand messages.
Skills & Procedures
Blend sounds quickly and accurately to decode unfamiliar messages.

Apply language structure, meaning, and rapid word recognition to support fluency.

Read at a steady, comfortable pace.
Knowledge
Fluency develops over time with practice.

Fluent reading includes
  • accuracy
  • automaticity in word recognition
  • prosody (stress, expression, intonation, and pausing) in oral text reading
Understanding
Reading fluency involves accuracy, automaticity, and prosody to engage an audience or improve comprehension.
Skills & Procedures
Demonstrate automaticity in reading complex words, phrases, and continuous text.

Read increasingly complex text with appropriate rate, word stress, phrasing, and pausing.

Read a range of types of texts with fluency and expression.
Knowledge
Proficient reading involves the ability to read with accuracy, automaticity, and prosody with a focus on meaning.
Understanding
Reading with fluency allows readers to focus more attention on understanding text and supports proficient reading.
Skills & Procedures
Demonstrate appropriate stress on words, pausing, phrasing, intonation, and use of punctuation that reflects comprehension of text.

Read dialogue with phrasing and expression that reflects an understanding of characters and events.
Knowledge
High frequency words include words that occur often in written language.

The ability to recognize high frequency words with accuracy and at an appropriate rate improves reading comprehension and fluency.
Understanding
Recognizing high frequency words supports reading comprehension.
Skills & Procedures
Read 300 high frequency words automatically.

Read high frequency words in sentences and texts.
Knowledge
High frequency word recognition includes 300 new words.
Understanding
Fluent recognition of a large number of high frequency words supports effective and efficient reading comprehension.
Skills & Procedures
Read high frequency words with accuracy and automaticity.

Incorporate knowledge of high frequency words to read fluently.
Knowledge
Reading fluency is supported by
  • pace
  • phrasing
  • expression
  • punctuation
Pace is the rate at which written messages are read.

Phrasing is reading smoothly by grouping words together into meaningful phrases with punctuation.

Expression is reading with feeling in the voice, including various pitch movements.

Punctuation supports reading with fluency through pausing and intonation.

Quotation marks signal to the reader to align voice with characters in a written message.
Understanding
Fluent reading can engage audiences or improve comprehension.
Skills & Procedures
Read with appropriate stress on words, pausing, and phrasing.

Read with appropriate intonation and expression.

Use punctuation in written messages to enhance fluency.

Read dialogue with phrasing and expression to engage an audience or reflect understanding.
Organizing Idea
Comprehension: Text comprehension is supported through applying varied strategies and processes, and considering both particular contexts and universal themes.
Guiding Question
How does comprehension facilitate the meaning of a text?
Guiding Question
How can the development of skills and strategies support comprehension of text?
Guiding Question
How do comprehension processes and strategies influence deeper understandings of texts?
Learning Outcome
Students use and explain a variety of processes to comprehend texts.
Learning Outcome
Students relate personal experiences to interactions with texts to support meaning.
Learning Outcome
Students examine and apply strategies that support text comprehension.
Knowledge
Texts that are listened to can contain more complex language and information than texts read independently.

Responses to texts that are listened to can include
  • discussions
  • visual representations
  • writing
Understanding
Text comprehension can be enhanced by listening to a variety of texts read aloud.
Skills & Procedures
Listen and respond to a variety of fictional and informational texts that are read aloud.

Understand and use words and phrases from texts that have been read aloud.
Knowledge
Comprehension of longer, more complex texts, at or above grade level, is supported by increased reading practice.
Understanding
Comprehension can be developed through ongoing interaction with and frequent exposure to a variety of texts.
Skills & Procedures
Independently read and demonstrate comprehension of texts that vary in length or complexity.
Knowledge
A variety of reading processes and strategies support comprehension of longer and more complex texts through independent practice.
Understanding
Comprehension processes and strategies can be purposefully applied to broaden understandings of texts.
Skills & Procedures
Independently read and demonstrate comprehension of a variety of texts that increase in length or complexity.

Apply learned comprehension processes and strategies during interactions with texts.
Knowledge
Understanding of print texts read independently can involve
  • discussions
  • visual representations
  • writing
Understanding
Print texts can be understood independently.
Skills & Procedures
Read, independently, texts that contain mostly predictable and decodable words.

Use and understand words and sentences from print texts read independently.

Discuss ideas and information from print texts read independently.
Knowledge
Connections can be made prior to, during, or after reading a text.

Connections can be made within and between various aspects of text, including
  • people
  • characters
  • places
  • things
  • settings
  • events
  • actions
  • information
  • land
Understanding
Comprehension involves connecting relevant background knowledge and experiences with new information in text.
Skills & Procedures
Make connections between a text and personal feelings, experiences, or background knowledge.

