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English Language Arts and Literature

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English language arts and literature is a subject that provides students with language and literacy skills required for success in the twenty-first century. From Kindergarten to Grade 6, students gain foundational knowledge and build on their language skills and experiences through reading, writing, listening, speaking, viewing, and representing. These strands of learning are closely interrelated and complementary; literacy skills in each of these strands reinforce and strengthen skills in the others. Through practice and experience, students understand how language is used in a variety of formal and informal contexts. Studying English language arts and literature involves reading, appreciating, and becoming familiar with influential writers whose works illustrate the essence of the human condition. Through the study of great texts, English language arts and literature lays the groundwork for critical thinking as well as personal expression.
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Organizing Idea
Text Forms and Structure: Identifying and applying text forms and structures improves understanding of content, literary style, and our rich language traditions.
Guiding Question
How can the organization of ideas and information support the sharing of messages?
Guiding Question
How can the organization of ideas and information support the expression and understanding of messages?
Guiding Question
How can text organization enhance meaning?
Learning Outcome
Students describe the various ways that messages can be organized and presented for different purposes.
Learning Outcome
Students explain how the organization of ideas and information within texts can support the purpose or meaning of messages.
Learning Outcome
Students examine how the purpose, form, or structure of texts can support the communication of ideas and information.
Knowledge
Messages can be shared for different reasons (purpose), including entertainment, learning, safety, and directions.

Messages can depict ideas and information that are imaginary (fiction) or real (non-fiction).

Messages can be shared digitally or non-digitally through
  • reading
  • writing
  • listening
  • speaking
  • viewing
  • representing
Messages can be shared in a variety of forms, including
  • print
  • books
  • stories
  • pictures
  • poetry
  • plays
  • land
Stories, both real and imaginary, generally follow this structure:
  • beginning
  • middle
  • ending
Environmental print can include signs, symbols, and words.

Books and other forms of print are organized in consistent ways (concepts of print):
  • A book has a title and an author.
  • Print is read from left to right and top to bottom with a return sweep.
  • Each print word represents one spoken word when read aloud.
  • Sentences are made up of words.
  • Words are separated by spaces in sentences.
  • Punctuation marks can signal the end of a sentence.
Understanding
Ideas and information can be organized by purpose, form, or structure.
Skills & Procedures
Discuss reasons for messages to be shared (purpose).

Describe the differences between messages that are imaginary (fiction) or real (non-fiction).

Discuss forms used to organize messages.

Identify the beginning, middle, and ending in a message.

Determine a message in a variety of environmental print.

Identify the title and author of a variety of print messages.

Read print from left to right with a return sweep.

Read print with accurate one-to-one word matching.

Identify sentences that start with a capital letter, have spaces between words, and end with punctuation.

Knowledge
Messages can be shared for different reasons (purpose), including entertainment, learning, safety, and directions.

Messages can depict ideas and information that are imaginary (fiction) or real (non-fiction).

Messages can be shared digitally or non-digitally through
  • reading
  • writing
  • listening
  • speaking
  • viewing
  • representing
Messages can be shared in a variety of forms, including
  • print
  • books
  • stories
  • pictures
  • poetry
  • plays
  • letters
  • land
Stories, both real and imaginary, generally follow the structure
  • beginning
  • problem
  • solution
  • ending
Understanding
Ideas and information can be organized in a variety of ways to support the expression and understanding of messages.
Skills & Procedures
Identify different reasons for messages to be shared (purposes).

Distinguish between messages that are imaginary (fiction) or real (non-fiction).

Compare and contrast forms used to organize messages.

Describe the structure of a variety of imaginary or real stories.

Knowledge
A text is anything that has meaning for the person who creates it or examines it, and can be digital or non-digital.

The purpose of a text can be to
  • inform
  • entertain
  • persuade
  • inspire
Texts can be categorized according to their content and can include fiction and non-fiction.

Fiction is a type of text that uses imagination to tell a story.

Non-fiction is a type of text that expresses information and facts.

Literary forms of fiction and non-fiction texts can include
  • books
  • poetry
  • drama
  • letters
  • short stories
Stories can be fiction or non-fiction and generally follow the structure
  • beginning
  • problem
  • events
  • solution
  • ending
Understanding
The purpose, form, or structure of texts can help organize the expression and understanding of ideas and information.
Skills & Procedures
Identify the purpose of a variety of texts.

Differentiate between fiction and non-fiction texts according to content.

Identify the form of a variety of fiction and non-fiction texts.

Identify the structure of a variety of fiction and non-fiction texts.

Describe how the structure of texts can help organize the expression or understanding of ideas or information.
Knowledge
Features that clarify and organize messages can be digital or non-digital, including
  • pictures
  • print size, colour, font, or bolding
  • titles and headings
Understanding
Messages can be clarified and organized using text features.
Skills & Procedures
Identify a variety of features that help clarify messages.

Include a variety of features to help organize or clarify personal messages.
Knowledge
Features that organize, clarify, or enhance messages can be digital or non-digital, including
  • pictures
  • print size, colour, font, or bolding
  • titles and headings
  • captions
  • charts
Understanding
Messages can be organized, clarified, and enhanced using text features.
Skills & Procedures
Identify a variety of features that help clarify messages.

Include a variety of features to help organize, clarify, and enhance personal messages.
Knowledge
Text features can be digital or non-digital, including
  • images and graphics
  • titles and headings
  • tables of contents and indexes
  • fonts
  • captions
  • maps
  • charts and graphs
Understanding
Text features can provide information that is not in the main body of a text.
Skills & Procedures
Identify a variety of text features that provide additional information in a text.

Include a variety of text features to organize, clarify, or enhance personal messages.

Knowledge
Imaginary (fictional) stories can include
  • fairy tales
  • fables
  • realistic stories
  • folk tales
A folk tale is a story typically passed on through word of mouth.

A fairy tale is a story based on imaginary people and places.

A fable is a short story, often with animals as characters, that has a moral.

Realistic stories may include people and places that seem real but were created from someone’s imagination.

Stories have structures (elements) that can include
  • characters
  • setting
  • events
A character can be any person, object, or animal that is part of a story.

Setting refers to the time and place of a story.

An event is something that happens in a story.

A narrator is the person or character telling a story.

Understanding
Foundational knowledge can be built and expanded by exploring stories and ideas that are imaginary (fictional).
Skills & Procedures
Retell events, information, and ideas from a variety of imaginary stories.

Describe story elements within a variety of imaginary stories.

Create imaginative representations or dramatizations of stories that include characters, setting, and events.

Discuss the narrator’s contribution to a story or message.

Knowledge
Imaginary (fictional) stories can include
  • folk tales
  • fairy tales
  • fables
  • myths
  • realistic stories
A myth is a traditional or legendary story usually concerning a courageous hero, heroine, or event.

A hero is a real or imaginary character who faces dangers and challenges and shows strength or courage.

A heroine is a female hero.

Stories have structures (elements) that can include
  • characters
  • setting
  • events
  • plot
The plot is the sequence of events that make up a story.

A narrator is the person or character telling a story.
Understanding
Stories and ideas that are imaginary (fictional) can encourage thinking about and beyond what is already known.
Skills & Procedures
Retell events, information, and ideas from a variety of imaginary stories.

Identify story elements within a variety of imaginary stories.

Identify the hero or heroine in a myth.

Create imaginative representations or dramatizations of stories that include characters, setting, and plot.

Discuss the narrator’s contribution to a story or message.
Knowledge
Fictional texts can be categorized by sub-form, including
  • traditional literature, including folk tales, fairy tales, fables, and myths
  • realistic fiction
  • historical fiction
  • mystery
Realistic fiction takes place in modern times and describes believable characters involved in plausible events.

Historical fiction takes place in a setting of the past.

A mystery describes the solution of a crime or the unravelling of secrets.

Fictional texts can have structures that include
  • books with chapters
  • collections of stories related to a single idea
  • circular plots
Elements of fiction can include
  • major and minor characters
  • setting
  • plot
A major character is central to the plot or problem in a story.

A minor character is a character in a story who is not the main focus and is less developed.

A circular plot is sequenced to end with characters returning to a similar situation to where they started.

A narrator can be a character in a story or someone telling the story from the outside looking in.
Understanding
Fictional texts are often products of a text creator’s imagination and are not factual.
Skills & Procedures
Differentiate between a variety of fiction sub-forms by content, characters, time, or place.

Identify fictional text structures that contribute to organization, clarity, or personal engagement.

Identify elements within a variety of fictional texts.

Determine if characters in fictional texts are major or minor.

Create imaginative representations or dramatizations of fictional texts that depict understandings of characters, setting, and plot.

