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The music curriculum provides opportunities for students to connect to the world around them through creating, presenting, appreciating, and responding to music. As students become aware of the expressive elements of music, they develop insight into human experience. Foundational knowledge and understanding of the elements of music supports students in developing music literacy and skills through active musical engagement in the areas of singing, playing, listening, moving, reading, and writing. This knowledge serves as the foundation from which students can further develop an understanding of and appreciation for the beauty of music within historical, cultural, and contemporary contexts. Through creative processes, students learn that individual and collaborative music making fosters the expression of ideas, feelings, and experiences.
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Organizing Idea
Foundational Elements: Music literacy is developed through knowledge and application of foundational elements.
Guiding Question
What are the qualities of sound?
Guiding Question
How can musical sounds be interpreted?
Guiding Question
In what ways can tone and duration contribute to music?
Learning Outcome
Children explore sound in music.
Learning Outcome
Students examine musical sounds as they relate to rhythm, melody, dynamics, harmony, and form.
Learning Outcome
Students relate tone and duration to rhythm, melody, dynamics, and harmony.
Knowledge
A steady beat is compared to the regular beating of the heart.

A steady beat is the regular pulse that occurs in music and can be heard in Victor Herbert’s March of the Toys, from Babes in Toyland.

Nursery rhymes, singing games, and action songs support the exploration of a steady beat.

A steady beat can be felt in the body through body percussion or moving.

The First Nations and Inuit drum emphasizes a steady beat.
Understanding
A musical sound can have a steady beat.
Skills & Procedures
Respond to a steady beat in a variety of ways, including action songs, playing instruments, moving, and body percussion.

Recognize a steady beat in a variety of music repertoires.

Practise playing a steady beat on instruments.
Knowledge
A steady beat is compared to the regular beating of the heart.

A steady beat can be felt in the body through body percussion, playing instruments, or moving.

The First Nations and Inuit drum emphasizes a steady beat.

Music selections that emphasize a steady beat can include
  • A Tribe Called Red, Electric PowWow
  • Leroy Anderson, Sleigh Ride
Understanding
A steady beat is the regular pulse that occurs in music.
Skills & Procedures
Respond to a steady beat in a variety of ways, including action songs, playing instruments, moving, and body percussion.

Identify a steady beat when listening to music.

Identify and explore the difference between steady beat and rhythm.
Knowledge
Duration is the length of time that sounds or silences are sustained in music.

The duration of sounds and silences is represented by music symbols.

Visual representation of music symbols in written form is known as standard notation, but it can also be represented using stick notation or other manipulatives.

Rhythmic symbols have values that indicate the specific duration of a note or a rest.

The duration of a silence in music, known as a rest, is equal in duration to its corresponding note.

The rhythmic duration of a whole note or whole rest is equal to the duration of two half notes or half rests, or four quarter notes or quarter rests.

Syllable names for rhythmic sounds can be invented and may vary and include
  • ta for a quarter note
  • ti-ti for two eighth notes
  • ta-a for a half note
  • ta-a-a-a for whole note
Call and response is a musical form that can support rhythmic exploration.
Understanding
Duration is measured by how many beats a musical sound lasts.
Skills & Procedures
Demonstrate the difference between beat and rhythm.

Identify the rhythmic values of individual and combined rhythms.

Practise reading and writing rhythm patterns.

Notate short rhythm patterns from dictation.

Generate a rhythmic answer in response to a rhythmic question.
Knowledge
Long and short sounds are called rhythms and are related to syllables in a word.

The rhythm of a word refers to the syllables heard in the word.

Simple word rhythms can be found in nursery rhymes, poems, and children’s songs.

Word rhythms can be spoken or played using body percussion or non-pitched percussion instruments.

Silences in music are an absence of sound.

Body percussion is the art of making sound with the body, including
  • clapping
  • snapping
  • patching
  • stomping
  • rubbing
Understanding
Sounds and silences in music can be long or short.
Skills & Procedures
Recognize the difference between short and long sounds.