Make connections between various aspects within a text.

Compare or contrast aspects within a text.
Knowledge
Connections that support comprehension of text can include
  • text to self
  • text to text
  • text to world
Understanding
Comprehension is enhanced when relevant connections are made to information within and between texts.
Skills & Procedures
Share connections between texts and self, between a text and other texts, and between texts and the world.

Make connections by comparing and contrasting aspects of a variety of texts.

Reflect on personal connections to a text that best support understandings.
Knowledge
Understanding print text can be checked by asking
  • does it make sense? (meaning)
  • does it sound right? (syntax)
  • does it look right? (visual cues)
Word solving can include
  • chunking
  • stretching
  • manipulating sounds
  • searching for additional information
Self-correcting can include
  • altering speed
  • rereading
  • reading on
  • seeking clarification
Understanding
Comprehension of print texts involves self-monitoring and self-correcting.
Skills & Procedures
Use meaning, syntax, and visual cues to monitor understandings when reading print text.

Solve unfamiliar or multisyllabic words in a variety of ways.

Self-correct when meaning is unclear during reading.
Knowledge
Information that is synthesized to make predictions can include
  • background knowledge
  • personal experience
  • clues from a text
  • anticipation of logical outcomes or events
Understanding
Comprehension can involve predicting outcomes or events that reflect clues from texts.
Skills & Procedures
Connect background knowledge to information within a text to make predictions.

Identify information from texts that supports predictions.

Modify predictions based on new or additional information.

Reflect on predictions to confirm or change understandings.
Knowledge
Significant information that is synthesized to make predictions can include
  • background knowledge
  • personal experience
  • specific clues from a text
  • anticipation of logical outcomes or events
Understanding
Comprehension and making predictions have a reciprocal relationship when understanding texts.
Skills & Procedures
Make, modify, and confirm predictions based on new or additional information in texts.

Identify how predictions made, modified, or confirmed support text comprehension.
Knowledge
The moral or lesson of a text can be the main idea.

The topic of a text can be the main idea.

The sequence of key ideas and details is important when summarizing texts.
Understanding
Comprehension can involve summarizing the main idea, key ideas, and details.
Skills & Procedures
Summarize a text, including the main idea and key ideas.

Sequence four or more events in a text.

Retell or dramatize a story, including characters, setting, and plot, in sequence.

Include information from illustrations or visuals in summaries of texts.
Knowledge
Inferencing involves drawing conclusions based on known facts or evidence.

Inferencing can include
  • making connections
  • questioning
  • predicting
  • visualizing
Understanding
Comprehension can be enhanced by inferring meanings that are not stated explicitly in text.
Skills & Procedures
Make inferences by combining background knowledge with information that is not explicitly stated within a text.

Identify the connection between the actions, feelings, or motives of a character based on evidence in text.
Knowledge
Inferencing involves multiple thinking skills, including
  • considering cause and effect relationships
  • answering personal wonderings
  • combining information from various sources to draw conclusions
  • reading between the lines to discover the author’s meaning
Understanding
Comprehension, a complex process, involves inferencing and relying on multiple thinking skills when engaging with texts.
Skills & Procedures
Make inferences based on cause and effect relationships.

Make inferences in texts that reach beyond personal experiences.

Combine information from various sources to draw conclusions.

Connect ideas that are not explicitly stated in texts.
Knowledge
Connections can be made to ideas and information in texts, including
  • connecting to experiences
  • connecting to feelings
  • connecting to similarities and differences within a text
  • connecting to similarities and differences between texts
  • connecting to background knowledge
  • connecting text to the world
Aspects of text that can be compared or contrasted include
  • people
  • characters
  • places
  • objects
  • settings
  • events
  • actions
  • information
Understanding
The process of text comprehension can be improved through making connections.
Skills & Procedures
Share connections that support understandings of ideas or information in texts.

Compare and contrast aspects within a text.

Compare and contrast aspects among several texts.
Knowledge
Summarizing information involves
  • determining key ideas and specific details
  • logically ordering ideas
  • writing ideas in own words
Understanding
Comprehension is enhanced when information is summarized.
Skills & Procedures
Determine the most important information in a text.

Order significant information in a logical sequence.

Share the most important information from a text in a logical order using own words.
Knowledge
Summarizing information involves determining key ideas and specific details, logically ordering ideas, and paraphrasing.

Synthesizing can create new understandings through a combination of background knowledge and new information.
Understanding
Comprehension is enhanced when information is synthesized to summarize or respond to texts.
Skills & Procedures
Create personal responses to a variety of literature, informational texts, or other texts by synthesizing information.

Synthesize information from texts as a summary.
Knowledge
Questioning includes asking or answering questions regarding
  • Who?
  • What?
  • Where?
  • When?
  • Why?
  • How?
Answers to questions may not be immediately apparent and may involve searching for more information.