Describe the narrator’s contribution to a text.

Knowledge
Real information or ideas (non-fiction) can be shared digitally or non-digitally through
  • personal experiences and stories
  • factual books, stories, or images
  • instructions or directions
  • observations
  • interactions with people and land
Informational texts can have structures, including
  • main idea
  • supporting details
  • sequencing
Understanding
Messages that share ideas and information that are real or true (non-fiction) can encourage thinking and build foundational knowledge.
Skills & Procedures
Discuss ways that information can be organized to support learning.
Knowledge
Real information or ideas (non-fiction) can be accessed and shared digitally or non-digitally through
  • personal experiences and stories
  • factual books, stories, or images
  • instructions or directions
  • observations
  • interactions with people and land
  • information in other content areas
Informational texts can have structures, including
  • main idea
  • supporting details
  • sequencing
  • question and answer
Understanding
Foundational knowledge can be expanded beyond what is already known by exploring information that is real or true (non-fiction).
Skills & Procedures
Discuss ways that information can be accessed and organized to encourage thinking about and beyond what is already known.
Knowledge
Non-fiction texts can include
  • biographies
  • autobiographies
  • procedural texts
  • content area texts
  • interactions with people
  • land
Non-fiction texts can have structures that include
  • main idea or topic
  • supporting details
  • sequencing
  • compare and contrast
  • question and answer
Understanding
Non-fiction texts have structures that support the sharing of factual information to explain or describe real people, places, things, or events.
Skills & Procedures
Compare and contrast ways that non-fiction texts can be organized to explain or describe real people, places, things, or events.
Knowledge
Poems can describe ideas and feelings in creative and joyful ways.

Poems and songs can contain words and phrases that rhyme.

Sometimes poems do not rhyme.
Understanding
Poetry explores ideas and feelings and helps us to connect to our experiences.
Skills & Procedures
Share connections between personal experiences and messages represented through poetry and song.

Determine if a poem rhymes or if it does not.
Knowledge
Poetry can include words or phrases used in imaginative ways to create meaning or special effects.

Poetic structures can include
  • acrostic
  • rhyming couplet
An acrostic poem is a poem where certain letters in each line spell out a word or phrase.

A rhyming couplet is a pair of lines in poetry that rhyme and usually have the same rhythm.
Understanding
Poetry can expand how we think and feel about what can be seen, heard, smelled, tasted, touched, or experienced in the world.
Skills & Procedures
Identify words or phrases used in imaginative ways that support messages represented through poetry and song.

Recognize how poetry and song can expand how we think and feel about what can be experienced.

Identify poetic structures, including acrostic poems and rhyming couplets.
Knowledge
Poetry can include words or phrases used in a non-literal way to create a desired effect (figurative language).

Poetic structures can include
  • haiku
  • limerick
  • concrete
  • sonnet
Haiku is a Japanese poem of seventeen syllables, in three lines of five, seven, and five syllables, traditionally emphasizing images from nature.

A limerick is a poem that consists of five lines in a single stanza with a rhyme scheme of AABBA.

A concrete poem is a poem that is written so that the shape of the words on the page matches the subject of the poem.

A sonnet is a fourteen-line poem consisting of two stanzas. The first stanza consists of eight rhyming lines.The second stanza consists of six rhyming lines.
Understanding
Poetry is a form of expression that encourages creativity and new ways of thinking about ideas and feelings.
Skills & Procedures
Identify words or phrases applied creatively in poetry that encourage new ways of thinking about ideas and feelings (figurative language).

Identify poetic structures that contribute to creative expression of ideas.
Organizing Idea
Oral Language: Listening and speaking form the foundation for literacy development and improve communication, collaboration, and respectful mutual understanding.
Guiding Question
How are listening and speaking used in oral communication?
Guiding Question
How can listening and speaking be developed to improve oral communication?
Guiding Question
How can listening and speaking improve oral communication?
Learning Outcome
Students describe how listening and speaking can enhance a message.
Learning Outcome
Students examine and adjust listening and speaking to communicate effectively.
Learning Outcome
Students examine and apply understandings of listening and speaking through a variety of formal and informal interactions.
Knowledge
Kinship is the relationship between
  • self
  • others
  • community
  • land
  • animals
Information and stories shared through oral traditions reveal the importance of relationships.
Understanding
Oral traditions allow for deeper understanding of kinship.
Skills & Procedures
Explore different relationships through oral traditions.
Knowledge
Sharing circles are traditional Indigenous practices that involve listening and speaking.

In sharing circles, the speaker holds an object while everyone listens.

In sharing circles, an object is passed around clockwise in a circle so that everyone has an opportunity to speak.
Understanding
Oral traditions connect people to language and ways of knowing.
Skills & Procedures
Explore how oral traditions are shared.

Participate in a sharing circle.
Knowledge
Throughout history, languages developed orally before being written down.

Stories can last and be retold over long periods of time.

Interactions between generations of people can include
  • ancestors
  • grandparents
  • parents
  • children
Traditional knowledge shared orally can serve as a guide for learning and living.

Shared oral language can build community.

Various forms of oral language have different traditions and conventions of delivery.
Understanding
Oral traditions share important information from generation to generation through listening and speaking.
Skills & Procedures
Investigate oral traditions that have been shared over time.

Discuss how oral traditions show respect for traditional shared knowledge.
Knowledge
Listening and speaking skills can be developed through
  • discussions
  • songs
  • poems
  • stories
  • dramatizations
  • presentations
The speaking voice is supported through full, deep breaths that can affect volume, tone, and rate of speech.

The volume, highness or lowness of the voice (pitch), and the pace (rate of speech) can affect the meaning or clarity of a message.

Appropriate posture includes alignment, breath, and a relaxed stance.

Speakers can indicate differences in character, key ideas, and events through changes in volume, tone, and rate of speech.
Understanding
Listening and speaking can be used to share messages in a variety of situations.
Skills & Procedures
Share experiences, ideas, and information with appropriate volume, tone, and rate of speech.

Adjust speaking volume, pitch, and pace for a variety of situations.

Share ideas and information sequentially.

Present stories, songs, poems, or dramatizations individually or as part of a group.

Participate in vocal warm-ups and breathing activities that support oral communication.
Knowledge
Listening and speaking skills can be developed through
  • discussions
  • formal and informal presentations
  • collaborative activities
Voice can be produced in healthy ways, including by being mindful of
  • relaxation
  • posture
  • breathing
Volume can be adjusted for purpose and audience.

Clarity of speech (enunciation) enhances the ability to be understood.

Nervousness can be associated with oral communication, such as
  • sweating
  • tummy “butterflies”
  • stumbling over sounds
  • forgetting
  • feeling shaky
Voices can be varied in many ways, including
  • direction of pitch (inflection)
  • vocal force to highlight importance of a word (stress)
  • overall pitch and inflection patterns (tone colour)
Communication models can be used to share messages.

Communication models can involve consideration of the
  • speaker
  • listener
  • message
  • situation
Understanding
Listening and speaking skills can be developed to improve communication.
Skills & Procedures
Contribute to a variety of listening and speaking activities to build confidence in oral language skills.

Enhance clarity of oral communication through word choice and enunciation.

Present ideas, events, or information in a logical sequence.

Participate in breathing and relaxation activities that support oral communication.

Listen for changes in inflection, stress, and tone colour in oral communications.

Share a short poem with some awareness of inflection, stress, and tone colour.
Knowledge
Dialogue is an exchange of ideas, information, or opinions.

Effective dialogue can include
  • listening
  • staying on topic
  • asking questions
  • contributing
Speaking involves grouping and separating words through phrasing and pausing.

Pauses can be used to support meaning or create emphasis.

Speaking can be supported through
  • relaxation
  • breathing
  • posture
Regular hydration is essential to voice production and vocal maintenance.

Speakers have a responsibility to achieve and maintain vocal health through warm-ups and self-monitoring.

Communication models can help guide understandings of interactions.
Understanding
Listening and speaking can enhance the exchange of ideas, information, or opinions.
Skills & Procedures
Engage in dialogue to express and understand messages.

Examine the effectiveness of dialogue in learning and social interactions.

Identify where phrasing and pausing can support understanding or create effects.

Support speech through relaxation, breathing, or posture.

Consider the contributions of others when exchanging ideas or opinions.
Knowledge
Listening involves maintaining attention and focus.

Listening can include asking and responding to questions.

Discussions involve listening and contributing.
Understanding
Listening is an active process that supports understanding.
Skills & Procedures
Ask questions to clarify information during discussions.

Respond orally to questions during discussions.

Contribute to discussions as a listener and speaker.