Identify how many syllable sounds make up the rhythm of individual words.

Demonstrate the rhythm of words using body percussion or non-pitched percussion instruments.

Knowledge
The rhythm of a word refers to the syllables heard in the word.

Simple word rhythms can be found in nursery rhymes, poems, and children’s songs.

Word rhythms can be spoken or played using body percussion or non-pitched percussion instruments.

Rhythm includes long and short sounds represented by a musical symbol called a note.

Silences in music are the absence of sound and are represented by a rhythmic symbol called a rest.

A silence or rest in music can be indicated by using a gesture.

A rhythmic symbol has a specific value that describes how many beats it lasts.

The rhythmic value of one quarter note or quarter rest is worth one beat and is equal in value to two eighth notes.

Syllable names for rhythmic sounds can be invented and can include
  • ta for quarter note
  • ti-ti for two eighth notes
In Western music, printed music symbols are read and written from left to right.

Stick notation is a simplified way of representing rhythmic symbols.

Body percussion is the art of making sound with the body, including
  • clapping
  • snapping
  • patching
  • stomping
  • rubbing
Understanding
A musical sound can be described by how many beats it lasts.

Rhythm is a series of long and short sounds and silences.

Rhythmic sounds can have matching syllable names.
Skills & Procedures
Identify how many syllable sounds make up the rhythm of individual words.

Demonstrate the rhythm of words using body percussion or non-pitched instruments.

Use syllable names to refer to rhythms when reading music.

Echo rhythm patterns using instruments or body percussion.

Practise reading and writing rhythms using simple notation, such as stick notation.

Identify the number of beats that make up a simple rhythm.

Demonstrate an understanding of how to read music symbols from left to right.
Knowledge
Measures are combined to create phrases.

Measure can be repeated when indicated with a repeat sign.

A double bar line is used to indicate the end of a musical piece.

The time signature is a music symbol that indicates beat groupings.

Beat groupings are known as measures and are divided up using bar lines when notated.

Rhythm patterns are made up of the beat and divisions of the beat.

Rhythm patterns can accompany a melody.

Beat groupings indicate weak and strong pulses.

Beats may be grouped by accents, which usually emphasize the first beat after a bar line.

Music that emphasizes beat groupings of three can include Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky, Waltz, from Swan Lake.


Understanding
Duration can be indicated by various beat groupings.

Beat groupings can include two, three, or four beats per measure.
Skills & Procedures
Recognize 2/4 and 3/4 time signatures.

Identify the function of bar lines, repeat signs, and double bar lines.

Experience strong and weak pulses in music in a variety of ways.

Recognize accents within beat groupings of two, three, and four.
Knowledge
Sounds can have qualities that can be described as high or low (pitch).

Sounds have qualities that can be described as fast or slow (tempo), as heard in
  • fast: Johann Strauss II, Thunder and Lightning Polka, Op. 324
  • slow: Johann Pachelbel, Canon in D Major; and Frédéric Chopin, Nocturne No.1
Sounds have qualities that can be described as loud or soft (dynamics), as heard in Gioachino Rossini, The William Tell Overture.

Sounds can be created by voices, instruments, and the environment, including weather, animals, and machines.

Sounds can occur at the same time as other sounds.

The human voice can produce different qualities of sound through
  • speaking
  • singing
  • whispering
  • shouting
Sound can be interpreted as musical or non-musical.

Sounds can create noise when there is no pattern of sound.

Found sounds can be incorporated into music, as heard in Leroy Anderson’s The Typewriter.
Understanding
Sound is produced when something vibrates.

Sounds can be high or low, fast or slow, and loud or soft.

Sounds can be produced in a variety of ways.
Skills & Procedures
Explore high and low sounds using the singing voice and instruments.

Differentiate between sounds that can be high or low, fast or slow, and loud or soft.