Answers to questions may involve integrating new information with background knowledge.
Understanding
Comprehension can be enhanced by formulating questions and searching for answers within texts.
Skills & Procedures
Ask questions to clarify information in texts.

Answer questions requiring literal recall and understanding of evidence, details, or facts.

Answer questions that require making interpretations or giving opinions about information.

Answer “why” questions that require recognizing cause and effect relationships.
Knowledge
A variety of self-monitoring skills used when facing challenges in comprehension can include
  • noticing where meaning breaks down
  • rereading
  • reading ahead
  • creating mental or visual images
  • asking and posing plausible answers to how, why, and what if questions
Understanding
The reading comprehension process involves the strategies of monitoring understandings and assessing options if meaning lacks clarity.
Skills & Procedures
Identify the location in texts where reading comprehension becomes challenging.

Determine if a text’s readability is too easy, too difficult, or at an appropriate level.

Identify self-monitoring skills that are personally effective in supporting reading comprehension.
Knowledge
Strategic reading and questioning occurs before, during, and after reading.

Problem solving can occur at the word, sentence, and whole-passage level.

Reading comprehension skills that address challenges can include
  • appropriate text selection
  • rereading parts of the text
  • reading ahead
  • visualizing
  • questioning
  • word solving
Metacognition is an awareness of thoughts and how one thinks and involves
  • connecting thinking and learning
  • identifying problems
  • considering options
  • reflecting on strategies and skills
  • adjusting thinking based on information or experience
Understanding
The reading comprehension process involves checking for understanding, problem solving, and metacognition.
Skills & Procedures
Apply self-monitoring skills to self-correct when meaning breaks down.

Evaluate possible skills that can be implemented to repair and strengthen reading comprehension.

Apply metacognitive strategies that are personally effective when reading.
Knowledge
Predicting includes imagining an outcome based on a combination of information, including
  • title
  • pictures
  • evidence
  • background knowledge
Understanding
Comprehension can be supported by making and revising predictions.
Skills & Procedures
Make predictions prior to and while reading, viewing, or listening to a text based on information provided within the text.

Revise understandings in response to new information.

Compare actual outcomes to predictions made.
Organizing Idea
Writing: Ideas and information can be articulated accurately and imaginatively through the use of writing processes and an understanding of the author’s craft
Guiding Question
How can writing processes and techniques improve expression?
Guiding Question
How can writing craft combined with skills and processes contribute to written expression?
Guiding Question
How can development of writing processes and expression support effective communication?
Learning Outcome
Students investigate the ways ideas and information conveyed in writing can be enhanced.
Learning Outcome
Students demonstrate how attention to skills and strategies can support the clarity of written expression.
Learning Outcome
Students create a variety of written texts to share information and develop personal expression.
Knowledge
Writing processes used to organize and share messages can involve
  • planning
  • writing
  • editing
  • sharing
Planning can involve thinking or talking about
  • why you are writing a message (purpose)
  • who will be reading the message (audience)
  • the form the message will take
  • ideas
Run-on sentences are sentences that string too many ideas together with connecting words.

Sentences can be organized in a logical sequence to create written messages.

Editing generally involves correcting errors in spelling, grammar, or punctuation.

Sharing can involve selecting a variety of features to enhance written messages.
Understanding
Writing can provide opportunities to share thoughts and ideas in meaningful ways.
Skills & Procedures
Create written messages that align with an intended audience or purpose.

Create written messages in a variety of forms to represent ideas or information.

Generate ideas that can be expressed through messages.

Focus and limit the number of ideas in sentences.

Include a variety of sentence types in writing.

Organize sentences in a logical sequence to create written messages.

Edit written work for spelling, grammar, and punctuation.

Incorporate images or features to enhance written messages.

Share written messages with others.
Knowledge
Writing processes used to organize and share messages can involve
  • planning
  • drafting
  • revising
  • editing
  • sharing
Planning can include
  • consideration of audience, purpose, and form
  • idea generation
Methods and tools that can support planning include
  • graphic organizers
  • lists
  • visualizing
  • sketching
Interest can be created by varying sentence beginnings.

Run-on sentences make reading difficult, as the reader often cannot tell where to pause or stop.

Writers generally avoid repetitions and run-on sentences.

Three to five sentences that add detail or description to ideas or information can be combined to construct a paragraph.

Revising can include adding or removing words or sentences to enhance writing clarity, accuracy, or appeal.

Fluent writing sounds like speaking when read aloud.

Sharing can involve selecting a variety of text features to enhance written messages.
Understanding
Writing can capture ideas, memories, investigations, and stories.
Skills & Procedures
Create written texts for a variety of audiences and purposes.