Listen to and follow two-step instructions.
Knowledge
Listening can involve
  • maintaining focus
  • asking and responding to questions
  • using appropriate body postures and gestures
  • paying attention to the words, feelings, and behaviours of others
Understanding
Listening helps to develop and maintain positive relationships in a variety of situations.
Skills & Procedures
Contribute to discussions as a listener and speaker.

Listen to and follow three-step instructions.
Knowledge
Listening strategies can include
  • listening with a purpose
  • asking relevant questions
  • seeking clarification
  • responding appropriately
Texts that are listened to can build
  • connections
  • interest
  • vocabulary
  • background knowledge
  • curiosity
  • engagement
  • motivation
Reading aloud helps readers and listeners discover the rhythms in text.
Understanding
Listening can enhance interactions and learning.
Skills & Procedures
Use a variety of listening strategies to interact and learn effectively.
Knowledge
Messages can be shared through sounds and words (verbal).

Messages can be clarified without sounds (non-verbally) through body language, which can include
  • eye contact
  • movement
  • gestures
  • facial expressions
  • posture
Understanding
Verbal and non-verbal language can be used to communicate messages.
Skills & Procedures
Examine verbal and non-verbal language that is appropriate for a variety of situations.

Adjust verbal or non-verbal language according to a variety of situations.
Knowledge
Different situations may have different expectations for language use.

Gestures and facial expressions can be used to enhance ideas and emotions.

Body movement can be used to emphasize ideas, feelings, and messages.
Understanding
Verbal and non-verbal language can be combined to enhance messages.
Skills & Procedures
Examine messages that combine both verbal and non-verbal communication.

Enhance messages through combining verbal and non-verbal communication.

Adjust verbal or non-verbal language according to purpose and audience.

Improvise a scene, situation, or story using verbal and non-verbal language.
Knowledge
Non-verbal communication can enhance speaking through
  • eye contact or gestures to provide focus
  • facial expressions
  • posture and stance
  • full body movement
Speech articulators are structures of the mouth and throat that shape sounds.

Speech articulators support
  • voice quality and audibility
  • articulation and clarity
The body may reflect feelings, including nervousness.

Understanding
Communication can be supported by integrating ideas with verbal and non-verbal language.
Skills & Procedures
Combine verbal and non-verbal skills to communicate effectively.

Articulate precise and clear sounds when communicating.
Knowledge
Preparation can support effective communication through
  • relaxation
  • breathing techniques
  • focus
Presentations can be improvised or prepared.

Presentations can be delivered in different ways, including
  • oral reports
  • readers’ theatre
  • dramatizations
Thoughts and ideas in speech can be grouped together in logical sequences.

Effective communication can include consideration of an audience’s
  • situation
  • thoughts
  • feelings
  • beliefs
Audience participation and behaviour may affect the presenter or other audience members.
Understanding
Presentations share stories, ideas, or information with an audience.
Skills & Procedures
Group relevant ideas, events, or information in a logical sequence when presenting ideas and information.

Develop communication skills through individual or group presentations.

Present dramatizations of characters and events encountered in texts.

Share a poem from memory with some awareness of phrasing and pausing.

Compose and share a short speech or oral report.

Participate in presentations as a respectful audience member.
Organizing Idea
Vocabulary: Communication and comprehension are improved by understanding word meaning and structures.
Guiding Question
How can vocabulary and morphological awareness work together to increase knowledge of words?
Guiding Question
In what ways can understanding words and word structures support communication?
Guiding Question
How can building vocabulary and understanding morphology support language use and comprehension?
Learning Outcome
Students recognize and analyze patterns in and across words.
Learning Outcome
Students build vocabulary by connecting morphemes and words to their meanings.
Learning Outcome
Students interact with new words and morphemes to enhance their vocabulary.
Knowledge
Vocabulary development includes learning tier 2 words that are
  • unknown to most learners
  • critical for comprehending new texts
  • useful and may be encountered in the future
Vocabulary development includes some academic words from read alouds and texts (tier 3 words).

A synonym is a word that has a similar meaning to another word.

An antonym is a word that has the opposite meaning of another word.
Understanding
Learning new words improves comprehension and communication.
Skills & Procedures
Confirm word meanings in a variety of ways.

Identify the meaning of tier 2 words and use them in sentences.

Use tier 3 words in discussions.

Recognize that words can be replaced with synonyms.

Explore antonyms when comparing words.

Transfer understandings of words to different situations.
Knowledge
Vocabulary development includes learning tier 2 words that are
  • unknown to most learners
  • critical for comprehending new texts
  • useful and may be encountered in the future
Vocabulary development includes academic words from a variety of texts (tier 3 words).

Words can create effects in language, including
  • alliteration
  • onomatopoeia
  • repetition

Words can describe a sound that mimics the sound of an object or action (onomatopoeia)
(e.g., sizzle).

Words or phrases can appear over and over again (repetition) (e.g., extra, extra, extra).

Homophones are words that have the same sound but different spellings and meanings.

Homographs are words that have the same spelling but different meanings, and sometimes different pronunciations.
Understanding
Vocabulary development contributes to the ability to communicate effectively.
Skills & Procedures
Identify meanings of words in a variety of situations.

Identify and discuss words of interest in texts.

Use tier 2 words in a variety of literacy situations.

Identify meanings of words from subject content areas (tier 3 words).

Apply a variety of synonyms to enhance expression.

Apply a variety of antonyms to contrast ideas.

Identify homophones and homographs.

Transfer understandings of words to different situations.

Record new words and their meanings in a variety of ways.

Identify alliteration, onomatopoeia, and repetition in spoken language.
Knowledge
The meaning of a word can change when used in a different context.

Language involves phrases with literal and figurative meanings that can be used to enhance communication.

Figurative language can include
  • alliteration
  • onomatopoeia
  • repetition
  • imagery
  • hyperbole
  • simile
Imagery is when words or phrases describe ideas or things that can be experienced visually.

Hyperbole is when words or phrases are used to exaggerate meaning.

A simile compares two unlike things using “like” or “as.”
Understanding
Vocabulary knowledge can be supported and developed through literacy interactions and experiences.
Skills & Procedures
Use tier 2 words in a variety of literacy contexts.

Develop tier 3 vocabulary during content literacy activities.

Engage with texts that include more sophisticated concepts and ideas expressed through expanded vocabulary.

Integrate knowledge of vocabulary across multiple literacy contexts.

Recognize and use figurative language in oral and written communication.

Analyze and use synonyms, antonyms, homophones, homographs, and words with multiple meanings in a variety of texts.
Knowledge
Morphemes are the smallest units of a word that hold meaning.

A base is the main morpheme in a word.

Suffixes are morphemes located at the ending of words.

Adding the suffix <s> or <es> to the ending of a word can make it plural.

Adding the suffix <ed> to the ending of a word changes the tense.

A compound word is formed when two individual words are put together to make a new word.

The meaning of a compound word can be similar to or different from the two individual words that were combined to form the word.
Understanding
Word meanings can change by adding or removing morphemes.
Skills & Procedures
Identify words according to their base.

Recognize suffixes in oral or written language.

Add or remove suffixes to make words singular or plural.

Add or remove suffixes to change the tense of words.

Recognize compound words.

Describe changes in meaning that occur when two words are combined to form a compound word.
Knowledge
Adding the suffix <ing> or <ed> to the end of a base changes the tense.

Adding <er> or <est> to a base indicates a comparison.

A base is the main morpheme in a word.

Words that share a base share connections in meaning and spelling.
Understanding
Morphemes can change the meaning or function of a word.
Skills & Procedures
Manipulate suffixes to change the tense of words.

Manipulate suffixes to make words singular or plural.

Manipulate suffixes when making comparisons between ideas.

Identify changes in meaning when suffixes are added to or removed from bases.

Use compound words to extend vocabulary.
Knowledge
Morphemes include
  • bases
  • affixes
A base is a word or word part that has meaning and to which an affix can be added.

An affix is a letter or group of letters that comes at the beginning (prefix) or ending (suffix) of a word and has a meaning of its own.

Prefixes, including <re>, <un>, <in>, <dis>, <non>, <mis>, <mal>, <sub>, and <super>, are morphemes that change the meaning of words when added to the beginning of a base.

Suffixes, including <ly>, are morphemes that form adverbs and change the meaning of words when added to the end of a base.

Suffixes, including <er>, <or>, <ar>, and <ist>, are morphemes that change the meaning of words when added to the end of a base.

A compound word is made up of at least two morphemes.
Understanding
Morphology can support development of vocabulary and enhance comprehension.
Skills & Procedures
Analyze bases and affixes for meaning.