Respond in a variety of ways to sounds that can be loud or soft, fast or slow, and high or low.

Explore the four qualities of the human voice within poetry, nursery rhymes, and songs.

Experience singing in unison.

Identify musical and non-musical sounds.

Explore musical sounds using instruments and found sounds.


Knowledge
Differences in high and low sounds (pitch) can be identified using solfege and hand signs representing the pitches sol, mi, and lah.

Solfege is a system of assigning a syllable name to a musical sound.

A sequence of sounds can move from high to low, low to high, or stay the same.

A melody is a sequence of high, low, and medium sounds.

Gestures, hand signs, and movement can be used to indicate sounds that are high, low, or in the middle.

High and low sounds can be visually represented on a basic music staff of two or three lines using music notes or non-music symbols.

High and low sounds can be sung or played on pitched instruments.

Pitched instruments can include barred instruments such as the glockenspiel, xylophone, and metallophone.

Understanding
Sounds can be high, low, or in the middle (pitch).
Skills & Procedures
Differentiate between sounds that vary in pitch.

Practise reading sol-mi-lah patterns using hand signs and a two- or three-line music staff.

Build sol-mi-lah patterns on a two- or three-line music staff.

Represent pitch through gestures, movement, and hand signs.

Respond to pitch matching and echo singing.

Experience singing alone and in a group.

Demonstrate in-tune singing in unison.
Knowledge
Tones are high, low, and medium sounds that are assigned various pitches.

Tones can move from low to high, high to low, or stay the same.

Tones in Western music can be labelled with the absolute pitch names ABCDEFG or solfege.

Printed music symbols show the direction of a melody.

Melodies can move up or down by scale steps and leaps.

Melodies can be based upon major, minor, and five-tone (pentatonic) scales.

Major scales can be described as bright and cheerful sounds, as heard in Felix Mendelssohn’s Wedding March, from A Midsummer Night’s Dream.

Minor scales can be described as sad or dark sounds, as heard in Johann Sebastian Bach’s Toccata and Fugue in D Minor.

Melodic patterns, phrases, or sections can be described as alike or different.

Musical forms can organize musical patterns in various ways, and can include
  • ab, abab (phrase form)
  • verse and chorus
  • introductions
  • interludes
  • an ending (coda)
A whole piece of music can include a number of sections that may be alike or different and can include AB, ABA, ABAB (sectional form), as heard in
  • Camille Saint-Saëns, Carnival of the Animals – Fossils, in which the xylophone part is A and the clarinet solo is B
  • traditional French Canadian folk song Vive la Canadienne
Understanding
Melody is a sequence of high, medium, and low tones.

Tones can be grouped into melodic patterns.
Skills & Procedures
Detect the rise and fall of a melody.

Practise reading and writing pitches off a simple three-line music staff.

Respond with accuracy to tone matching with other voices or instruments.

Extend the understanding of solfege to include the pitches re and doh.

Demonstrate how to follow music notation from left to right.

Recognize gestures, symbols, or hand signs that represent pitch.

Identify and label phrases or sections of music that are alike, similar, or different.

Differentiate between major and minor sounds in music.

Experience singing, listening to, and playing music in major, minor, and pentatonic scales.


Knowledge
Sounds that repeat themselves more than twice are known as a pattern.

A series of high and low sounds can create patterns (melody).

Rhythmic patterns are a series of long and short sounds.

Patterns can be created through a combination of sounds, including
  • long and short
  • high and low
  • fast and slow
  • loud and soft
The musical work Bolero, by Maurice Ravel, features a repeated pattern (rhythmic ostinato) played by the snare drum.


Understanding
Sounds can be organized into patterns.
Skills & Procedures
Identify musical patterns in a variety of ways.

Practise playing or clapping rhythmic patterns.

Demonstrate musical patterns with body percussion, instruments, and movement.

Knowledge
Sounds that repeat themselves more than twice are known as a pattern.

Phrases can be labelled using letters of the alphabet, shapes, or pictures (phrase form).