Create written texts using a variety of forms and structures.

Use organizational processes, methods, or tools to support the creation of written texts.

Create drafts of writing that maintain audience interest by focusing the number of ideas in sentences and limiting repetitions.

Include a range of sentence beginnings and types to vary and add interest to writing.

Sequence sections of writing in a logical order.

Revise written texts for accuracy, clarity, or appeal by adding, removing, or changing words or sentences.

Edit writing for spelling, punctuation, and grammar.

Read written texts aloud to check for writing fluency.
Knowledge
Writing processes used to organize and enhance messages can involve
  • planning
  • drafting
  • revising
  • editing
  • publishing
Planning can include
  • consideration of audience, purpose, and form
  • idea generation
Methods and tools that can support planning include
  • graphic organizers
  • lists
  • visualizing
  • sketching
Interest can be created by varying sentence beginnings and length.

Writers generally avoid repetitions and run-on sentences.

Paragraphs include a topic sentence, supporting details, and a concluding sentence.

Topic sentences describe what the paragraph is going to be about.

Concluding sentences bring closure to a paragraph by identifying main ideas without adding new information.

Fluent writing is smooth, natural, and easy to read aloud with inflection, which helps bring out meaning.

Revising can include adding or removing words or sentences to enhance writing clarity or fluency.

Publishing can involve consideration and selection of a variety of text features to enhance writing.
Understanding
Writing is a vehicle for communication, creativity, and connection.
Skills & Procedures
Create written texts for a variety of audiences and purposes.

Create written texts using a variety of text forms and structures.

Use organizational processes, methods, or tools to support the creation of written texts.

Organize ideas related to a topic in a clear and focused manner.

Create drafts of writing that maintain audience interest by focusing the number of ideas in sentences and limiting repetitions.

Include a range of sentence beginnings, lengths, and types to vary and add interest to writing.

Group ideas into paragraphs that follow a logical order.

Write paragraphs with topic and concluding sentences.

Reread written texts to identify what could be added or deleted to achieve better clarity and flow.

Revise texts to enhance clarity or fluency.

Edit writing for spelling, punctuation, and grammar.

Publish selected pieces, incorporating images, charts, graphs, or other text features as appropriate.
Knowledge
Writing can support creative expression of ideas through organization and word choice.

Creative ideas for written expression can be inspired by personal experiences with
  • people
  • places
  • things
  • stories
  • images
  • information
Creative ideas can be organized in a variety of ways.

Creative ideas can be clarified by adding words that describe things that can be seen, heard, smelled, tasted, or touched (sensory language).
Understanding
Creative writing can influence expression of thoughts and emotions.
Skills & Procedures
Collect ideas that are inspired by a variety of experiences.

Express ideas and information through a variety of written forms (e.g., stories, poetry, posters).

Include adjectives and adverbs to add interest and detail to writing.

Include sensory language to enhance ideas in creative writing.

Use punctuation and figurative language to create appeal in written messages.
Knowledge
Writing is a craft that involves personal expression of ideas through
  • organization
  • word choice
  • presentation
Creative ideas for written expression can be inspired by a variety of sources, including
  • personal experiences
  • background knowledge
  • imagination
  • experiences with text
The author’s voice or style helps a reader or an audience picture or feel what a writer is describing.

In creative writing, word choice can include interesting details that keep audiences engaged.

Words selected to enhance written texts can include
  • sensory details
  • synonyms
  • antonyms
  • specific words or phrases
  • figurative language
Dialogue can be used to add variety to written texts, advance the plot, or reveal a character’s thoughts and feelings.
Understanding
Creative expression can channel imaginative thought and emotion into a variety of written texts.
Skills & Procedures
Identify how the relationship between audience, purpose, and text form can influence creative expression.

Identify how other writers use words, sensory detail, and figurative language for creative expression of thoughts and emotions.

Create written texts that draw upon a variety of sources of inspiration.

Select from a variety of text forms or structures to express personal thoughts or feelings.

Create beginnings that catch the audience’s attention by experimenting with ideas and word choice.

Include a variety of carefully selected words, sensory detail, or figurative language to add interest and keep audiences engaged.

Include dialogue to add variety, advance the plot, or reveal a character’s thoughts or feelings.

Use punctuation to generate effects in creative expression.

Create thoughtful conclusions to tie up events or leave readers wondering.

Select from a variety of presentation forms or text features to enhance and share selections of creative writing.
Knowledge
Writing is a craft that involves personal expression of ideas through
  • organization
  • word choice
  • presentation
Creative ideas for written expression can be inspired by a variety of sources, including
  • personal experiences
  • background knowledge
  • imagination
  • experiences with text
Word choice can reflect the author’s voice or style through careful selection and presentation of important details.