Recognize and use suffixes to form adverbs that describe a specific manner, period of time, or order.

Recognize and use suffixes to name a person, place, or thing that does something.

Analyze frequently used compound words and their meanings.

Identify morphemes in compound words.

Recognize syllables in words.
Organizing Idea
Phonological Awareness: Foundational literacy is supported by the ability to identify and manipulate sounds in oral language.
Guiding Question
How does the manipulation of sound in oral language support phonological awareness?
Guiding Question
How does sound contribute to understanding oral language?
Learning Outcome
Students manipulate sounds in words in oral language.
Learning Outcome
Students apply understandings of how sounds create meaning in oral language.
Knowledge
Alliterative words begin with the same consonant sound (e.g., marvelous muffins)

Alliterative phrases include tongue twisters (e.g., Peter Piper picked a peck of pickled peppers).
Understanding
Alliterative words begin with the same consonant sound.
Skills & Procedures
Generate alliterative words.

Generate alliterative phrases.
Knowledge
Words that rhyme can have more than one syllable.

Songs and poems can contain rhyming words.
Understanding
Rhyming words can be present in a variety of oral language contexts.
Skills & Procedures
Generate rhyming words that have up to three syllables.

Recall simple songs or poems that contain words that rhyme.
Knowledge
Compound words can be separated into two individual words.

Words can be separated into syllables.

Words can be separated into sounds.

Sounds can be identified at the beginning, in the middle, or at the ending of spoken words.
Understanding
Separating words into syllables or phonemes (segmentation) supports the ability to hear and manipulate sounds in words.
Skills & Procedures
Identify individual words in compound words.

Identify syllables in words that have three or more syllables.

Segment the sounds of words containing up to five phonemes.
Knowledge
Consonant blends can be separated into their individual sounds.

Consonant blends can be located anywhere in words.
Understanding
Words can be separated (segmented) into syllables or sounds (phonemes).
Skills & Procedures
Segment and identify the sounds in words that have five or more phonemes.

Identify phonemes in words that have three or more syllables.

Segment and identify sounds in words that have consonant blends.

Segment individual words within compound words.
Knowledge
Two separate words can be blended to form a new word (compound word).

Syllables can be blended to form new words.

Sounds (phonemes) can be blended to form words.
Understanding
Words can be formed by blending words, parts of words, or sounds.
Skills & Procedures
Identify and blend syllables in words that have two to three syllables.

Identify and blend sounds in words that have up to five phonemes.
Knowledge
Blending is combining sounds or word parts located anywhere in words.

Consonant blends are two or more consonant letters that often appear together in words and represent sounds that are smoothly joined.

Individual sounds and consonant blends can be blended into a sequence to form words.
Understanding
Syllables and individual sounds can be blended into a sequence to form words.
Skills & Procedures
Identify and blend the sounds in words that have up to six sounds.

Identify and blend sounds in words that have consonant blends.
Knowledge
Sounds can be added to the beginning, middle, or ending of words.

Sounds can be deleted from the beginning, middle, or ending of words.

Sounds can be substituted for different sounds at the beginning, middle, or ending of words.
Understanding
Sounds in words can be added, deleted, or substituted (manipulated).
Skills & Procedures
Recognize the position of letters in words.

Add sounds to the beginning, middle, or ending of words.

Delete sounds from the beginning, middle, or ending of words.

Substitute one sound for another in one-syllable words.
Knowledge
Sounds can be manipulated by adding, deleting, or substituting different sounds.

Sounds can be manipulated at the beginning, middle, or ending of words.
Understanding
Words can be changed by manipulating sounds (phonemes).
Skills & Procedures
Manipulate phonemes in a variety of one-syllable or multisyllabic words.

Delete the second phoneme in a consonant blend to form a new word.

Substitute for the second phoneme in a consonant blend to form a new word.

Substitute a sound anywhere in a word to form a new word.
Organizing Idea
Phonics: Foundational literacy is supported by understanding relationships between sounds in oral language and the letters that represent them.
Guiding Question
How can understanding relationships between sounds and letters (phonics) increase knowledge of words?
Guiding Question
How can understanding the relationships between sounds and letters (phonics) enhance decoding and encoding?
Guiding Question
How does phonics support foundational literacy development?
Learning Outcome
Students recognize and analyze letters and sounds in words.
Learning Outcome
Students apply understandings of letter combinations and sounds in words.
Learning Outcome
Students investigate how phonics connects to word formation and supports the process of reading and writing.
Knowledge
The English alphabet consists of a set of 26 letters that represent sounds.

Letters can be upper case or lower case.
Understanding
Letters represent sounds in words.
Skills & Procedures
Recognize both upper case and lower case letters of the alphabet fluently.

Distinguish between letters that are consonants and letters that are vowels.

Make connections between letters and sounds in words.
Knowledge
There is a relationship between written letters (graphemes) and the sounds they represent (phonemes).

Two or more letters can represent a single sound.

Letters in words can be silent.

Some letters have variable pronunciations.
Understanding
Letter combinations represent units of sound within a word.
Skills & Procedures
Associate sounds to letters, letter clusters, and letter sequences.

Experiment with letters, sounds, and words to create new words.

Read one- to two-syllable words that include the 60 most frequent letter-sound correspondences.

Recognize and use long and short vowel sounds in words.

Read and write consonant sounds in the beginning, middle, and ending of words using the letters that represent them.

Read and write two consonant letters that represent one sound at the beginning, middle, and ending of words.

Identify short vowel sounds in words and identify the letters that represent them.

Identify long vowel sounds in words and identify the letters that represent them.
Knowledge
Letter combinations and sounds for reading include
  • vowels
  • blends
  • digraphs
  • diphthongs
Blends combine sounds or word parts.

A combination of two letters can make a single sound (digraph).

Long vowel sounds can be made by gliding from one position of the mouth to another within the same syllable (diphthong).

Letters in words can be silent.

Some letters have variable pronunciations.

An open syllable ends with a vowel or diphthong (e.g., mu-sic).

A closed syllable is a vowel followed by a consonant, and the vowel usually says its short sound (e.g., ten-nis).

A vowel that is followed by <r> can make a new sound (e.g., ti-ger).
Understanding
Relationships between letter combinations and sounds support understanding of words.
Skills & Procedures
Make connections between a full range of letter combinations and sounds.

Apply knowledge of silent letters when learning new words.

Recognize and use the full range of consonant letters and letter clusters in the beginning, middle, and ending of words.

Recognize and use letter combinations that represent long vowel sounds.

Recognize how the letter <r> can influence the vowel sound.

Distinguish between vowel sounds in open syllables (consonant-vowel CV) and closed syllables (vowel-consonant VC).

Read words that include the 120 most frequent letter-sound correspondences.
Knowledge
Consonant clusters blend two or three consonant sounds.

Consonant clusters
appear at the beginning and ending of words.

Consonant digraphs are two consonant letters that appear together and represent a single sound that is different from the sound of either letter (e.g., sh).

Some consonant letters represent no sound (e.g., know, write).

Chunking is a phonetic strategy used to decode that breaks large words into small parts.

Connections can be made between phonemes and graphemes, including consonant clusters and digraphs.
Understanding
Phonics supports the reading and writing of texts.
Skills & Procedures
Recognize consonant clusters at the beginning and ending of a word.

Recognize and apply less frequent consonant digraphs.

Recognize and apply consonant letters that represent no sounds or that are silent in words.

Recognize and apply a wide variety of long and short vowel sounds when decoding unknown multisyllabic words.

Use phonetic strategies to decode complex words in continuous text.
Organizing Idea
Fluency: Comprehension and literary appreciation are improved by the ability to read a range of texts accurately, automatically, and with expression.
Guiding Question
How does reading prosody (expression) support understanding?
Guiding Question
In what ways does fluency support the development of reading?
Guiding Question
In what ways does fluency improve comprehension?
Learning Outcome
Students apply accuracy, appropriate rate, and expression in the development of fluency.
Learning Outcome
Students demonstrate and apply fluency strategies while reading.
Learning Outcome
Students apply fluency strategies and develop reading comprehension.
Knowledge
Letters can be recognized quickly and accurately.

Sounds in words can be blended quickly and accurately.

Words consisting of three phonemes (three sounds) can be blended quickly and accurately.
Understanding
Fluency involves the ability to decode new words with accuracy and at an appropriate rate.
Skills & Procedures
Identify all 26 letters of the alphabet quickly and accurately.

Blend sounds in words with speed and accuracy to decode unfamiliar words.
Knowledge
Morphemes are the smallest units of sound that hold meaning.