The length of a phrase can be represented with gestures, with movement, or by taking a breath when singing.

Nursery rhymes, songs, and poetry can have patterns (phrase form), including ab, aba, and other combinations.

A section of music can be repeated (verse and chorus)

Music selections can have short, repeated patterns of sound (ostinato) as heard in
  • Gustav Holst, The Planets, Movement 1: Mars
  • Maurice Ravel, Bolero
Understanding
Sounds can be organized into patterns or phrases that are alike or different.
Skills & Procedures
Identify phrases that are alike or different.

Illustrate phrase form through the use of movement, body percussion, or instruments.

Identify rhythmic or melodic patterns in a variety of music selections.

Practise sustaining a rhythmic or melodic ostinato within a piece of music.
Knowledge
Children typically have higher singing voices due to their smaller bodies and vocal chords.

The adult male voice typically sounds lower than the adult female voice.

Specific instruments may be chosen for their ability to represent a particular feeling, character, or mood in a musical work, as heard in Sergei Prokofiev’s Peter and the Wolf.

An instrument can be described as having sound that is
  • airy
  • brassy
  • mellow
  • bright
  • dark
Smaller instruments, such as the flute, produce higher sounds than larger instruments, such as the tuba.


Understanding
Tone has colour, known as timbre.

Tone colour or timbre is affected by an instrument’s size and shape.

An instrument’s timbre, including the voice, can represent a feeling, mood, or character.
Skills & Procedures
Discriminate between the tone colour of different singing voices, which can vary with age and physical traits (e.g., adult/child, male/female).

Differentiate between the size of an instrument and the quality or volume of sound produced.

Relate the timbre of an instrument to its ability to represent feelings or characters.
Knowledge
The quality of a sound (tone colour) changes depending on the material the object or instrument is made of.

The quality of a sound can be described as bright, dull, happy, or sad.

Non-pitched percussion instruments can be categorized according to the material they are made of, including
  • woods, such as wood blocks or claves
  • skins, such as hand drums
  • metals, such as triangles and finger cymbals
  • shakers, such as maracas
  • scrapers, such as the guiro
Non-pitched percussion instruments produce one tone and can be described as having colour, as heard in Leroy Anderson’s Plink, Plank, Plunk.

Barred instruments have different qualities of sound, including
  • glockenspiels, which have bright metal sounds
  • xylophones, which have wooden sounds
  • metallophones, which have dull metal sounds
Understanding
Sound is affected by the material of an object or instrument.
Skills & Procedures
Classify non-pitched percussion instruments according to the material they are made of.

Explore how non-pitched percussion instruments can enhance a song or poem.

Describe various musical sounds.
Knowledge
Music symbols are used to indicate the volume of sound, including f for loud and p for soft.

In Western music, dynamics are described by using Italian terms, including forte for loud and piano for soft and can be heard in
  • Camille Saint-Saëns, Danse Macabre in G Minor, Op. 40
  • Edvard Grieg, Morning and In the Hall of the Mountain King, from Peer Gynt (orchestral)
Sound has speed (tempo) that indicates how fast or slow music is performed, as heard in
  • Edvard Grieg, Morning and In the Hall of the Mountain King, from Peer Gynt (orchestral)
  • Brahms, Hungarian Dance No. 5
Sounds can be played smoothly (legato) or detached (staccato).

A strong sound can be added to music to create an effect (accent), as heard in Franz Joseph Haydn, Symphony No. 94, Surprise.

Musical sounds can be produced in a way that expresses feelings or moods, as heard in
  • the Canadian national anthem, O Canada
  • Antonio Vivaldi, Four Seasons, Violin Concerto in G Minor, Op. 8, No. 2, RV 315 L’estate: 3. Presto
Understanding
Sound has volume that can be loud or soft (dynamics).

Sound can be fast or slow (tempo).
Skills & Procedures
Use music vocabulary to describe sound in music.