Words selected to enhance written texts can include
  • sensory language
  • synonyms
  • antonyms
  • specific words or phrases
  • figurative language
Dialogue can be used to add variety to written texts, advance the plot, or reveal a character’s thoughts and feelings.
Understanding
Creative writing can provide opportunities to express personal feelings and understand how others feel.
Skills & Procedures
Identify how the relationship between audience, purpose, and text form can influence creative expression.

Examine the craft of effective writing and writers to gain insight into creative expression of ideas and emotions.

Create beginnings that catch the audience’s attention by experimenting with ideas and word choice.

Include a variety of carefully selected words, sensory detail, or figurative language to add interest and keep audiences engaged.

Include dialogue to communicate personal voice or the voice of characters in narratives.

Use punctuation to generate effects in creative expression.

Create thoughtful conclusions to tie up events or leave readers wondering.

Select from a variety of presentation forms or text features to enhance and share selections of creative writing.
Knowledge
Asking questions can help focus research topics.

Factual information can come from a variety of digital or non-digital sources, including
  • people
  • places
  • print
  • images
  • observations
Gathering information can include listening, speaking, observing, or representing.

Organizational tools, such as graphic organizers, can help plan and record factual information.
Understanding
Research processes can be used to learn new things or build on what is already known.
Skills & Procedures
Ask questions to focus research topics.

Gather factual information on topics from various sources.

Use organizational tools to help plan or record information.

Record factual information through messages that include images, words, and sentences.
Knowledge
Questioning can help focus research topics and processes.

Information can be gathered from digital or non-digital sources and can include
  • people
  • places
  • print text
  • images
  • observations
Information can be categorized or sequenced to enhance organization.

Organizational tools, such as graphic organizers, can help plan and write about factual information.

Research findings can be shared in a variety of digital or non-digital formats, including
  • reports
  • presentations
  • visual representations
The information and ideas of others need to be listed (cited) as a source in research writing.
Understanding
Research processes can support accessing and logically organizing information.
Skills & Procedures
Access information from a variety of sources to answer questions or expand knowledge.

Organize, categorize, or sequence information using a variety of methods or tools.

Use research and formats to create written texts that are appropriate for the audience.

List sources of information used to inform research.
Knowledge
Questioning can help focus research topics and processes.

Sources of information can be digital or non-digital and can include
  • people
  • places
  • print text
  • images
  • observations
Information can be categorized or sequenced to enhance organization.

Methods and tools can be used to organize information, including
  • note taking
  • graphic organizers
  • lists
Research findings can be shared in a variety of digital or non-digital forms, including
  • reports
  • presentations
  • visual representations
Ethical use of information includes
  • asking permission to use, share, or store information
  • acknowledging the ownership of information used to inform writing (citing)
Understanding
Research processes can involve investigating materials or information to uncover facts and support problem solving.
Skills & Procedures
Access information from a variety of sources to answer questions or expand knowledge.

Use a variety of methods or tools to record, organize, categorize, or sequence information.

Use research and formats to create written texts that are appropriate for the audience.

List sources of information used to inform research.
Knowledge
Written messages can be created using a variety of digital or non-digital methods or tools, including printing and keyboarding.
Understanding
The method or tool used to present written works can enhance the clarity of a message.
Skills & Procedures
Print with appropriate size, formation, and spacing to enhance the clarity of a message.

Locate a variety of keys on a keyboard to type messages.
Knowledge
Written messages can be created using a variety of digital or non-digital methods or tools, including
  • printing
  • keyboarding
  • cursive handwriting
Cursive handwriting involves
  • letter formation
  • size
  • proportion
  • slant
Basic keyboarding involves
  • finger reaches
  • keystroking
  • key recognition
Understanding
Methods or tools can support writing fluency through practice.
Skills & Procedures
Demonstrate writing fluency using at least one method or tool.

Use cursive handwriting to write some texts with appropriate letter formation, size, proportion, and slant.

Demonstrate basic keyboarding skills.
Knowledge
Written messages can be created using a variety of digital or non-digital methods or tools, including
  • printing
  • keyboarding
  • cursive handwriting
Cursive handwriting involves
  • letter formation
  • size
  • proportion
  • slant

Basic keyboarding involves
  • finger reaches
  • keystroking
  • key recognition
Understanding
Methods or tools can enhance written works and the artistry of a message.
Skills & Procedures
Select a method or tool to enhance the artistry of written works.

Use cursive handwriting to write texts with appropriate letter formation, size, proportion, and slant.