Letter combinations, sounds, and morphemes that can be blended quickly and accurately for reading include
  • vowels
  • blends
  • digraphs
  • diphthongs
  • syllables
Understanding
Fluency development contributes to one’s ability to understand messages.
Skills & Procedures
Blend sounds quickly and accurately to decode unfamiliar messages.

Apply language structure, meaning, and rapid word recognition to support fluency.

Read at a steady, comfortable pace.
Knowledge
Fluency develops over time with practice.

Fluent reading includes
  • accuracy
  • automaticity in word recognition
  • prosody (stress, expression, intonation, and pausing) in oral text reading
Understanding
Reading fluency involves accuracy, automaticity, and prosody to engage an audience or improve comprehension.
Skills & Procedures
Demonstrate automaticity in reading complex words, phrases, and continuous text.

Read increasingly complex text with appropriate rate, word stress, phrasing, and pausing.

Read a range of types of texts with fluency and expression.
Knowledge
High frequency words are common words that occur often in written language.

Some words that appear often in print cannot be decoded and must be read by sight (e.g., the).
Understanding
Fluency involves the ability to recognize high frequency words with accuracy and at an appropriate rate.
Skills & Procedures
Read 125 high frequency words of one to three letters automatically.

Read 125 high frequency words in sentences and texts.
Knowledge
High frequency words include words that occur often in written language.

The ability to recognize high frequency words with accuracy and at an appropriate rate improves reading comprehension and fluency.
Understanding
Recognizing high frequency words supports reading comprehension.
Skills & Procedures
Read 300 high frequency words automatically.

Read high frequency words in sentences and texts.
Knowledge
High frequency word recognition includes 300 new words.
Understanding
Fluent recognition of a large number of high frequency words supports effective and efficient reading comprehension.
Skills & Procedures
Read high frequency words with accuracy and automaticity.

Incorporate knowledge of high frequency words to read fluently.
Knowledge
Phrased reading sounds like spoken language.

Fluent reading can include stopping at periods and pausing at commas.

Intonation and expression include purposeful movement of the pitch of the voice, including
  • loud and soft stresses of words
  • raising the voice as a response to question marks
  • alternating the voice to show excitement as a response to exclamation marks
Understanding
Fluent and phrased reading can increase the ability to comprehend written messages.
Skills & Procedures
Read phrases smoothly, taking punctuation into consideration.

Read texts aloud with appropriate intonation and expression.
Knowledge
Reading fluency is supported by
  • pace
  • phrasing
  • expression
  • punctuation
Pace is the rate at which written messages are read.

Phrasing is reading smoothly by grouping words together into meaningful phrases with punctuation.

Expression is reading with feeling in the voice, including various pitch movements.

Punctuation supports reading with fluency through pausing and intonation.

Quotation marks signal to the reader to align voice with characters in a written message.
Understanding
Fluent reading can engage audiences or improve comprehension.
Skills & Procedures
Read with appropriate stress on words, pausing, and phrasing.

Read with appropriate intonation and expression.

Use punctuation in written messages to enhance fluency.

Read dialogue with phrasing and expression to engage an audience or reflect understanding.
Organizing Idea
Comprehension: Text comprehension is supported through applying varied strategies and processes, and considering both particular contexts and universal themes.
Guiding Question
What messages are conveyed through ideas and information within texts?
Guiding Question
How does comprehension facilitate the meaning of a text?
Guiding Question
How can the development of skills and strategies support comprehension of text?
Learning Outcome
Students investigate meaning communicated in texts.
Learning Outcome
Students use and explain a variety of processes to comprehend texts.
Learning Outcome
Students relate personal experiences to interactions with texts to support meaning.
Knowledge
Texts that are listened to can contain more formal or complex language than everyday language.

Responses to messages listened to in texts can include
  • discussions
  • pictures with a few words or sentences
Understanding
Understanding text can be enhanced by listening to messages read aloud.
Skills & Procedures
Listen to a variety of fictional and informational texts that are read aloud.

Respond to texts that have been read aloud.

Understand words and phrases from texts that have been read aloud.
Knowledge
Texts that are listened to can contain more complex language and information than texts read independently.

Responses to texts that are listened to can include
  • discussions
  • visual representations
  • writing
Understanding
Text comprehension can be enhanced by listening to a variety of texts read aloud.
Skills & Procedures
Listen and respond to a variety of fictional and informational texts that are read aloud.

Understand and use words and phrases from texts that have been read aloud.
Knowledge
Comprehension of longer, more complex texts, at or above grade level, is supported by increased reading practice.
Understanding
Comprehension can be developed through ongoing interaction with and frequent exposure to a variety of texts.
Skills & Procedures
Independently read and demonstrate comprehension of texts that vary in length or complexity.
Knowledge
Understanding of messages in texts read independently can be shared through
  • discussions
  • pictures with a few words or sentences
Understanding
Predictable and decodable print texts can be read and understood independently.
Skills & Procedures
Read simple, fully predictable and decodable texts independently.

Understand words and sentences from print texts read independently.

Share understandings of print texts read independently.
Knowledge
Understanding of print texts read independently can involve
  • discussions
  • visual representations
  • writing
Understanding
Print texts can be understood independently.
Skills & Procedures
Read, independently, texts that contain mostly predictable and decodable words.

Use and understand words and sentences from print texts read independently.

Discuss ideas and information from print texts read independently.
Knowledge
Connections can be made prior to, during, or after reading a text.

Connections can be made within and between various aspects of text, including
  • people
  • characters
  • places
  • things
  • settings
  • events
  • actions
  • information
  • land
Understanding
Comprehension involves connecting relevant background knowledge and experiences with new information in text.
Skills & Procedures
Make connections between a text and personal feelings, experiences, or background knowledge.

Make connections between various aspects within a text.

Compare or contrast aspects within a text.
Knowledge
Word solving can include
  • chunking
  • stretching
  • manipulating sounds
Understanding print texts can be checked by asking
  • does it make sense? (meaning)
  • does it sound right? (syntax)
  • does it look right? (visual cues)
Self-correcting can include
  • altering speed
  • rereading
  • reading on
  • seeking clarification
Understanding
Comprehension can involve solving, monitoring, and self-correcting.
Skills & Procedures
Solve unknown words in a variety of ways.

Use meaning, syntax, and visual cues to check understandings when reading print text.

Self-correct when print text does not make sense.
Knowledge
Understanding print text can be checked by asking
  • does it make sense? (meaning)
  • does it sound right? (syntax)
  • does it look right? (visual cues)
Word solving can include
  • chunking
  • stretching
  • manipulating sounds
  • searching for additional information
Self-correcting can include
  • altering speed
  • rereading
  • reading on
  • seeking clarification
Understanding
Comprehension of print texts involves self-monitoring and self-correcting.
Skills & Procedures
Use meaning, syntax, and visual cues to monitor understandings when reading print text.

Solve unfamiliar or multisyllabic words in a variety of ways.

Self-correct when meaning is unclear during reading.
Knowledge
Information that is synthesized to make predictions can include
  • background knowledge
  • personal experience
  • clues from a text
  • anticipation of logical outcomes or events
Understanding
Comprehension can involve predicting outcomes or events that reflect clues from texts.
Skills & Procedures
Connect background knowledge to information within a text to make predictions.

Identify information from texts that supports predictions.

Modify predictions based on new or additional information.

Reflect on predictions to confirm or change understandings.
Knowledge
The main idea of a text is the most important idea.

Sequencing key ideas and details is important when summarizing texts.

The moral or lesson of a text can be the main idea.
Understanding
Understanding texts can involve determining the main idea, key ideas, and details.
Skills & Procedures
Discuss the main idea of a variety of texts.

Identify key ideas and details from texts.

Sequence four to six events in a text.

Retell the beginning, middle, or ending of a text.

Retell or dramatize a story, including characters and setting.

Describe information from illustrations or visuals in texts.

Identify the moral or lesson of a fable, folk tale, or myth.
Knowledge
The moral or lesson of a text can be the main idea.

The topic of a text can be the main idea.

The sequence of key ideas and details is important when summarizing texts.
Understanding
Comprehension can involve summarizing the main idea, key ideas, and details.
Skills & Procedures
Summarize a text, including the main idea and key ideas.

Sequence four or more events in a text.

Retell or dramatize a story, including characters, setting, and plot, in sequence.

Include information from illustrations or visuals in summaries of texts.
Knowledge
Inferencing involves drawing conclusions based on known facts or evidence.

Inferencing can include
  • making connections
  • questioning
  • predicting
  • visualizing
Understanding
Comprehension can be enhanced by inferring meanings that are not stated explicitly in text.
Skills & Procedures
Make inferences by combining background knowledge with information that is not explicitly stated within a text.