Differentiate between loud-soft and fast-slow musical sounds.

Recognize and respond to soft (p) and loud (f) symbols in music.

Explore tempo and dynamics in a variety of ways.
Knowledge
Tempo in music can gradually get faster or slower.

The Italian term accelerando describes music that gradually gets faster, and the term ritardando describes music that gradually gets slower.

Tones that gradually increase or decrease in volume are referred to as crescendo and decrescendo, as heard in Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky’s Overture, from the Nutcracker.

Music dynamics that suddenly change are called accents and are indicated using the > symbol.

Tones that sound detached when played are called staccato and those that sound smooth are referred to as legato, as heard in
  • staccato:
    Robert Schumann, The Wild Horseman
    Leroy Anderson, Jazz Pizzicato
  • legato:
    Camille Saint-Saëns, The Swan in Carnival of the Animals
Understanding
Tone has dynamics and tempo.

Tone can have an emotional quality that communicates mood in music.
Skills & Procedures
Identify and respond to music symbols that indicate crescendo, decrescendo, and accent.

Differentiate between tempos that gradually increase or decrease in speed.

Use music vocabulary to describe the dynamics and tempo.

Discuss how dynamics and tempo contribute to the mood of a musical piece.
Knowledge
The human voice can produce different qualities of sound through
  • speaking
  • singing
  • whispering
  • shouting
Non-pitched percussion instruments can make sounds that reflect the material that the instrument is made of and its name, including
  • woods, such as wood blocks
  • skins, such as drums
  • metals, such as the triangle and finger cymbals
  • shakers, such as the maraca
  • scrapers, such as the guiro
Two or more sounds can occur at the same time (harmony).

Sound can be interpreted as musical or non-musical.

Sounds can create noise when there is no pattern of sound.

Barred instruments have different qualities of sound, including
  • glockenspiels, which have bright metal sounds
  • xylophones, which have wooden sounds
  • metallophones, which have dull metal sounds
Understanding
Musical instruments and the human voice have different qualities of sound (timbre).
Skills & Procedures
Explore the qualities of the human voice within various poems, nursery rhymes, and songs.

Identify and compare musical and non-musical sounds.

Explore and describe the sound of various musical instruments.

Classify non-pitched percussion instruments according to the material they are made of.

Demonstrate the difference between a singing voice and a speaking voice.


Knowledge
Some combinations of tones sound pleasing when combined and are called chords.

Major and minor chords have different sounds.

Melodies can be accompanied by harmony.

Chords can be played on keyboard and barred instruments.

The pitches doh and soh can be played on barred instruments as a way to accompany a melody.
Understanding
Tones can be combined and played at the same time to create harmony.
Skills & Procedures
Differentiate between tones played individually and tones played as chords.

Explore the difference between the sound of major and minor chords.

Play simple chords to accompany melodies.
Organizing Idea
Creating and Presenting: Ideas can be represented musically through artworks that draw upon foundational knowledge.
Guiding Question
How does an idea in music develop?
Guiding Question
How can an idea be expressed musically?
Guiding Question
How can a message be represented musically?
Learning Outcome
Children express ideas through the exploration of musical sounds made by instruments, voices, and the environment.
Learning Outcome
Students construct an idea musically using the elements of music, instruments, and voices.
Learning Outcome
Students experiment with how a message can be created and presented through the use of instruments, voices, and movement.
Knowledge
A musical idea can be created and presented individually or in groups.

A musical idea can be created using
  • instruments
  • found sounds
  • body percussion
  • movement
  • voices
A musical idea can be created by combining sounds that are
  • high and low
  • fast and slow
  • loud and soft
  • long and short
Nursery rhymes and poems can be sung to familiar melodies.

Soundscapes and sound effects can enhance a musical idea when added to text, including poems, stories, and picture books.

An idea in music can be presented informally, as in a music class, or formally, including in a concert.