Apply keyboarding skills to enhance written works.
Organizing Idea
Conventions: Understanding grammar, spelling, and punctuation makes it easier to communicate clearly, to organize thinking, and to use language for desired effects.
Guiding Question
How do conventions foster the development of effective communication?
Guiding Question
How does the appropriate use of conventions support clear written communication?
Guiding Question
How does the knowledge and application of conventions enhance written communication?
Learning Outcome
Students examine and apply grammar, spelling, and punctuation in a variety of contexts to build effective communication.
Learning Outcome
Students investigate and demonstrate how conventions support written communication.
Learning Outcome
Students examine and apply conventions to develop concise written communication.
Knowledge
Capitalization is used for
  • first word of a sentence
  • names of people and places
  • days of the week and months
  • titles
A proper noun names a specific person or place and begins with a capital letter.

Punctuation marks can signal the end of a sentence and make ideas clear.

Punctuation can include
  • a period
  • a question mark
  • an exclamation mark
  • an apostrophe in contractions
A contraction is a combination of two words, where an apostrophe takes the place of certain letters.
Understanding
Capitalization and punctuation can make messages more clear.
Skills & Procedures
Capitalize the first word of a sentence.

Capitalize names of people and places.

Capitalize days of the week and months.

Capitalize titles.

Include punctuation at the end of sentences.

Insert apostrophes in place of letters in contractions.
Knowledge
Capitalization is used for
  • first word of a sentence
  • proper nouns
  • days of the week and months
  • titles
  • headings
Punctuation can include
  • a period
  • a question mark
  • an exclamation mark
  • a comma
  • quotation marks
  • an apostrophe in contractions and possessives
A comma indicates a pause between parts of a sentence or separates items in a list.

Quotation marks identify the words of a speaker or bring attention to a word that is used in a special way.

A contraction is a combined form of two words, where an apostrophe takes the place of certain letters.
Understanding
Capitalization and punctuation can enhance written expression.
Skills & Procedures
Capitalize the first word of sentences.

Capitalize proper nouns.

Capitalize days of the week and months.

Capitalize titles and headings.

Include a variety of punctuation at the end of sentences.

Insert commas to indicate a pause between parts of sentences, or to separate items in a list.

Insert quotation marks to identify the words of a speaker.

Insert quotation marks to bring attention to a word that is used in a special way.

Insert apostrophes in place of letters in contractions.

Insert apostrophes to show possession.
Knowledge
Capitalization is used for
  • first word of a sentence
  • proper nouns
  • days of the week and months
  • titles
  • headings
  • abbreviations
An abbreviation is the shortened form of a word or words (e.g., Rd., St., AB).

Punctuation can include
  • a period
  • a question mark
  • an exclamation mark
  • a comma
  • quotation marks
  • an apostrophe in contractions and possessives
A comma can have a variety of uses, including
  • to indicate a pause between parts of a sentence
  • to separate words in a list or series
  • to separate a transition word from the words that follow in a sentence
Understanding
Capitalization and punctuation can be used to support writing fluency.
Skills & Procedures
Capitalize the first word of sentences.

Capitalize proper nouns.

Capitalize days of the week and months.

Capitalize titles and headings.

Capitalize abbreviations.

Include a variety of punctuation at the end of sentences.

Insert commas to indicate a pause between parts of sentences, to separate items in a list, or to follow a transition word.

Insert quotation marks to identify the words of a speaker or to bring attention to a word that is used in a special way.

Insert apostrophes in place of letters in contractions and to show possession.
Knowledge
Sentence types include
  • telling (declarative)
  • asking (interrogative)
  • excitement (exclamatory)
A sentence that expresses strong emotion can end with an exclamation mark (exclamatory).

Sentences include a noun and a verb.

A noun is a person, place, thing, or animal.

A pronoun can be used in place of a noun.

An adjective is a word that describes a noun.

A verb is an action word.

An adverb is a word that describes a verb.

The subject of a sentence tells whom or what the sentence is about.

The subject and the verb in a sentence must agree, with both being either singular or plural (subject-verb agreement).

Some words can be used with other words to show time or place (prepositions) (e.g., under, with, before, after).
Understanding
Language has structures (grammar) that can help express ideas, thoughts, and emotions.
Skills & Procedures
Write a variety of sentences that include a complete thought or idea.

Identify nouns in sentences.

Recognize and use pronouns to replace nouns in sentences.

Use a variety of adjectives to describe nouns.

Identify verbs in sentences.

Use adverbs to describe verbs.

Identify the subject in a sentence.

Identify when subjects and verbs agree in sentences.

Recognize and use prepositions in sentences to show time and place.
Knowledge
Sentence types include
  • telling (declarative)
  • asking (interrogative)
  • excitement (exclamatory)
  • command (imperative)
A sentence can command someone to do or not to do something (imperative).

A sentence has a two main parts, a subject and a predicate.

The subject of a sentence is who or what the sentence is about.