Identify the connection between the actions, feelings, or motives of a character based on evidence in text.
Knowledge
Connections can be made to ideas and information in texts, including
  • connecting to experiences
  • connecting to feelings
  • connecting to similarities and differences between texts
  • connecting to background knowledge
Similarities and differences can be identified in various aspects of a text, including
  • people
  • characters
  • places
  • objects
  • settings
  • events
  • actions
  • information
Understanding
Comprehension of texts can involve making connections.
Skills & Procedures
Share personal connections to ideas or information in texts.

Identify similarities and differences between two texts.
Knowledge
Connections can be made to ideas and information in texts, including
  • connecting to experiences
  • connecting to feelings
  • connecting to similarities and differences within a text
  • connecting to similarities and differences between texts
  • connecting to background knowledge
  • connecting text to the world
Aspects of text that can be compared or contrasted include
  • people
  • characters
  • places
  • objects
  • settings
  • events
  • actions
  • information
Understanding
The process of text comprehension can be improved through making connections.
Skills & Procedures
Share connections that support understandings of ideas or information in texts.

Compare and contrast aspects within a text.

Compare and contrast aspects among several texts.
Knowledge
Summarizing information involves
  • determining key ideas and specific details
  • logically ordering ideas
  • writing ideas in own words
Understanding
Comprehension is enhanced when information is summarized.
Skills & Procedures
Determine the most important information in a text.

Order significant information in a logical sequence.

Share the most important information from a text in a logical order using own words.
Knowledge
Questions that guide comprehension of texts can include
  • Who?
  • What?
  • Where?
  • When?
  • Why?
  • How?
Texts can contain information that answers questions.

The same words can be in both the question and the answer (literal recall).
Understanding
Comprehension can involve asking and answering questions.
Skills & Procedures
Ask questions to clarify information in texts.

Answer questions requiring literal recall and understanding of examples, details, or facts in texts.

Answer questions that require giving opinions about information in texts.

Locate information from texts to answer questions.
Knowledge
Questioning includes asking or answering questions regarding
  • Who?
  • What?
  • Where?
  • When?
  • Why?
  • How?
Answers to questions may not be immediately apparent and may involve searching for more information.

Answers to questions may involve integrating new information with background knowledge.
Understanding
Comprehension can be enhanced by formulating questions and searching for answers within texts.
Skills & Procedures
Ask questions to clarify information in texts.

Answer questions requiring literal recall and understanding of evidence, details, or facts.

Answer questions that require making interpretations or giving opinions about information.

Answer “why” questions that require recognizing cause and effect relationships.
Knowledge
A variety of self-monitoring skills used when facing challenges in comprehension can include
  • noticing where meaning breaks down
  • rereading
  • reading ahead
  • creating mental or visual images
  • asking and posing plausible answers to how, why, and what if questions
Understanding
The reading comprehension process involves the strategies of monitoring understandings and assessing options if meaning lacks clarity.
Skills & Procedures
Identify the location in texts where reading comprehension becomes challenging.

Determine if a text’s readability is too easy, too difficult, or at an appropriate level.

Identify self-monitoring skills that are personally effective in supporting reading comprehension.
Knowledge
Predicting includes imagining an outcome based on a combination of information, including
  • title
  • pictures
  • details within the text
  • background knowledge
Understanding
Comprehension can be enhanced by making predictions.
Skills & Procedures
Make predictions prior to and while reading, viewing, or listening to a text based on information provided within the text.

Compare actual outcomes to predictions made.
Knowledge
Predicting includes imagining an outcome based on a combination of information, including
  • title
  • pictures
  • evidence
  • background knowledge
Understanding
Comprehension can be supported by making and revising predictions.
Skills & Procedures
Make predictions prior to and while reading, viewing, or listening to a text based on information provided within the text.

Revise understandings in response to new information.

Compare actual outcomes to predictions made.
Organizing Idea
Writing: Ideas and information can be articulated accurately and imaginatively through the use of writing processes and an understanding of the author’s craft
Guiding Question
How can writing be used to communicate meaning?
Guiding Question
How can writing processes and techniques improve expression?
Guiding Question
How can writing craft combined with skills and processes contribute to written expression?
Learning Outcome
Students apply understandings of writing through creation of messages.
Learning Outcome
Students investigate the ways ideas and information conveyed in writing can be enhanced.
Learning Outcome
Students demonstrate how attention to skills and strategies can support the clarity of written expression.
Knowledge
Processes can be used to support writing messages, and can involve
  • planning
  • writing
  • editing
  • sharing
Planning can involve thinking or talking about
  • why you are writing a message (purpose)
  • who will be reading the message (audience)
  • the form the message will take
  • ideas
Messages can be written in sentences that contain complete thoughts.

Several sentences can be written to expand on one idea.

Editing generally involves correcting errors in spelling, grammar, or punctuation.

Sharing can involve adding images or features to written messages.

Written messages have an author or a creator.

Written messages are owned by their creators.
Understanding
Ideas and information can be shared through written messages.
Skills & Procedures
Create written messages that align with an intended audience or purpose.

Create written messages in a variety of forms to represent ideas or information.

Generate ideas that can be expressed through messages.

Combine ideas in a logical sequence to create sentences.

Write sentences that contain complete thoughts and make sense.

Edit written work for spelling, grammar, and punctuation.

Add images or features to written messages.

Share written messages with others.

Print your name on messages you create.
Knowledge
Writing processes used to organize and share messages can involve
  • planning
  • writing
  • editing
  • sharing
Planning can involve thinking or talking about
  • why you are writing a message (purpose)
  • who will be reading the message (audience)
  • the form the message will take
  • ideas
Run-on sentences are sentences that string too many ideas together with connecting words.

Sentences can be organized in a logical sequence to create written messages.

Editing generally involves correcting errors in spelling, grammar, or punctuation.

Sharing can involve selecting a variety of features to enhance written messages.
Understanding
Writing can provide opportunities to share thoughts and ideas in meaningful ways.
Skills & Procedures
Create written messages that align with an intended audience or purpose.

Create written messages in a variety of forms to represent ideas or information.

Generate ideas that can be expressed through messages.

Focus and limit the number of ideas in sentences.

Include a variety of sentence types in writing.

Organize sentences in a logical sequence to create written messages.

Edit written work for spelling, grammar, and punctuation.

Incorporate images or features to enhance written messages.

Share written messages with others.
Knowledge
Writing processes used to organize and share messages can involve
  • planning
  • drafting
  • revising
  • editing
  • sharing
Planning can include
  • consideration of audience, purpose, and form
  • idea generation
Methods and tools that can support planning include
  • graphic organizers
  • lists
  • visualizing
  • sketching
Interest can be created by varying sentence beginnings.

Run-on sentences make reading difficult, as the reader often cannot tell where to pause or stop.

Writers generally avoid repetitions and run-on sentences.

Three to five sentences that add detail or description to ideas or information can be combined to construct a paragraph.

Revising can include adding or removing words or sentences to enhance writing clarity, accuracy, or appeal.

Fluent writing sounds like speaking when read aloud.

Sharing can involve selecting a variety of text features to enhance written messages.
Understanding
Writing can capture ideas, memories, investigations, and stories.
Skills & Procedures
Create written texts for a variety of audiences and purposes.

Create written texts using a variety of forms and structures.

Use organizational processes, methods, or tools to support the creation of written texts.

Create drafts of writing that maintain audience interest by focusing the number of ideas in sentences and limiting repetitions.

Include a range of sentence beginnings and types to vary and add interest to writing.

Sequence sections of writing in a logical order.

Revise written texts for accuracy, clarity, or appeal by adding, removing, or changing words or sentences.

Edit writing for spelling, punctuation, and grammar.

Read written texts aloud to check for writing fluency.
Knowledge
Writing can support creative expression of ideas through organization and word choice.

Creative ideas for written expression can be inspired by personal experiences with
  • people
  • places
  • things
  • stories
  • images
  • information
Creative ideas can be organized in a variety of ways.

In creative writing, word choice can paint a picture in the reader’s mind.

Creative ideas can be clarified by adding words that describe things that can be seen, heard, smelled, tasted, or touched (sensory language).
Understanding
Creative writing can inspire imaginative thinking and fun.
Skills & Procedures
Collect ideas that are inspired by a variety of experiences.

Express ideas and information through a variety of written forms (e.g., stories, poetry, posters).

Identify effective use of sensory language in stories, songs, or print texts.

Include sensory language to enhance ideas in creative writing.
Knowledge
Writing can support creative expression of ideas through organization and word choice.