Participating as an audience member or as a performer includes expectations or rules (artistic protocols and etiquette).
Understanding
Communicating an idea in music involves creating and presenting.

An idea in music can communicate feelings and preferences.
Skills & Procedures
Collaborate with others to develop a musical idea.

Create a musical idea using instruments and found sounds.

Generate movement ideas to accompany a musical idea.

Play soundscapes or sound effects as a way to enhance a musical idea.

Participate as a performer and as an audience member in a variety of musical experiences.
Knowledge
Musical ideas can be expressed through
  • singing
  • moving
  • playing instruments
  • writing rhythms and melodies
Inspiration for an idea in music can come from a variety of sources, including
  • other musicians or music
  • stories
  • imagination
  • the environment
  • artworks and images
Soundscapes and sound effects can enhance a musical idea when added to text, including poems, stories, and picture books.

The words of a song, known as lyrics, are important to understanding the meaning of the text.

Phrase form, including ab, aba, and other combinations, can be used to structure a musical idea.
Understanding
A musical idea can be expressed using sounds that vary in pitch, dynamics, tempo, and rhythm.

A musician is an individual who can create, appreciate, and perform ideas in music.
Skills & Procedures
Explore musical ideas in response to an inspiration.

Create musical patterns or phrases that include sounds that are high-low, long-short, loud-soft, and fast-slow.

Use planned body movements to accompany musical ideas.

Perform music to accompany a story.

Compose a musical idea within a given phrase form.
Knowledge
Lyrics are used in music to convey a message through singing.

Music with lyrics can be sung in any language.

Messages in music can be expressed through songs that celebrate
  • holidays
  • seasons
  • ceremony
  • nationality
  • cultural heritage
Music from Francophone communities can include
  • Sur le pont d’Avignon
  • Fais dodo
  • Alouette, gentille alouette
  • Frère Jacques
  • En roulant ma boule
Understanding
Verbal communication of a message can be shared in a variety of ways through music.

Verbal communication of a message can express a variety of feelings and experiences.
Skills & Procedures
Sing a variety of songs individually and in unison.

Create new lyrics to familiar melodies.

Explore music sung in other languages, including French-Canadian folk songs.

Knowledge
Inspiration for an idea in music can come from a variety of sources, including
  • other musicians and music
  • stories
  • imagination
  • the environment
  • artworks and images
Objects or found sounds and instruments can be used in traditional or non-traditional ways when creating music.

Sharing and discussing ideas with others can support collaboration in music.
Understanding
A musical idea can be unique, shared, or borrowed.

An artistic idea can be developed through interacting with others in music.
Skills & Procedures
Share and accept ideas from one another in music.

Explore musical ideas in response to an inspiration.

Investigate how music can be created through traditional and non-traditional use of instruments.
Knowledge
Musical ideas can express feelings, interests, and preferences.

Nursery rhymes and poems can be sung to familiar melodies.

Collaboration can foster a safe learning environment in music through listening to others’ ideas, solving problems, and making decisions.

Instruments, voices, and objects or found sounds can be used in traditional or non-traditional ways when creating music.

Participating as an audience member or as a performer includes expectations or rules (artistic protocols and etiquette).
Understanding
A musical idea can come from brainstorming and collaboration.
Skills & Procedures
Create a musical idea through the exploration of various instruments and found sounds.

Collaborate to make up new lyrics to familiar melodies or to accompany rhythms.

Collaborate with one another when creating, refining, and revising a musical idea.

Participate as an audience member and performer in a variety of musical experiences.
Knowledge
Non-verbal communication of a message can be communicated through
  • movement
  • gestures
  • instruments
  • body percussion
The elements of music can be used in various ways to non-verbally communicate mood or meaning in music, including
  • melody, including major and minor scales
  • rhythm
  • harmony
  • dynamics and tempo
  • form
Instruments have a specific timbre that can be used to represent a message.

Rhythmic and melodic patterns can be arranged in phrases that are alike, similar, or different in order to communicate a message.