The predicate of a sentence is what the subject does.

Words can be used to connect phrases and sentences (conjunctions) (e.g., and, but, or, so, then).

An adjective is a word that describes a noun.

An adverb is a word that describes a verb.

Subject-verb agreement means that the subject and the verb must agree, with both being either singular or plural.

Words can tell who or what owns a noun (possessive), and include
  • possessive nouns (‘s)
  • possessive adjectives (e.g., my, your, his, her, its, our, their)
  • possessive pronouns (e.g., mine, yours, his, hers, ours, theirs)
Some words can be used with other words to show time or place (prepositions) (e.g., under, with, before, after).
Understanding
Grammar can provide a consistent structure for the building of sentences.
Skills & Procedures
Distinguish between a variety of sentence types.

Identify the subject of a variety of sentences.

Identify the predicate of a variety of sentences.

Identify conjunctions in a variety of sentences.

Use adjectives to describe nouns.

Use adverbs to describe verbs.

Identify subject-verb agreement in a variety of sentences.

Differentiate between possessive nouns, possessive adjectives, and possessive pronouns.

Recognize and use prepositions in sentences to show time and place.
Knowledge
Sentence types include
  • telling (declarative)
  • asking (interrogative)
  • excitement (exclamatory)
  • command (imperative)
Sentences may describe facts or actions happening in the present (present tense).

Sentences can describe what happened in the past (past tense).

Sentences can describe what may happen in the future (future tense).

The subject of a verb is the person or thing that performs the action.

The object of a verb is the person or thing that receives the action.

Both subjects and objects can be nouns or pronouns.

Pronouns can replace a noun as the subject in a sentence (subjective) (e.g., I, you, he, she, it, we, they).

Possessive adjectives come before a noun or a pronoun to show who or what owns it (e.g., my, your, his, her, its, our, their).

Adjectives can compare two things (comparative—<er> or “more”).

Adjectives can compare three or more things (superlative—<est> or “most”).

Words can be used to connect phrases in sentences (conjunctions) (e.g., and, but, or, so, then).
Understanding
Grammatical structures can support consistency in communication.
Skills & Procedures
Distinguish between a variety of sentence types.

Determine if text is in the present, past, or future tense.

Identify nouns or pronouns that are the subject of a variety of sentences.

Identify nouns or pronouns that are the object of a variety of sentences.

Identify possessive adjectives in a variety of sentences.

Use adjectives to indicate comparison of two or more things (<er> or <est>).

Use conjunctions to connect phrases in sentences.

Apply consistent subject-verb agreement in a variety of sentences.
Knowledge
Spelling patterns can include
  • vowel-consonant (VC) (e.g., on)
  • consonant-vowel-consonant (CVC) (e.g., cup)
  • vowel-consonant-silent “e” (VCe) (e.g., ate)
  • consonant-vowel-consonant-silent “e” (CVCe) (e.g., nose)
  • vowel-consonant-consonant (VCC) (e.g., ill)
  • vowel-vowel-consonant (VVC) (e.g., eel)
  • dropping the <e> and adding <ing>
  • doubling the letter before adding <ing> or <ed>
Some words can be made plural by adding an <s> or <es>.

Spelling patterns in one-syllable words include
  • short vowel sounds (e.g., pick)
  • long vowel sounds (e.g., coat)
Some consonants are silent in some words (e.g., talk).

Many high frequency words are not spelled in predictable ways (e.g., friend).
Understanding
Spelling can be supported by recognizing patterns that occur within and across words.
Skills & Procedures
Identify spelling patterns within and across words.

Apply spelling patterns to spell unfamiliar words.

Identify silent consonants in words.

Spell 300 high frequency words.

Identify words that are not spelled in predictable ways.
Knowledge
Spelling patterns can include
  • vowel-consonant (VC) (e.g., straw)
  • consonant-vowel-consonant (CVC) (e.g., plan)
  • vowel-consonant-silent “e” (VCe) (e.g., cone)
  • consonant-vowel-consonant-silent “e” (CVCe) (e.g., spoke)
  • vowel-consonant-consonant (VCC) (e.g., mask)
  • vowel-vowel-consonant (VVC) (e.g., soil)
  • nouns ending in <y>: change <y> to <i> and add <es> (e.g., pony–ponies)
  • nouns ending in <f> or <fe>: change <f> or <fe> to <v> and add <es> (e.g., leaf–leaves)
Some plural nouns may be spelled the same as or differently from their singular form (e.g., moose–moose, person–people).

Adding an apostrophe and an <s> to a noun shows ownership.

Add only an apostrophe and not an <s> if a noun is plural and already ends in an <s>.

Prefixes and suffixes are spelled consistently in words.