Creative ideas for written expression can be inspired by personal experiences with
  • people
  • places
  • things
  • stories
  • images
  • information
Creative ideas can be organized in a variety of ways.

Creative ideas can be clarified by adding words that describe things that can be seen, heard, smelled, tasted, or touched (sensory language).
Understanding
Creative writing can influence expression of thoughts and emotions.
Skills & Procedures
Collect ideas that are inspired by a variety of experiences.

Express ideas and information through a variety of written forms (e.g., stories, poetry, posters).

Include adjectives and adverbs to add interest and detail to writing.

Include sensory language to enhance ideas in creative writing.

Use punctuation and figurative language to create appeal in written messages.
Knowledge
Writing is a craft that involves personal expression of ideas through
  • organization
  • word choice
  • presentation
Creative ideas for written expression can be inspired by a variety of sources, including
  • personal experiences
  • background knowledge
  • imagination
  • experiences with text
The author’s voice or style helps a reader or an audience picture or feel what a writer is describing.

In creative writing, word choice can include interesting details that keep audiences engaged.

Words selected to enhance written texts can include
  • sensory details
  • synonyms
  • antonyms
  • specific words or phrases
  • figurative language
Dialogue can be used to add variety to written texts, advance the plot, or reveal a character’s thoughts and feelings.
Understanding
Creative expression can channel imaginative thought and emotion into a variety of written texts.
Skills & Procedures
Identify how the relationship between audience, purpose, and text form can influence creative expression.

Identify how other writers use words, sensory detail, and figurative language for creative expression of thoughts and emotions.

Create written texts that draw upon a variety of sources of inspiration.

Select from a variety of text forms or structures to express personal thoughts or feelings.

Create beginnings that catch the audience’s attention by experimenting with ideas and word choice.

Include a variety of carefully selected words, sensory detail, or figurative language to add interest and keep audiences engaged.

Include dialogue to add variety, advance the plot, or reveal a character’s thoughts or feelings.

Use punctuation to generate effects in creative expression.

Create thoughtful conclusions to tie up events or leave readers wondering.

Select from a variety of presentation forms or text features to enhance and share selections of creative writing.
Knowledge
Factual information can be gathered to support sharing ideas about things that are real.

Factual information can come from a variety of digital or non-digital sources, including
  • people
  • places
  • print
  • images
  • observations
Gathering information can include listening, speaking, observing, or representing.

Organizational tools, such as graphic organizers, can help plan and record factual information.
Understanding
Research processes can be used to gather and record factual information.
Skills & Procedures
Ask questions to identify research topics.

Gather factual information from a variety of people, places, or things.

Use organizational tools to help plan or record information.

Record factual information through messages that include images and words.
Knowledge
Asking questions can help focus research topics.

Factual information can come from a variety of digital or non-digital sources, including
  • people
  • places
  • print
  • images
  • observations
Gathering information can include listening, speaking, observing, or representing.

Organizational tools, such as graphic organizers, can help plan and record factual information.
Understanding
Research processes can be used to learn new things or build on what is already known.
Skills & Procedures
Ask questions to focus research topics.

Gather factual information on topics from various sources.

Use organizational tools to help plan or record information.

Record factual information through messages that include images, words, and sentences.
Knowledge
Questioning can help focus research topics and processes.

Information can be gathered from digital or non-digital sources and can include
  • people
  • places
  • print text
  • images
  • observations
Information can be categorized or sequenced to enhance organization.

Organizational tools, such as graphic organizers, can help plan and write about factual information.

Research findings can be shared in a variety of digital or non-digital formats, including
  • reports
  • presentations
  • visual representations
The information and ideas of others need to be listed (cited) as a source in research writing.
Understanding
Research processes can support accessing and logically organizing information.
Skills & Procedures
Access information from a variety of sources to answer questions or expand knowledge.

Organize, categorize, or sequence information using a variety of methods or tools.

Use research and formats to create written texts that are appropriate for the audience.

List sources of information used to inform research.
Knowledge
Digital or non-digital methods or tools used to create written messages can include printing and keyboarding.
Understanding
Written messages can be created using a variety of digital or non-digital methods or tools.
Skills & Procedures
Print letters and words with appropriate size and spacing.

Consistently grasp writing tools correctly.

Locate letter keys on a keyboard to type messages.
Knowledge
Written messages can be created using a variety of digital or non-digital methods or tools, including printing and keyboarding.
Understanding
The method or tool used to present written works can enhance the clarity of a message.
Skills & Procedures
Print with appropriate size, formation, and spacing to enhance the clarity of a message.

Locate a variety of keys on a keyboard to type messages.
Knowledge
Written messages can be created using a variety of digital or non-digital methods or tools, including
  • printing
  • keyboarding
  • cursive handwriting
Cursive handwriting involves
  • letter formation
  • size
  • proportion
  • slant
Basic keyboarding involves
  • finger reaches
  • keystroking
  • key recognition
Understanding
Methods or tools can support writing fluency through practice.
Skills & Procedures
Demonstrate writing fluency using at least one method or tool.

Use cursive handwriting to write some texts with appropriate letter formation, size, proportion, and slant.

Demonstrate basic keyboarding skills.
Organizing Idea
Conventions: Understanding grammar, spelling, and punctuation makes it easier to communicate clearly, to organize thinking, and to use language for desired effects.
Guiding Question
How do the functions of conventions support literacy development?
Guiding Question
How do conventions foster the development of effective communication?
Guiding Question
How does the appropriate use of conventions support clear written communication?
Learning Outcome
Students use and develop grammar, spelling, and punctuation in oral and written language.
Learning Outcome
Students examine and apply grammar, spelling, and punctuation in a variety of contexts to build effective communication.
Learning Outcome
Students investigate and demonstrate how conventions support written communication.
Knowledge
Capitalization is used for
  • first and last name
  • first word of a sentence
  • names of people and places
  • days of the week
  • months
Punctuation marks can signal the end of a sentence and make ideas clear.

Punctuation can include
  • a period
  • a question mark
  • an exclamation mark
Understanding
Capitalization and punctuation can support the meaning of a message.
Skills & Procedures
Apply capital letters when writing first and last names.

Apply capital letters when writing the first word of a sentence.

Apply capital letters when writing names of places.

Apply capital letters when writing days of the week and months.

Identify and use end punctuation in sentences.
Knowledge
Capitalization is used for
  • first word of a sentence
  • names of people and places
  • days of the week and months
  • titles
A proper noun names a specific person or place and begins with a capital letter.

Punctuation marks can signal the end of a sentence and make ideas clear.

Punctuation can include
  • a period
  • a question mark
  • an exclamation mark
  • an apostrophe in contractions
A contraction is a combination of two words, where an apostrophe takes the place of certain letters.
Understanding
Capitalization and punctuation can make messages more clear.
Skills & Procedures
Capitalize the first word of a sentence.

Capitalize names of people and places.

Capitalize days of the week and months.

Capitalize titles.

Include punctuation at the end of sentences.

Insert apostrophes in place of letters in contractions.
Knowledge
Capitalization is used for
  • first word of a sentence
  • proper nouns
  • days of the week and months
  • titles
  • headings
Punctuation can include
  • a period
  • a question mark
  • an exclamation mark
  • a comma
  • quotation marks
  • an apostrophe in contractions and possessives
A comma indicates a pause between parts of a sentence or separates items in a list.

Quotation marks identify the words of a speaker or bring attention to a word that is used in a special way.

A contraction is a combined form of two words, where an apostrophe takes the place of certain letters.
Understanding
Capitalization and punctuation can enhance written expression.
Skills & Procedures
Capitalize the first word of sentences.

Capitalize proper nouns.

Capitalize days of the week and months.

Capitalize titles and headings.

Include a variety of punctuation at the end of sentences.

Insert commas to indicate a pause between parts of sentences, or to separate items in a list.

Insert quotation marks to identify the words of a speaker.

Insert quotation marks to bring attention to a word that is used in a special way.

Insert apostrophes in place of letters in contractions.

Insert apostrophes to show possession.
Knowledge
A sentence is a group of words that shares a complete thought or idea.

Sentence types include telling (declarative) or
asking (interrogative).

Sentences include a noun and a verb.

A noun is a person, place, thing, or animal.

A verb is an action word.
Understanding
Language has structures (grammar) that can help express messages.
Skills & Procedures
Recognize sentences in oral or written language that include a complete thought or idea.

Differentiate between telling and asking sentences.

Differentiate between nouns and verbs in sentences.
Knowledge
Sentence types include
  • telling (declarative)
  • asking (interrogative)
  • excitement (exclamatory)
A sentence that expresses strong emotion can end with an exclamation mark (exclamatory).

Sentences include a noun and a verb.