Melodic or rhythmic patterns can represent a character or theme in a story.

Movement and gestures can accompany musical expressions to enhance meaning of a message.


Understanding
Non-verbal communication of a message in music can be shared in a variety of ways.
Skills & Procedures
Explore how the elements of music can be applied to communicate feelings, characters, or mood.

Perform arrangements of music for instruments and voices.

Play rhythmic or melodic ostinatos to accompany songs or poems.

Respond in a variety of ways when actively listening for changes in dynamics and tempo.

Create improvised or planned movements to accompany poems, songs, and stories.

Create rhythmic or melodic patterns that can represent a character or theme.

Illustrate form in music through movement or by playing an instrument.
Knowledge
Understanding the elements of music contributes to creating an idea.

Practice can require repetition of a skill or presentation in order to learn it well.

An idea in music can be presented informally, as in a music class, or formally, including in a concert.
Understanding
Developing an idea through music may take practice.
Skills & Procedures
Practise sharing and accepting ideas from others.

Rehearse music selections before performing for an audience.
Knowledge
A message in music can be generated, sent, received, and interpreted.

Practising music before performing for an audience can help clarify roles and refine skills and techniques.

Structure in a musical presentation can help an audience know when the experience begins and ends.

Empathy and perspectives can be gained through creating, viewing, and talking about music.

Expectations for participating in music, known as artistic protocols and etiquette, can change depending on the context in which the music is experienced.
Understanding
The sharing of a message involves the musician and the audience.

Audience members can have various feelings about musical works.
Skills & Procedures
Participate as an audience member and as a performer in a variety of musical experiences.

Rehearse music before performing for an audience.

Share interpretations or feelings about musical works or performances.

Demonstrate an understanding of artistic protocols and etiquette within various music experiences.
Knowledge
Creative processes can include
  • practice
  • generating an idea
  • giving and receiving feedback
  • reflection
Generating an idea may involve creative thinking and problem solving.
Understanding
Development of a message in music can involve creative processes.

Messages can be clearly communicated when the elements of music, voices, or instruments are combined with a purpose.
Skills & Procedures
Apply creative processes when creating music.

Discuss how the purposeful use of instruments can strengthen communication of a message.
Organizing Idea
Appreciation: Recognizing beauty, goodness, and truth in music can be developed by understanding the complexity and richness of great works of music, the artists who create and perform them, and the historical and cultural contexts from which they originate.
Guiding Question
What is the function of music in local communities?
Guiding Question
What function did music serve in ancient China, ancient Egypt, and prehistoric times?
Guiding Question
How might cultures from the past and present contribute to an appreciation of music?
Learning Outcome
Children examine the function of music in the lives of individuals.
Learning Outcome
Students investigate the function of music in ancient times and present day.
Learning Outcome
Students investigate culture in relation to music from ancient Greece and present day.

Students examine culture through First Nations, Métis, and Inuit music.
Knowledge
The function for creating and sharing music can include
  • to celebrate life events
  • to learn or teach new skills
  • to be entertained
  • to be creative
The function of music can be to accompany dance, drama, and visual arts.
Understanding
Music can have a specific function in the lives of individuals.
Skills & Procedures
Share personal experiences with music.

Describe where music can be experienced.
Knowledge
Music serves a variety of functions in the lives of individuals, including
  • celebrations
  • learning or teaching
  • entertainment
  • to be creative
The function of music can be to accompany dance, drama, and visual arts.

Music can be combined with other art forms, as heard in
  • musical theatre:
    The Sound of Music by Richard Rodgers and Oscar Hammerstein II
  • ballet:
    The Nutcracker and Sleeping Beauty by Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky
  • opera:
    Hansel and Gretel by Engelbert Humperdinck
Understanding
Music can have a specific function in a community.
Skills & Procedures
Discuss where music can be experienced.

Share personal experiences with music.