Some words are not spelled in predictable ways (e.g., twelfth).
Understanding
Correct spelling can be supported by applying knowledge of word patterns and parts.
Skills & Procedures
Identify spelling patterns within and across words.

Apply knowledge of known words, word parts, and word patterns to spell unfamiliar words.

Identify plural nouns that are spelled the same as or differently from their singular form.

Add an apostrophe and an <s> to nouns to show ownership.

Add only an apostrophe to show ownership if a noun is plural and already ends in an <s>.

Spell a variety of prefixes and suffixes accurately in words.

Identify words that are not spelled in predictable ways.
Knowledge
Spelling patterns can include
  • vowel-vowel-consonant-consonant (VVCC) (e.g., each)
  • vowel-vowel-consonant-silent “e” (VVCe) (e.g., weave)
  • vowel-consonant-consonant-silent “e” (VCCe) (e.g., wedge)
  • vowel-consonant-consonant-consonant (VCCC) (e.g., trench)
  • vowel-vowel-consonant-consonant-silent “e” (VVCCe) (e.g., bounce)
  • vowel-vowel-consonant-consonant-consonant (VVCCC) (e.g., health)
Prefixes and suffixes are spelled consistently in words.

Some words are not spelled in predictable ways (e.g., occasionally).
Understanding
Spelling accuracy can be supported by transferring understandings of word patterns and structures.
Skills & Procedures
Identify spelling patterns within and across words.

Apply knowledge of known words, word parts, and word patterns to spell unfamiliar words.

Spell a variety of prefixes and suffixes accurately in words.

Identify words that are not spelled in predictable ways.
Knowledge
Every word and every syllable contains a vowel.

Articulating words slowly can help to identify sounds.

Thinking about how a word looks can help with spelling.

Knowledge of words and word parts can be applied to the spelling of new words.

Spelling can involve trial and error.

Digital or non-digital supports can be used to help spell words correctly, including
  • personal word lists
  • dictionaries
  • environmental print
  • peers, teachers, or parents/guardians
Understanding
Spelling strategies and supports can be used to help communicate messages.
Skills & Procedures
Include a vowel in every word and syllable.

Say words slowly to identify sounds when spelling words.

Describe how a word looks.

Apply knowledge of known words, word parts, and word patterns to spell unfamiliar words.

Use a variety of supports to spell and check the spelling of words.
Knowledge
Spelling strategies can be used to spell words accurately and can include
  • articulating
  • visualizing
  • transferring prior knowledge
  • trial and error
Digital or non-digital tools can be used to help spell words correctly and can include
  • personal word lists
  • dictionaries
  • environmental print
  • peers, teachers, or parents/guardians
Understanding
A variety of spelling strategies and tools can be used to enhance written expression.
Skills & Procedures
Apply a variety of spelling strategies to enhance written expression.

Use a variety of tools to spell or confirm the spelling of words.
Knowledge
Homophones are words that have the same pronunciation but different spellings and meanings (e.g., hear–here).

Spelling strategies can be used to spell words accurately and can include
  • articulating
  • visualizing
  • transferring prior knowledge
  • trial and error
Digital or non-digital reference tools can be used to help spell words correctly and can include
  • dictionaries
  • environmental print
  • spell check
  • peers, teachers, or parents/guardians
Understanding
Automatic transference of spelling knowledge can increase writing fluency.
Skills & Procedures
Differentiate between the spelling and associated meaning of a variety of homophones.

Apply a variety of spelling strategies to increase writing fluency.

Use a variety of tools to spell or confirm the spelling of words.
Knowledge
Abbreviations can include
  • titles
  • days of the week
  • time
  • measurements
  • addresses
Plural possessives end with an <s’> to show ownership.

An inflectional ending is a suffix added to a base that indicates
  • tense
  • plurality
  • possession
  • comparison
The basic guidelines of adding inflectional endings consist of
  • dropping the <e> and adding <ing>
  • doubling the letter before adding <ing> or <ed>
Understanding
Basic guidelines for spelling transferred to writing new text can increase accuracy.
Skills & Procedures
Spell common abbreviations in writing.

Recognize and spell most contractions in writing.

Apply inflectional endings in writing.

Spell compound words accurately.

Spell singular and plural possessives.

Spell some complex plural words.

Apply endings that show comparisons.

Spell one-syllable words with a vowel and <r>.

Recognize basic guidelines for adding inflectional endings.
Knowledge
Suffixes can include <er>, <es>, <r>, <ly>, <ing>, <ily>, <able>, <ible>, <ar>, <less>.
Understanding
Guidelines for spelling transferred to writing new text can increase written clarity.
Skills & Procedures
Spell a range of compound words, contractions, possessives, and complex plurals.

Spell two- and three-syllable words that have a vowel and <r>.

Recognize and spell common suffixes.