A noun is a person, place, thing, or animal.

A pronoun can be used in place of a noun.

An adjective is a word that describes a noun.

A verb is an action word.

An adverb is a word that describes a verb.

The subject of a sentence tells whom or what the sentence is about.

The subject and the verb in a sentence must agree, with both being either singular or plural (subject-verb agreement).

Some words can be used with other words to show time or place (prepositions) (e.g., under, with, before, after).
Understanding
Language has structures (grammar) that can help express ideas, thoughts, and emotions.
Skills & Procedures
Write a variety of sentences that include a complete thought or idea.

Identify nouns in sentences.

Recognize and use pronouns to replace nouns in sentences.

Use a variety of adjectives to describe nouns.

Identify verbs in sentences.

Use adverbs to describe verbs.

Identify the subject in a sentence.

Identify when subjects and verbs agree in sentences.

Recognize and use prepositions in sentences to show time and place.
Knowledge
Sentence types include
  • telling (declarative)
  • asking (interrogative)
  • excitement (exclamatory)
  • command (imperative)
A sentence can command someone to do or not to do something (imperative).

A sentence has a two main parts, a subject and a predicate.

The subject of a sentence is who or what the sentence is about.

The predicate of a sentence is what the subject does.

Words can be used to connect phrases and sentences (conjunctions) (e.g., and, but, or, so, then).

An adjective is a word that describes a noun.

An adverb is a word that describes a verb.

Subject-verb agreement means that the subject and the verb must agree, with both being either singular or plural.

Words can tell who or what owns a noun (possessive), and include
  • possessive nouns (‘s)
  • possessive adjectives (e.g., my, your, his, her, its, our, their)
  • possessive pronouns (e.g., mine, yours, his, hers, ours, theirs)
Some words can be used with other words to show time or place (prepositions) (e.g., under, with, before, after).
Understanding
Grammar can provide a consistent structure for the building of sentences.
Skills & Procedures
Distinguish between a variety of sentence types.

Identify the subject of a variety of sentences.

Identify the predicate of a variety of sentences.

Identify conjunctions in a variety of sentences.

Use adjectives to describe nouns.

Use adverbs to describe verbs.

Identify subject-verb agreement in a variety of sentences.

Differentiate between possessive nouns, possessive adjectives, and possessive pronouns.

Recognize and use prepositions in sentences to show time and place.
Knowledge
Spelling patterns can look the same or sound the same (word families).

Spelling patterns can include
  • vowel-consonant (VC) (e.g., at)
  • consonant-vowel-consonant (CVC) (e.g., top)
  • vowel-consonant-silent “e” (VCe) (e.g., ice)
Some words can be made plural by adding an <s> or <es>.

Spelling patterns in one-syllable words include
  • short vowel sounds (e.g., mat)
  • long vowel sounds (e.g., green)
Many high frequency words are not spelled in predictable ways (e.g., walk).

Understanding
Spelling patterns can support the spelling of unfamiliar words.
Skills & Procedures
Recognize letter patterns in words.

Apply spelling patterns to spell unfamiliar words.

Spell 125 high frequency words.

Identify words that are not spelled in predictable ways.
Knowledge
Spelling patterns can include
  • vowel-consonant (VC) (e.g., on)
  • consonant-vowel-consonant (CVC) (e.g., cup)
  • vowel-consonant-silent “e” (VCe) (e.g., ate)
  • consonant-vowel-consonant-silent “e” (CVCe) (e.g., nose)
  • vowel-consonant-consonant (VCC) (e.g., ill)
  • vowel-vowel-consonant (VVC) (e.g., eel)
  • dropping the <e> and adding <ing>
  • doubling the letter before adding <ing> or <ed>
Some words can be made plural by adding an <s> or <es>.

Spelling patterns in one-syllable words include
  • short vowel sounds (e.g., pick)
  • long vowel sounds (e.g., coat)
Some consonants are silent in some words (e.g., talk).

Many high frequency words are not spelled in predictable ways (e.g., friend).
Understanding
Spelling can be supported by recognizing patterns that occur within and across words.
Skills & Procedures
Identify spelling patterns within and across words.

Apply spelling patterns to spell unfamiliar words.

Identify silent consonants in words.

Spell 300 high frequency words.

Identify words that are not spelled in predictable ways.
Knowledge
Spelling patterns can include
  • vowel-consonant (VC) (e.g., straw)
  • consonant-vowel-consonant (CVC) (e.g., plan)
  • vowel-consonant-silent “e” (VCe) (e.g., cone)
  • consonant-vowel-consonant-silent “e” (CVCe) (e.g., spoke)
  • vowel-consonant-consonant (VCC) (e.g., mask)
  • vowel-vowel-consonant (VVC) (e.g., soil)
  • nouns ending in <y>: change <y> to <i> and add <es> (e.g., pony–ponies)
  • nouns ending in <f> or <fe>: change <f> or <fe> to <v> and add <es> (e.g., leaf–leaves)
Some plural nouns may be spelled the same as or differently from their singular form (e.g., moose–moose, person–people).

Adding an apostrophe and an <s> to a noun shows ownership.

Add only an apostrophe and not an <s> if a noun is plural and already ends in an <s>.

Prefixes and suffixes are spelled consistently in words.

Some words are not spelled in predictable ways (e.g., twelfth).
Understanding
Correct spelling can be supported by applying knowledge of word patterns and parts.
Skills & Procedures
Identify spelling patterns within and across words.

Apply knowledge of known words, word parts, and word patterns to spell unfamiliar words.

Identify plural nouns that are spelled the same as or differently from their singular form.

Add an apostrophe and an <s> to nouns to show ownership.

Add only an apostrophe to show ownership if a noun is plural and already ends in an <s>.

Spell a variety of prefixes and suffixes accurately in words.

Identify words that are not spelled in predictable ways.
Knowledge
Words have correct spellings.

Every word contains a vowel.

Every syllable found in a word contains a vowel.

Articulating words slowly can help to identify sounds.

Thinking about how letters in a word look can help with spelling.

Digital or non-digital supports can be used to help spell words correctly, including
  • personal word lists
  • dictionaries
  • environmental print
  • peers, teachers, or parents/guardians
Understanding
Spelling words correctly helps written messages to be understood.
Skills & Procedures
Apply knowledge of known words, word parts, and word patterns to attempt to spell unfamiliar words.

Include a vowel in every word.

Include a vowel in every syllable.

Attempt to spell unknown words using letter-sound relationships.

Say words slowly to identify sounds when spelling words.

Describe how a word looks.

Use a variety of supports to spell and check the spelling of words.
Knowledge
Every word and every syllable contains a vowel.

Articulating words slowly can help to identify sounds.

Thinking about how a word looks can help with spelling.

Knowledge of words and word parts can be applied to the spelling of new words.

Spelling can involve trial and error.

Digital or non-digital supports can be used to help spell words correctly, including
  • personal word lists
  • dictionaries
  • environmental print
  • peers, teachers, or parents/guardians
Understanding
Spelling strategies and supports can be used to help communicate messages.
Skills & Procedures
Include a vowel in every word and syllable.

Say words slowly to identify sounds when spelling words.

Describe how a word looks.

Apply knowledge of known words, word parts, and word patterns to spell unfamiliar words.

Use a variety of supports to spell and check the spelling of words.
Knowledge
Spelling strategies can be used to spell words accurately and can include
  • articulating
  • visualizing
  • transferring prior knowledge
  • trial and error
Digital or non-digital tools can be used to help spell words correctly and can include
  • personal word lists
  • dictionaries
  • environmental print
  • peers, teachers, or parents/guardians
Understanding
A variety of spelling strategies and tools can be used to enhance written expression.
Skills & Procedures
Apply a variety of spelling strategies to enhance written expression.

Use a variety of tools to spell or confirm the spelling of words.
Knowledge
Abbreviations can include
  • titles
  • days of the week
  • time
  • measurements
  • addresses
Plural possessives end with an <s’> to show ownership.

An inflectional ending is a suffix added to a base that indicates
  • tense
  • plurality
  • possession
  • comparison
The basic guidelines of adding inflectional endings consist of
  • dropping the <e> and adding <ing>
  • doubling the letter before adding <ing> or <ed>
Understanding
Basic guidelines for spelling transferred to writing new text can increase accuracy.
Skills & Procedures
Spell common abbreviations in writing.

Recognize and spell most contractions in writing.

Apply inflectional endings in writing.

Spell compound words accurately.

Spell singular and plural possessives.

Spell some complex plural words.

Apply endings that show comparisons.

Spell one-syllable words with a vowel and <r>.

Recognize basic guidelines for adding inflectional endings.