Observe opera, ballet, and musical theatre as musical expressions that combine music, singing, and acting.
Knowledge
Experiences in music can include learning about music from the past and the people who created it.

Individual components of music can communicate culture, including the use of rhythms, melodies, and instruments.

The ancient Greeks used numbers to identify different pitches in music.

Musical styles in ancient Greece were known for being slow and ceremonial, or quick and lively.

Music in ancient Greece often accompanied dance and poetry.

Music from ancient Greece was never recorded but is known to have been a feature of celebrations, social events, and religious gatherings.

In ancient Greece, musical instruments included
  • drums
  • flutes
  • cymbals
  • bells
  • tambourines
  • castanets
The lyre, a stringed, harp-like instrument, was the most important instrument in ancient Greece and was used to accompany discussions about philosophy and storytelling.

The harp is considered to be the oldest instrument from ancient Greece.

The strings for stringed instruments were made from the muscles of various animals.
Understanding
Culture is what people do and a way of thinking.

The musical culture of ancient Greece informed many aspects of present-day music.
Skills & Procedures
Identify how culture may be communicated through music.

Create music in quick or slow styles, as related to ancient Greek music.

Explore how melodies can be notated using numbers.
Knowledge
Music in ancient Egypt and ancient China may have been used for entertainment, festivals, and enjoyment.

Music in ancient times may have been used to accompany poetry, drama, and dance.

The oldest musical instrument ever found by archeologists is the Divje Babe flute.

Ancient Chinese music used 12 different kinds of musical notes to create music (12-tone system).

Ancient Chinese music was used for ceremonies, entertainment, and to match with sounds of nature.

Ancient Chinese instruments were traditionally grouped into eight categories based on the materials from which they were made, including
  • clay
  • bamboo
  • metal
  • hide
  • silk
  • wood
  • gourds
  • stone
Strings for instruments in ancient China were made of silk.

Ancient Egyptian instruments were similar to instruments used today, including
  • instruments that produced sound with air, such as flutes (aerophones)
  • instruments that vibrate when struck, shaken or scraped, such as a bell, gong, or rattle (idiophones)
  • instruments like drums or kazoos that produce sound by striking, rubbing, or singing into a stretched membrane (membranophone)
In ancient Egypt, musical performances usually included singing, chanting, and hand clapping.

Musicians in ancient Egypt played music for the community or specific events.

Musicians who had the honour of playing music for gods or goddesses were usually women.
Understanding
Ancient societies used music for a variety of functions.

Knowledge about people who lived a long time ago can be learned through music.
Skills & Procedures
Discuss how instruments from ancient times compare to modern-day instruments.

Explore the function of music in ancient times as an inspiration for talking about and creating music.
Knowledge
First Nations, Métis, and Inuit music can reflect ways of life, including
  • tradition
  • beliefs
  • history
  • relationships
  • traditional teachings
First Nations, Métis, and Inuit communities may have specific protocols related to how or with whom music is shared or performed.

First Nations, Métis, and Inuit express music for ceremony in a variety of ways, including
  • drumming
  • playing end-blown flutes
  • singing
  • throat singing
  • playing rattles
  • playing fiddles
  • playing rasps
  • playing clappers
First Nations, Métis, and Inuit find sources of inspiration for music in the land, including
  • water
  • wind
  • plants
  • animals
Music in First Nations, Métis, and Inuit communities can have individual and collective benefits, including
  • social well-being
  • physical health
  • spiritual connection
  • emotional and mental well-being
  • intellectual development
First Nations, Métis, and Inuit music includes oral traditions that can be passed on between and among individuals and communities with specific protocol.
Understanding
Culture can be revealed through First Nations, Métis, and Inuit music.

A sense of community and well-being among participants can be established through First Nations, Métis, and Inuit music.
Skills & Procedures
Experience First Nations, Métis, and Inuit music.

Discuss how culture can be communicated through First Nations, Métis, and Inuit music.

Discuss the benefits of music in one’s life or community.